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Q1 :- Explain various function of operating system using suitable examples.
[ A.1 ] :- :---[ Operating System performs four functions ]
- Convenience - An Operating System makes a computer more convenient to
use.
- Efficiency - An Operating System allows the computer system resources to be
used efficiently.
- Ability to Evolve An Operating System should be constructed in such a way
as to permit the effective
development, testing, and introduction of new system functions at the same
time without interfering with
service.
- Throughput - An Operating System should be constructed so that it can give
maximum throughput
(Number of tasks per unit time).
:---[ Some other major functions of Operating System ]
- Resource Management When parallel accessing happens in the OS means
when multiple users are
accessing the system the OS works as Resources Manager, Its responsibility is
to provide hardware to the
user. It decrease the load in the system.
- Process Management It includes various tasks like scheduling, termination
of the process. OS manages
various tasks at a time. Here CPU Scheduling happens means all the tasks
would be done by the many
algorithms that uses for scheduling.
- Storage Management - The file system mechanics used for the management
of the storage. NIFS, CFS,
CIFS, NFS, etc. are some file system. All the data store in various tracks of Hard
disks that all managed by the
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storage manager. It include Hard Disk.
- Memory Management - Refers to the management of primary memory. The
operating system has to keep
track, how much memory has been used and by whom. It has to decide which
process needs memory space
and how much. OS also has to allocate and deallocate the memory space.
- Security/Privacy Management Privacy is also provided by the Operating
System by means of password
so that unauthorized applications can’t access programs or date. For example,
Windows uses Kerberos
authentication to prevent unauthorized access to data.
Q 2 :- Describe the different types of Operating System and evolution of
Operating
System.
[ A.2 ] :- Following are the popular types of Operating System
Batch Operating System
Multitasking/Time Sharing OS
Distributed OS
Network OS
Real Time OS
- Batch Operating System - The user of a batch operating system never directly
interacts with the computer.
In this type of OS, every user prepares his or her job on an offline device like a
punch card and submit to the
computer operator.
- Time Sharing Operating System Time sharing operating system enables
people located at a different
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terminal (shell) to use a single computer system at a same time. The processor
time (CPU) which is shared
among multiple users is terminated as time sharing.
- Distributed Operating System -Distributed System use many processors
located in different machines to
provide very fast computation to its user.
- Networking System Network Operating System runs on a server. It provides
the capability to serve to
manage data, user, groups, security, application and other networking
functions.
- Real Time Operating System A real time Operating System time interval to
process and respond to
inputs is very small. Examples:- Military Software System, Space Software
Systems are the Real time OS
example.
:--- [ Evaluation of Operating System ]
User access the computer in series. From the late 1940’s to mid 1950’s, the
programmer
interacted directly with computer hardware i.e., no operating system. These
machines were run with a
console consisting of display lights, toggle switches, some form of input devices
and a printer. Programs in
machines code are loaded with the input devices like card reader. If an error
occur the program was halted
determine error. If the program is success, then output will appear on the
printer. Main problem here is the
setup time. That is single program needs to load source program into memory,
saving the compiled (object)
program and then loading and linking together.
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[ Q.3 ] :- Define the various structures of Operating
:- Here we have a list of some structures of OS following
Monolithic Systems
Layered System
Virtual Machines.
Exokernels
Client Server system
- Monolithic Systems In Monolithic system model, there is one service
procedure for each system call, that
take care of it. The utility procedures do jobs that are needed by several
services procedures, such as fetching
the data from the user program. Ex. VMS, Multics, BSD etc.
- Layered System In this system it has 6 layers-
o Layer 0 This layer deals with allocation of the processor, switching between
processes when
interrupts occurred or timers expired.
o Layer 1 This layer did the memory management.
o Layer 2 This layer handled the communication between each process and
the operator console.
o Layer 3 This layer took care of managing the input/output devices and
buffering the information
streams to and from them.
o Layer 4 On this layer, user program were found.
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o Layer 5 On this layer, the system operator process was located.
Ex. :- The Microsoft windows NT operating system.
- Virtual Machines The heart of the system known as virtual machine monitor
that runs on the bare
hardware and does the multiprogramming, provide several virtual machines to
next layer up. These virtual
machines are not extended machines, with files and other nice features. They
are the exact copies of the
bare hardware, including the kerner/user mode, input/Output, interrupts, and
everything else the real
machine has. Ex. VMWare, Xen.
