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Physiological Roles of Proteinaceous
Hormone
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Peptide Hormones
Peptide hormones and protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are
peptides or proteins, respectively.
Peptide hormones act as ligands for a wide range of G protein-coupled
receptors.
Peptide hormones are secreted and function in an endocrine manner to
regulate many physiological functions.
These functions include:
i. Growth
ii. Appetite and energy metabolism
iii. Cardiac function
iv. Stress
v. Reproductive physiology etc.
There are multiple proteinaceous hormones that perform various functions.
Some of which are discussed as follows.
Insulin
Insulin is a hormone, a chemical messenger produced by the pancreas. It is a
protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. Its functions are:
Regulate metabolism of carbohydrates and fats
Promote the absorption of glucose from skeletal muscles and fat tissues
Causes fat to be stored rather than used for energy
Glucagon
Glucagon is a peptide hormone produced by alpha cells of the pancreas. It works
antagonistically to insulin and works to increase glucose levels in blood. Its
functions are:
Raises the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream
Causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released in
to the bloodstream
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Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced in the anterior
pituitary gland in the brain. The function of ACTH is:
Regulate levels of steroid hormone cortisol, which is released from the
adrenal gland
Acts on the adrenal cortex of kidney to regulate the secretion of
glucocorticoids
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Vasopressin hormone, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a neuro-
hypophysial hormone and is stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It functions are:
Regulate the body’s retention of water
Increase water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney nephron
Constrict blood vessels
Oxytocin
Oxytocin is a human peptide hormone and neuropeptide which is produced by the
posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Its functions are:
Causes contraction of the uterus during childbirth
Stimulates the ejection of milk into ducts of breasts during lactation
Prolactin
Prolactin is a protein hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It’s important for
both male and female reproductive health. Its main function is:
Promote milk production in females in response to the suckling of young
after birth
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Somatostatin
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH), is a
peptide hormone secreted in the pancreas and pituitary gland. Its functions are:
Inhibit release of growth hormone
Inhibit insulin and glucagon secretion
Suppress the release of gastrointestinal hormones
Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid hormone, also called parathormone, is a hormone secreted by the
parathyroid glands. Its functions are:
Regulates concentration of calcium in blood through its effects on bone,
kidney and the intestine
Reduces the reabsorption of phosphate from the kidney
Promotes synthesis of vitamin D
Follicle Simulating Hormone (FSH)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide
hormone. FSH is synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells of the anterior
pituitary gland. Its functions are:
Stimulates the maturation of germs cells
In females, it initiates follicular growth
In males, it induces secretion of androgen binding proteins
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Food Sources of Biomolecules
Usama Muhammad Nadeem
CMS: 19347
Semester I (A)
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Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates can be divided into two primary groups: simple and complex.
Simple carbohydrates are comprised one or two sugar molecules (mono- or di-
saccharides) and are digested within a short period of time by the human body.
For instance, fructose is a simple carbohydrate and is commonly found in a
variety of fruit juices.
Complex carbohydrates are composed of more than two sugar molecules
(polysaccharides) and are digested fairly slowly by the human body. For
example, starches are a more complex carbohydrate (i.e. potatoes, whole
grains).
Carbohydrates are the human body’s preferred source of energy. The human body
stores approximately 400 grams of carbohydrates, in the form of glycogen, in its
liver and muscle tissue.
Carbohydrates are found in a wide array of both healthy and unhealthy foods
bread, beans, milk, popcorn, potatoes, cookies, spaghetti, soft drinks, corn, and
cherry pie. They also come in a variety of forms. The most common and abundant
forms are sugars, fibers, and starches.
Some common natural sources of carbohydrates include:
Bagel
Bananas
Beans
Bread
Cantaloupe
Carrots
Cereal and corn flakes
Oats
Raisin Bran
Corn
Crackers
Yogurt
Fruits
Peas
Milk
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Pasta
Popcorn
Potatoes
Rice
Sugar
Grains etc.
Lipids
Lipids are a class of biochemical which includes: fats and oils, steroids including
cholesterol, waxes, and other like chemicals.
The body uses lipids, or fats, for insulation, to cushion organs and as a source of
stored energy. Dietary fats also help your body to absorb fat-soluble vitamins A, D,
E and K. Saturated and unsaturated fats are types of lipids, but unsaturated fats are
healthier lipids than saturated ones.
Cholesterol is only found in animal products. Waxes are found on plant leaves and
in bee hives. Cholesterol is a type of lipid that does not provide calories and is not
a necessary component of your diet.
Healthy adults should get 20 percent to 35 percent of total calories from fat or 45
to 78 grams per day on a 2,000-calorie diet
Some common natural sources of lipids include:
Oil
Nuts
Avocados
Fatty Fish
Butter
Processed snack foods
Eggs
Corn
Chicken
Beef
Seeds
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Proteins
Protein is an essential nutrient, responsible for multiple functions in your body,
including building tissue, cells and muscle, as well as making hormones and anti-
bodies
Daily protein requirements are easily achieved by a healthy, balanced diet. But
requirements differ from individual to individual.
For most people a daily dose of around 0.8-1g of protein per 1kg of body weight is
recommended. For strength athletes 1.2-1.7g per kg of body weight is
recommended per day, with a recommendation of 1.2-1.4g per kg of body weight
per day for endurance athletes.
