Showing Page:
1/4
Cardiovascular diseases
Definition:
The word Cardiovascular is derived from two words cardio meaning heart and vascular
meaning system of blood vessels. So cardiovascular diseases are the diseases related to heart and
blood vessels.
Physiology of heart and vessels
Heart is the main organ of human body responsible for pumping of blood. It receives
deoxygenated blood from the body and after filtering it, sends to the parts of bodies. The filtered
blood is called oxygenated blood.
Heart consists of four chambers i.e. atrium and ventricles. Both consisted of left and right
parts. It has three layers, the thin outer layer is epicedium, the inner layer is called endocardium
and the inner thick layer is known as myocardium.
The blood vessels are of two types i.e. arteries and veins. Arteries take blood away from
the heart and veins bring blood towards the heart.
Some facts and figures
It is the leading cause of death in most of the countries.
One person dies after 36 seconds in US.
46 people are dying in Pakistan every hour according to the newspaper published in
September 2018. Three years ago only 12 people were dying.
Showing Page:
2/4
Pakistan is emerging as laziest people in the world due to lack of exercise due to which
cardiovascular diseases are emerging day by day.
Causes
The CVD results from two reasons i.e. atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis
It is a condition in which the lining of the arteries become thick due to the accumulation
of cholesterol and fats. The accumulated material is known as atheromatous plaque. It develops
and causes the blockage of flow of blood.
Arteriosclerosis
In this condition the walls of arteries loss their elasticity and become hard. Due to this its
become impossible for the arteries to expand and contract properly. When much volume of blood
is needed during physical exercise it becomes difficult for hard vessels to manage and control
this large volume.
Types of cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular diseases consists of many types but mainly these can be divided into four
types i.e. coronary heart diseases, strokes and TIAs, peripheral arterial disease and aortic disease.
1) Coronary heart disease
It occurs when there is a blockage and reduction in the flow of blood to the heart. It puts
strain on the heart which can lead to severe issues of heart i.e.
Angina
o It is a chest pain due to restricted blood supply to heart muscles.
Heart attack
o Heart stops functioning due to blockage of blood supply to heart muscles.
Heart failure
o In this the heart is unable to pump blood to the body properly.
2) Strokes and TIAs
Showing Page:
3/4
When the supply of blood to the brain is cut off it causes stroke. On the other hand TIAs
stands for ‘A transient ischemic attack’ and it is also called mini strokes. TIAs occurs when there
is a temporarily blockage to the blood supply to brain.
Symptoms
The main areas can be affected with strokes and TIAs include face, arms and speech. The
mobility of arms and speech is not proper and distorted in this condition.
3) Peripheral arterial disease
When the there is a blockage to the supply of blood to the limbs it causes peripheral
arterial disease.
Symptoms
Dull and cramping leg pain
Loss of hairs from the legs and feet
Ulcers on the feet and lungs
4) Aortic disease
Aorta is the main blood vessel of body which supplies blood from heart to other parts of
the body. One of the common aortic diseases is aortic aneurysm in which the aorta becomes
weak and bulges outwards.
Symptoms
Usually it does not have as such symptoms but if it get burst, bleeding can be life
threatening.
Diagnostic criteria
The commonly used tests to know the health of heart are ECG, CT scan, blood test, chest
X-rays and coronary angiography.
ECG
Showing Page:
4/4
ECG stands for electrocardiogram. In this the electrical discharge given off by the heart
through its beat are measured by attaching electrodes on different parts of the body. The graph
that is made gives the picture of the working of the heart. If the results are suspected the doctors
goes for the exercise electrocardiogram. In this the heartbeat of the person is measured while
walking of exercising.
Coronary angiography
It is the more accurate process and mostly used for the patients with issues of blockage of
arteries. In this process a small catheter is injected through the artery of the patient. The dye is
also used so that the areas of the artery remain highlighted and can be seen through X-rays. It
reveals the blockage of the artery and the condition of plague.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Cardiovascular diseases Definition: The word Cardiovascular is derived from two words cardio meaning heart and vascular meaning system of blood vessels. So cardiovascular diseases are the diseases related to heart and blood vessels. Physiology of heart and vessels Heart is the main organ of human body responsible for pumping of blood. It receives deoxygenated blood from the body and after filtering it, sends to the parts of bodies. The filtered blood is called oxygenated blood. Heart consists of four chambers i.e. atrium and ventricles. Both consisted of left and right parts. It has three layers, the thin outer layer is epicedium, the inner layer is called endocardium and the inner thick layer is known as myocardium. The blood vessels are of two types i.e. arteries and veins. Arteries take blood away from the heart and veins bring blood towards the heart. Some facts and figures • It is the leading cause of death in most of the countries. • One person dies after 36 seconds in US. • 46 people are dying in Pakistan every hour according to the newspaper published in September 2018. Three years ago only 12 people were dying. • Pakistan is emerging as laziest people in the world due to lack of exercise due to which cardiovascular diseases are emerging day by day. Causes The CVD results from two reasons i.e. atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis It is a condition in which the lining of the arteries become thick due to the accumulation of cholesterol and fats. The accumulated material is known as atheromatous plaque. It develops and causes the blockage of flow of blood. Arteriosclerosis In this condition the walls of arteries loss their elasticity and become hard. Due to this its become impossible for the arteries to expand and contract properly. When much volume of blood is needed during physical exercise it becomes difficult for hard vessels to manage and control this large volume. Types of cardiovascular diseases Cardiovascular diseases consists of many types but mainly these can be divided into four types i.e. coronary heart diseases, strokes and TIAs, peripheral arterial disease and aortic disease. 1) Coronary heart disease It occurs when there is a blockage and reduction in the flow of blood to the heart. It puts strain on the heart which can lead to severe issues of heart i.e. • Angina o • It is a chest pain due to restricted blood supply to heart muscles. Heart attack o Heart stops functioning due to blockage of blood supply to heart muscles. • Heart failure o In this the heart is unable to pump blood to the body properly. 2) Strokes and TIAs When the supply of blood to the brain is cut off it causes stroke. On the other hand TIAs stands for ‘A transient ischemic attack’ and it is also called mini strokes. TIAs occurs when there is a temporarily blockage to the blood supply to brain. Symptoms The main areas can be affected with strokes and TIAs include face, arms and speech. The mobility of arms and speech is not proper and distorted in this condition. 3) Peripheral arterial disease When the there is a blockage to the supply of blood to the limbs it causes peripheral arterial disease. Symptoms • Dull and cramping leg pain • Loss of hairs from the legs and feet • Ulcers on the feet and lungs 4) Aortic disease Aorta is the main blood vessel of body which supplies blood from heart to other parts of the body. One of the common aortic diseases is aortic aneurysm in which the aorta becomes weak and bulges outwards. Symptoms Usually it does not have as such symptoms but if it get burst, bleeding can be life threatening. Diagnostic criteria The commonly used tests to know the health of heart are ECG, CT scan, blood test, chest X-rays and coronary angiography. ECG ECG stands for electrocardiogram. In this the electrical discharge given off by the heart through its beat are measured by attaching electrodes on different parts of the body. The graph that is made gives the picture of the working of the heart. If the results are suspected the doctors goes for the exercise electrocardiogram. In this the heartbeat of the person is measured while walking of exercising. Coronary angiography It is the more accurate process and mostly used for the patients with issues of blockage of arteries. In this process a small catheter is injected through the artery of the patient. The dye is also used so that the areas of the artery remain highlighted and can be seen through X-rays. It reveals the blockage of the artery and the condition of plague. Name: Description: ...
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.
Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4