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Geographical Terms
There are many geographical terms that we hear while studying
this course. Below are a few of those terms and their definitions
for your better understanding :
1.Plateau - A tableland that is fairly flat. For example, the
Tibetan Plateau
2.Tundra - A flat, treeless area where the soil is permanently frozen. For
example, the Greenland Tundra.
3.Estuary - The area where the fresh water from a river meets the salt
water from an ocean. For example, the Amazon Estuary.
4.Isthmus - A narrow strip of land that connects two larger land masses.
For example, the Isthmus of Panama
5.Mesa - A large landform that is flat on top and has steep sides. For
example, Tucumcari Mountain in New Mexico.
6.Hill - A raised mound of land, for example, the coast.
7.Cape - A section of land that juts out in to the water, for example,
Cape Cod.
8.Dune - A hill made of sand, for example, the White Sands in New
Mexico.
9.Cartography - the art of making map by hand.
10.Antarctic - 66.5" from equator towards south.
11.Arctic - 66.5" from equator towards north.
12.Desertification - Conversion of fertile land into desert.
13.Water body - All the water available on the surface of earth.
14.Glacier - A glacier is a body of ice moving slowly down a mountain.
15.Fjord - A Fjord is a Norwegian word for a mountain.
16.Hemisphere - A hemisphere is northern or southern or eastern or
western of the equator and prime meridian.
17.Savannah - A Savannah is a flat, treeless, grassland of warm areas.
Slope - A slope is a part of earth's surface forming a natural incline.
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18.Antipodes - Two points that are on the exact opposite sides of the
earth, for example, the North and South Poles.
19.Volcano A mountain with a vent where lava, steam and ash comes
out, sometimes violently. For example St. Helen’s.
20.Ice shelf A platform of ice floating near the coast. For example, the
Ross ice shelf in Antarctica.
21.Delta - The area at the mouth of a river formed with deposits
brought down the river, for example, the Ganges Delta in India.
22.Gulf - An area of ocean partially surrounded by land, for example, the
Gulf of Alaska.
23.Island - A piece of land totally surrounded by water, for example,
Crete in Greece
24.Globe - model of earth (sphere or ball that bears a map of the Earth
on its surface and is mounted on an axle that permits rotation).
25.Absolute Location - Exact place on Earth, often given in terms of
latitude and longitude.
26.Atlas - It is a book or collection of maps.
27.Epicentre - the point on the earth's surface vertically above the focus
of an earthquake.
28.Barometer - Barometer are used to measure the atmospheric
pressure .mercury and aneroid are the two types of barometer.
29.Seismograph - It is an instrument which is used to measure and
record the details of earthquakes such as force and duration.
30.Condensation - It is a process where water vapours become liquid
and water changes it's condition For example.rain fall procedure .
31.Rain Gauge - It is an instrument that is used to measure the amount
of rain that has fallen over a period of time.
32.Wind erosion : The erosion of material caused by the action of wind
33.Vent : A pipe like opening in the earth's crust that directs the flow of
volcanic material
34.Tundra : A vast and treeless region located in the Arctic and
Subarctic region of the world
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35.Topographic map : A large scale map that represents both natural
and man-made two dimensional surface feature.
36.Bay :body of water partially enclosed by land
37.Cliff :steep rock face near the sea
38.Relief : highest and lowest elevation points in an area.
39.Basin : A section of land eroded by water, causing it to be lower than
surrounding land.
40.Tsunami - A tsunami is a series of waves caused by earthquakes or
undersea volcanic eruptions
41.Altitude: The height of an object in the atmosphere above sea level.
42.Atmosphere: The mixture of gases, aerosols, solid particles, and water
vapours that envelops the Earth.
43.Biosphere: The realm of all living things.
44.Demography: The systematic analysis of a population.
45.Hygrometer - hydrometer also known as psychomotor .It is used to
measure the humidity in atmosphere
46.Meteorology - It is the study of atmosphere and motion within the
atmosphere on short- time scale .
47.Paradigm shift - It is the Chang of geography from ancient time to
modern time . It is a theory of scientific tasks which regulates the
research of most geographers
48.Wind Vane - It is used to measure the direction of wind. It is also
known as weather vane .
49.Pause - An area in atmosphere which separated the layers of
atmosphere is called pause . Such as tropopause and stratopause.
50.Grid: the lines of latitudes and longitudes crisscross and form a
network of lines on the globe and map .This lines are called a grid
51.Geodesy: geodesy is the study of size, shape, magnetic field,
topology and orientation of earth in space.
52.Oasis - Oasis is an area made fertile by a source of freshwater in an
otherwise dry and arid region.