- Exokernels Exokernels are the program present at the bottom layer, running
in the kernel mode. The
work of this is just to allocate the resources to the virtual machines and check
attempts to use them to make
sure no machine is trying to use some other’s resources. It saves a layer of
mapping which is the advantages
of the exokernel scheme.
- Client Server Model - In the client server model the kernel handles the
communication between the
clients and the servers. By splitting the Operating System (OS) up into parts,
each of which only handles one
fact of the system, such as file service, terminal service, process service, or
memory service, each part
becomes small and manageable. The adaptability of the client server model,
to use in distributed system
is the advantage of this model. Ex. Email, World Wide Web etc.....
[ Q.4 ] :- Write short note on following
- Device Driver - Operating System
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- Computer System - System and Application software
[ A.4 ] :- The short notes on the above topics are as follows
- Device Driver A device driver is a particular form of software application
that is designed to enable
interaction with hardware devices. Without the required device driver, the
corresponding hardware device
fails to work. It usually communicates with the hardware by means of the
communication subsystem or
computer bus to which the hardware is connected. Device drivers are
operating system specific and
hardware dependent. It acts as a translator between the hardware device
and the programs or operating
system that use it and it can also be called as a software driver.
- Operating System An operating system is a program that act as an interface
between the user and the
computer hardware and the controls the execution of all kinds of programs.
-- OR
An Operating System OS is an interface between a computer user and
computer hardware. An
operating system is a software which performs all the basic tasks like file
management, memory
management, process management, handling input and output, and
controlling peripheral devices such as
disk drives and printers. Some popular Operating System include Linux
operating system, Windows operating
system, VMS, OS/400 etc....
- Computer System - A Computer System includes the computer along with
software and hardware that are
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necessary to operate a computer. The word computer comes from the word
“Compute” which means to
calculate. A computer may be defined as an electronic device, which can store
and manipulate data and
provide result according to instructions fed by the user. A computer does this
by performing arithmetic and
log operation at an enormous speed.
- System and Application software -
System Software The software that helps to activate the computer system
and provide operating
environment for other application software is called system software. Its
primary work is to control,
integrate and manage the individual hardware component of the computer
system. System software
is the basic requirement of a computer system.
Appication Software Application software is a set of one or more programs
designed to solve a
specific problem or do a specific task. These software are developed using High
Level Language in the
form of creative project work in the software industries.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Q1 :- Explain various function of operating system using suitable examples. [ A.1 ] :- :---[ Operating System performs four functions ] – - Convenience - An Operating System makes a computer more convenient to use. - Efficiency - An Operating System allows the computer system resources to be used efficiently. - Ability to Evolve – An Operating System should be constructed in such a way as to permit the effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions at the same time without interfering with service. - Throughput - An Operating System should be constructed so that it can give maximum throughput (Number of tasks per unit time). :---[ Some other major functions of Operating System ] – - Resource Management – When parallel accessing happens in the OS means when multiple users are accessing the system the OS works as Resources Manager, Its responsibility is to provide hardware to the user. It decrease the load in the system. - Process Management – It includes various tasks like scheduling, termination of the process. OS manages various tasks at a time. Here CPU Scheduling happens means all the tasks would be done by the many algorithms that uses for scheduling. - Storage Management - The file system mechanics used for the management of the storage. NIFS, CFS, CIFS, NFS, etc. are some file system. All the data store in various tracks of Hard disks that all managed by the storage manager. It include Hard Disk. - Memory Management - Refers to the management of primary memory. The operating system has to keep track, how much memory has been used and by whom. It has to decide which process needs memory space and how much. OS also has to allocate and deallocate the memory space. - Security/Privacy Management – Privacy is also provided by the Operating System by means of password so that unauthorized applications can’t access programs or date. For example, Windows uses Kerberos authentication to prevent unauthorized access to data. Q 2 :- Describe the different types of Operating System and evolution of Operating System. [ A.2 ] :- Following are the popular types of Operating System – Batch Operating System Multitasking/Time Sharing OS Distributed OS Network OS Real Time OS - Batch Operating System - The user of a batch operating system never directly interacts with the computer. In this type of OS, every user prepares his or her job on an offline device like a punch card and submit to the computer operator. - Time Sharing Operating System – Time – sharing operating system enables people located at a different terminal (shell) to use a single computer system at a same time. The processor time (CPU) which is shared