Some common sources of proteins include:
Eggs
Milk
Yogurt
Fish and seafood
Soya
Nuts
Chicken
Cheese
Whey protein
Steak
Beef
Beans
Pepperoni

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Physiological Roles of Proteinaceous Hormone Peptide Hormones • Peptide hormones and protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. • Peptide hormones act as ligands for a wide range of G protein-coupled receptors. • Peptide hormones are secreted and function in an endocrine manner to regulate many physiological functions. • These functions include: i. Growth ii. Appetite and energy metabolism iii. Cardiac function iv. Stress v. Reproductive physiology etc. • There are multiple proteinaceous hormones that perform various functions. Some of which are discussed as follows. Insulin Insulin is a hormone, a chemical messenger produced by the pancreas. It is a protein responsible for regulating blood glucose levels. Its functions are: • Regulate metabolism of carbohydrates and fats • Promote the absorption of glucose from skeletal muscles and fat tissues • Causes fat to be stored rather than used for energy Glucagon Glucagon is a peptide hormone produced by alpha cells of the pancreas. It works antagonistically to insulin and works to increase glucose levels in blood. Its functions are: • Raises the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream • Causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released in to the bloodstream Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. The function of ACTH is: • Regulate levels of steroid hormone cortisol, which is released from the adrenal gland • Acts on the adrenal cortex of kidney to regulate the secretion of glucocorticoids Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Vasopressin hormone, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a neurohypophysial hormone and is stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It functions are: • Regulate the body’s retention of water • Increase water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney nephron • Constrict blood vessels Oxytocin Oxytocin is a human peptide hormone and neuropeptide which is produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Its functions are: • Causes contraction of the uterus during childbirth • Stimulates the ejection of milk into ducts of breasts during lactation Prolactin Prolactin is a protein hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It’s important for both male and female reproductive health. Its main function is: • Promote milk production in females in response to the suckling of young after birth Somatostatin Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH), is a peptide hormone secreted in the pancreas and pituitary gland. Its functions are: • Inhibit release of growth hormone • Inhibit insulin and glucagon secretion • Suppress the release of gastrointestinal hormones Parathyroid Hormone Parathyroid hormone, also called parathormone, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands. Its functions are: • Regulates concentration of calcium in blood through its effects on bone, kidney and the intestine • Reduces the reabsorption of phosphate from the kidney • Promotes synthesis of vitamin D Follicle Simulating Hormone (FSH) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone. FSH is synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Its functions are: • Stimulates the maturation of germs cells • In females, it initiates follicular growth • In males, it induces secretion of androgen binding proteins Food Sources of Biomolecules Usama Muhammad Nadeem CMS: 19347 Semester I (A) Carbohydrates Carbohydrates can be divided into two primary groups: simple and complex. • Simple carbohydrates are comprised one or two sugar molecules (mono- or disaccharides) and are digested within a short period of time by the human body. For instance, fructose is a simple carbohydrate and is commonly found in a variety of fruit juices. • Complex carbohydrates are composed of more than two sugar molecules (polysaccharides) and are digested fairly slowly by the human body. For example, starches are a more complex carbohydrate (i.e. potatoes, whole grains). Carbohydrates are the human body’s preferred source of energy. The human body stores approximately 400 grams of carbohydrates, in the form of glycogen, in its liver and muscle tissue. Carbohydrates are found in a wide array of both healthy and unhealthy foods— bread, beans, milk, popcorn, potatoes, cookies, spaghetti, soft drinks, corn, and cherry pie. They also come in a variety of forms. The most common and abundant forms are sugars, fibers, and starches. Some common natural sources of carbohydrates include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bagel Bananas Beans Bread Cantaloupe Carrots Cereal and corn flakes Oats Raisin Bran Corn Crackers Yogurt Fruits Peas Milk • • • • • • Pasta Popcorn Potatoes Rice Sugar Grains etc. Lipids Lipids are a class of biochemical which includes: fats and oils, steroids including cholesterol, waxes, and other like chemicals. The body uses lipids, or fats, for insulation, to cushion organs and as a source of stored energy. Dietary fats also help your body to absorb fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Saturated and unsaturated fats are types of lipids, but unsaturated fats are healthier lipids than saturated ones. Cholesterol is only found in animal products. Waxes are found on plant leaves and in bee hives. Cholesterol is a type of lipid that does not provide calories and is not a necessary component of your diet. Healthy adults should get 20 percent to 35 percent of total calories from fat or 45 to 78 grams per day on a 2,000-calorie diet Some common natural sources of lipids include: • • • • • • • • • • • Oil Nuts Avocados Fatty Fish Butter Processed snack foods Eggs Corn Chicken Beef Seeds Proteins Protein is an essential nutrient, responsible for multiple functions in your body, including building tissue, cells and muscle, as well as making hormones and antibodies Daily protein requirements are easily achieved by a healthy, balanced diet. But requirements differ from individual to individual. For most people a daily dose of around 0.8-1g of protein per 1kg of body weight is recommended. For strength athletes 1.2-1.7g per kg of body weight is recommended per day, with a recommendation of 1.2-1.4g per kg of body weight per day for endurance athletes. Some common sources of proteins include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Eggs Milk Yogurt Fish and seafood Soya Nuts Chicken Cheese Whey protein Steak Beef Beans Pepperoni Name: Description: ...
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