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53.Cave - Any naturally hollow underground space large enough for a
person to enter.
54.Archipelago - A collection of islands in a sea.
55.Isobath - A line on a map connecting points of equal underwater
depth
56.Isohyet - A line on a map connecting places having equal rainfall
57.Isotherm - A line on a map linking places of equal temperature
58.Isthmus - a narrow strip of land connecting two relatively large land
areas
59.Cardinal Directions: The set of four primary directions used in
cartography and navigation: north (N), south (S), east (E), and west (W).
60.Butte - A hill with a flat top and steep sides, for example, Merrick's
Butte in Arizona.
61.Ecology: is the study of the relationships between living organisms,
including humans, and their physical environment.
62.Biotope: A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions
providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.
63.Anthropology: Anthropology is the study of what makes us human,
through examination of past and current civilizations.
64.Ethnography: is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study
of individual cultures.
65.Ecosystem: An ecosystem consists of all the organisms and the
physical environment with which they interact.
66.Aquifer - An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock,
rock fractures, or unconsolidated materials such as gravel, sand, or silt.
67.Delta - A landform at the mouth of a river where the main stem splits
up into several distributaries.
68.Scale - The relationship between a linear measurement on a map and
the distance it represents on the Earth's surface.
69.Tropic of Cancer - The northernmost circle of latitude on the Earth at
which the Sun appears directly overhead at its culmination, which lies
approximately 23.4 degrees north of the Equator. Its so6uthern
equivalent is the _Tropic of Capricorn_.
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70.Calanque - A narrow, steep-sided valley surrounding an inlet formed
in karstic regions along the Mediterranean coast, either by fluvial erosion
or the collapse of the roof of a cave that has been subsequently partially
submerged by a rise in sea level.
71.Caldera - A large, cauldron-shaped depression that forms through
the subsidence and collapse of a ground surface following the
evacuation of an underlying magma chamber.
72.Canal - A navigable artificial water channel, usually built as a conduit
for human activity.
73.Canyon - Also gorge or cañon .A deep cleft between cliffs or
escarpments, or a rift between two mountain peaks, resulting from
weathering and the erosive activity of a river over long periods of
geologic time.
74.Cap rock - A stratum of erosion-resistant sedimentary rock (usually
limestone) found in arid areas
75.Region - Any area on earth that is comprised of places with a
unifying attribute is called a region
76.Blackwater: A part of a river in which there is little or no current
77.Defile: A narrow pass gorge between mountains or hills.
78.Succession: It is the change in either species composition, structure,
or architecture of vegetation through time.

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Geographical Terms There are many geographical terms that we hear while studying this course. Below are a few of those terms and their definitions for your better understanding : 1.Plateau - A tableland that is fairly flat. For example, the Tibetan Plateau 2.Tundra - A flat, treeless area where the soil is permanently frozen. For example, the Greenland Tundra. 3.Estuary - The area where the fresh water from a river meets the salt water from an ocean. For example, the Amazon Estuary. 4.Isthmus - A narrow strip of land that connects two larger land masses. For example, the Isthmus of Panama 5.Mesa - A large landform that is flat on top and has steep sides. For example, Tucumcari Mountain in New Mexico. 6.Hill - A raised mound of land, for example, the coast. 7.Cape - A section of land that juts out in to the water, for example, Cape Cod. 8.Dune - A hill made of sand, for example, the White Sands in New Mexico. 9.Cartography - the art of making map by hand. 10.Antarctic - 66.5" from equator towards south. 11.Arctic - 66.5" from equator towards north. 12.Desertification - Conversion of fertile land into desert. 13.Water body - All the water available on the surface of earth. 14.Glacier - A glacier is a body of ice moving slowly down a mountain. 15.Fjord - A Fjord is a Norwegian word for a mountain. 16.Hemisphere - A hemisphere is northern or southern or eastern or western of the equator and prime meridian. 17.Savannah - A Savannah is a flat, treeless, grassland of warm areas. Slope - A slope is a part of earth's surface forming a natural incline. 18.Antipodes - Two points that are on the exact opposite sides of the earth, for example, the North and South Poles. 19.Volcano – A mountain with a vent where lava, steam and ash comes out, sometimes violently. For example St. Helen’s. 20.Ice shelf – A platform of ice floating near the coast. For example, the Ross ice shelf in Antarctica. 21.Delta - The area at the mouth of a river formed with deposits brought down the river, for example, the Ganges Delta in India. 22.Gulf - An area of ocean partially surrounded by land, for example, the Gulf of Alaska. 23.Island - A piece of land totally surrounded by water, for example, Crete in Greece 24.Globe - model of earth (sphere or ball that bears a map of the Earth on its surface and is mounted on an axle that permits rotation). 