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Yemeni government considers these payments support for traditional social forms in Yemen, but in fact
they undermine the customary relationship between tribesfolk and their shaykhs. Instead of attaining
their positions of leadership through the confidence of extended kinfolk, shaykhs derive their authority
from the Yemeni government. As the relationship between the state and shaykhs has become more
intimate, cooperative tribes receive preferential access to employment in the civil service and
promotions in the military. This system of patronage has also created a new business class of tribal
origins that relies almost exclusively on state contracts for its business. Tribal shaykhs have also secured
their hold on local governance through control of local elections. However, shaykhs were able to
engineer their desired electoral outcomes as they designed the boundaries of the electoral
constituencies, had the exclusive right to disqualify potential candidates, and were actively involved in
both voter fraud and intimidation.

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Yemeni government considers these payments support for traditional social forms in Yemen, but in fact they undermine the customary relationship between tribesfolk and their shaykhs. Instead of attaining their positions of leadership through the confidence of extended kinfolk, shaykhs derive their authority from the Yemeni government. As the relationship between the state and shaykhs has become more intimate, cooperative tribes receive preferential access to employment in the civil service and promotions in the military. This system of patronage has also created a new business class of tribal origins that relies almost exclusively on state contracts for its business. Tribal shaykhs have also secured their hold on local governance through control of local elections. However, shaykhs were able to engineer their desired electoral outcomes as they designed the boundaries of the electoral constituencies, had the exclusive right to disqualify potential candidates, and were actively involved in both voter fraud and intimidation. Name: Description: ...
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