among multiple users is terminated as time sharing. - Distributed Operating System -Distributed System use many processors located in different machines to provide very fast computation to its user. - Networking System – Network Operating System runs on a server. It provides the capability to serve to manage data, user, groups, security, application and other networking functions. - Real – Time Operating System – A real time Operating System time interval to process and respond to inputs is very small. Examples:- Military Software System, Space Software Systems are the Real time OS example. :--- [ Evaluation of Operating System ] – User access the computer in series. From the late 1940’s to mid 1950’s, the programmer interacted directly with computer hardware i.e., no operating system. These machines were run with a console consisting of display lights, toggle switches, some form of input devices and a printer. Programs in machines code are loaded with the input devices like card reader. If an error occur the program was halted determine error. If the program is success, then output will appear on the printer. Main problem here is the setup time. That is single program needs to load source program into memory, saving the compiled (object) program and then loading and linking together. [ Q.3 ] :- Define the various structures of Operating :- Here we have a list of some structures of OS following – Monolithic Systems Layered System Virtual Machines. Exokernels Client – Server system - Monolithic Systems – In Monolithic system model, there is one service procedure for each system call, that take care of it. The utility procedures do jobs that are needed by several services procedures, such as fetching the data from the user program. Ex. VMS, Multics, BSD etc. - Layered System – In this system it has 6 layerso Layer 0 – This layer deals with allocation of the processor, switching between processes when interrupts occurred or timers expired. o Layer 1 – This layer did the memory management. o Layer 2 – This layer handled the communication between each process and the operator console. o Layer 3 – This layer took care of managing the input/output devices and buffering the information streams to and from them. o Layer 4 – On this layer, user program were found. o Layer 5 – On this layer, the system operator process was located. Ex. :- The Microsoft windows NT operating system. - Virtual Machines – The heart of the system known as virtual machine monitor that runs on the bare hardware and does the multiprogramming, provide several virtual machines to next layer up. These virtual machines are not extended machines, with files and other nice features. They are the exact copies of the bare hardware, including the kerner/user mode, input/Output, interrupts, and everything else the real machine has. Ex. VMWare, Xen. - Exokernels – Exokernels are the program present at the bottom layer, running in the kernel mode. The work of this is just to allocate the resources to the virtual machines and check attempts to use them to make sure no machine is trying to use some other’s resources. It saves a layer of mapping which is the advantages of the exokernel scheme. - Client – Server Model - In the client – server model the kernel handles the communication between the clients and the servers. By splitting the Operating System (OS) up into parts, each of which only handles one fact of the system, such as file service, terminal service, process service, or memory service, each part becomes small and manageable. The adaptability of the client – server model, to use in distributed system is the advantage of this model. Ex. – Email, World Wide Web etc..... [ Q.4 ] :- Write short note on following – - Device Driver - Operating System - Computer System - System and Application software [ A.4 ] :- The short notes on the above topics are as follows – - Device Driver – A device driver is a particular form of software application that is designed to enable interaction with hardware devices. Without the required device driver, the corresponding hardware device fails to work. It usually communicates with the hardware by means of the communication subsystem or computer bus to which the hardware is connected. Device drivers are operating system – specific and hardware – dependent. It acts as a translator between the hardware device and the programs or operating system that use it and it can also be called as a software driver. - Operating System – An operating system is a program that act as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and the controls the execution of all kinds of programs. -- OR – An Operating System OS is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware. An operating system is a software which performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. Some popular Operating System include Linux operating system, Windows operating system, VMS, OS/400 etc.... - Computer System - A Computer System includes the computer along with software and hardware that are necessary to operate a computer. The word computer comes from the word “Compute” which means to calculate. A computer may be defined as an electronic device, which can store and manipulate data and provide result according to instructions fed by the user. A computer does this by performing arithmetic and log operation at an enormous speed. - System and Application software System Software – The software that helps to activate the computer system and provide operating environment for other application software is called system software. Its primary work is to control, integrate and manage the individual hardware component of the computer system. System software is the basic requirement of a computer system. Appication Software – Application software is a set of one or more programs designed to solve a specific problem or do a specific task. These software are developed using High Level Language in the form of creative project work in the software industries. Name: Description: ...
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