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Theoretical foundation of nursing
History and Philosophy of Nursing Science
NURSING PHILOSOPHY
Most abstract type
Sets forth the meaning of nursing
phenomena through analysis, reasoning,
and logical presentation.
2 COMPETING PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES
1. Rationalism
Emphasize the importance of a “priori”
reasoning as the appropriate method
for advancing knowledge.
“priori” reasoning uses deductive
reasoning of cause to an effect
Deductive reasoning
General to specific
Needs evidence to arrive in a
conclusion
Theory then research strategy
2. Empiricism
Based on the central idea that scientific
knowledge can be derived only from
sensory experience.
Francis Bacon received credit for
popularizing this approach.
Scientific truth was discovered through
generalizing observed facts (Inductive
Method)
Inductive reasoning
Specific to general
Allows conclusion to be false
Research then theory strategy
EMERGENT VIEW OF SCIENCE & THEORY IN THE
LATE 20
TH
CENTURY
There were little interest in the history
of science, the nature of scientific
discovery.
Positivism emerged as the dominant
view of modern science.
Modern logical positivists believed that
empirical research and logical analysis
were 2 approaches that would produce
scientific knowledge.
Propositions that affirm/deny
something must be tested.
Science was a process of continuously
building research rather than a product
of findings.
The emphasis shifted to understanding
scientific discovery and process as
theory change overtime.
Empiricists view phenomena
objectively, collect, and analyze data
(inductive method) to propose a
theory.
NEW EPISTEMOLOGY
Science is viewed as ongoing process
Concluded the myth that science can
establish final truth
Came up with evidence-based science
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Theoretical foundation of nursing History and Philosophy of Nursing Science NURSING PHILOSOPHY • • Most abstract type Sets forth the meaning of nursing phenomena through analysis, reasoning, and logical presentation. • • • 2 COMPETING PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES 1. 2. Rationalism • Emphasize the importance of a “priori” reasoning as the appropriate method for advancing knowledge. • “priori” reasoning – uses deductive reasoning of cause to an effect → Deductive reasoning ↳ General to specific ↳ Needs evidence to arrive in a conclusion • Theory – then – research strategy Empiricism • Based on the central idea that scientific knowledge can be derived only from sensory experience. • Francis Bacon – received credit for popularizing this approach. • Scientific truth was discovered through generalizing observed facts (Inductive Method) → Inductive reasoning ↳ Specific to general ↳ Allows conclusion to be false • Research – then – theory strategy EMERGENT VIEW OF SCIENCE & THEORY IN THE LATE 20TH CENTURY • • • There were little interest in the history of science, the nature of scientific discovery. Positivism emerged as the dominant view of modern science. Modern logical positivists believed that empirical research and logical analysis were 2 approaches that would produce scientific knowledge. • Propositions that affirm/deny something must be tested. Science was a process of continuously building research rather than a product of findings. The emphasis shifted to understanding scientific discovery and process as theory change overtime. Empiricists view phenomena objectively, collect, and analyze data (inductive method) to propose a theory. NEW EPISTEMOLOGY • Science is viewed as ongoing process • Concluded the myth that science can establish final truth → Came up with evidence-based science Name: Description: ...
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