25.Absolute Location - Exact place on Earth, often given in terms of latitude and longitude. 26.Atlas - It is a book or collection of maps. 27.Epicentre - the point on the earth's surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake. 28.Barometer - Barometer are used to measure the atmospheric pressure .mercury and aneroid are the two types of barometer. 29.Seismograph - It is an instrument which is used to measure and record the details of earthquakes such as force and duration. 30.Condensation - It is a process where water vapours become liquid and water changes it's condition For example.rain fall procedure . 31.Rain Gauge - It is an instrument that is used to measure the amount of rain that has fallen over a period of time. 32.Wind erosion : The erosion of material caused by the action of wind 33.Vent : A pipe like opening in the earth's crust that directs the flow of volcanic material 34.Tundra : A vast and treeless region located in the Arctic and Subarctic region of the world 35.Topographic map : A large scale map that represents both natural and man-made two dimensional surface feature. 36.Bay :body of water partially enclosed by land 37.Cliff :steep rock face near the sea 38.Relief : highest and lowest elevation points in an area. 39.Basin : A section of land eroded by water, causing it to be lower than surrounding land. 40.Tsunami - A tsunami is a series of waves caused by earthquakes or undersea volcanic eruptions 41.Altitude: The height of an object in the atmosphere above sea level. 42.Atmosphere: The mixture of gases, aerosols, solid particles, and water vapours that envelops the Earth. 43.Biosphere: The realm of all living things. 44.Demography: The systematic analysis of a population. 45.Hygrometer - hydrometer also known as psychomotor .It is used to measure the humidity in atmosphere 46.Meteorology - It is the study of atmosphere and motion within the atmosphere on short- time scale . 47.Paradigm shift - It is the Chang of geography from ancient time to modern time . It is a theory of scientific tasks which regulates the research of most geographers 48.Wind Vane - It is used to measure the direction of wind. It is also known as weather vane . 49.Pause - An area in atmosphere which separated the layers of atmosphere is called pause . Such as tropopause and stratopause. 50.Grid: the lines of latitudes and longitudes crisscross and form a network of lines on the globe and map .This lines are called a grid 51.Geodesy: geodesy is the study of size, shape, magnetic field, topology and orientation of earth in space. 52.Oasis - Oasis is an area made fertile by a source of freshwater in an otherwise dry and arid region. 53.Cave - Any naturally hollow underground space large enough for a person to enter. 54.Archipelago - A collection of islands in a sea. 55.Isobath - A line on a map connecting points of equal underwater depth 56.Isohyet - A line on a map connecting places having equal rainfall 57.Isotherm - A line on a map linking places of equal temperature 58.Isthmus - a narrow strip of land connecting two relatively large land areas 59.Cardinal Directions: The set of four primary directions used in cartography and navigation: north (N), south (S), east (E), and west (W). 60.Butte - A hill with a flat top and steep sides, for example, Merrick's Butte in Arizona. 61.Ecology: is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. 62.Biotope: A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals. 63.Anthropology: Anthropology is the study of what makes us human, through examination of past and current civilizations. 64.Ethnography: is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures. 65.Ecosystem: An ecosystem consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. 66.Aquifer - An underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures, or unconsolidated materials such as gravel, sand, or silt. 67.Delta - A landform at the mouth of a river where the main stem splits up into several distributaries. 68.Scale - The relationship between a linear measurement on a map and the distance it represents on the Earth's surface. 69.Tropic of Cancer - The northernmost circle of latitude on the Earth at which the Sun appears directly overhead at its culmination, which lies approximately 23.4 degrees north of the Equator. Its so6uthern equivalent is the _Tropic of Capricorn_. 70.Calanque - A narrow, steep-sided valley surrounding an inlet formed in karstic regions along the Mediterranean coast, either by fluvial erosion or the collapse of the roof of a cave that has been subsequently partially submerged by a rise in sea level. 71.Caldera - A large, cauldron-shaped depression that forms through the subsidence and collapse of a ground surface following the evacuation of an underlying magma chamber. 72.Canal - A navigable artificial water channel, usually built as a conduit for human activity. 73.Canyon - Also gorge or cañon .A deep cleft between cliffs or escarpments, or a rift between two mountain peaks, resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over long periods of geologic time. 74.Cap rock - A stratum of erosion-resistant sedimentary rock (usually limestone) found in arid areas 75.Region - Any area on earth that is comprised of places with a unifying attribute is called a region 76.Blackwater: A part of a river in which there is little or no current 77.Defile: A narrow pass gorge between mountains or hills. 78.Succession: It is the change in either species composition, structure, or architecture of vegetation through time. 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