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The nervous system has two main parts:
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal
The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves that
branch off from the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the
The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human
It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in
trillions of connections called synapses.
The brain is made up of many specialized areas that work together:
The cortex is the outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and
voluntary movements begin in the cortex.
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The brain stem is between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain.
Basic functions like breathing and sleep are controlled here.
The basal ganglia are a cluster of structures in the center of the brain.
The basal ganglia coordinate messages between multiple other brain
The cerebellum is at the base and the back of the brain. The
cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance.
The brain is also divided into several lobes:
The frontal lobes are responsible for problem solving and judgment
and motor function.
The parietal lobes manage sensation, handwriting, and body position.
The temporal lobes are involved with memory and hearing.
The occipital lobes contain the brain's visual processing system.
The brain is surrounded by a layer of tissue called the meninges. The
skull (cranium) helps protect the brain from injury.
The dura mater is the layer that is present on the outermost end of
the meninges, situated directly beneath the skull and the bones of the
vertebral column
The cranium (skull) is the skeletal structure of the head that supports
the face and protects the brain. It is subdivided into the facial bones
and the brain case, or cranial vault
Parts of the Human Brain
The human brain consists of various parts that include:
The Forebrain
The Midbrain
The Hindbrain
Each of these parts can be sub-divided into various other parts as
described below.
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