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AJ 271: The Study of Evil Paper. Your Own Definition of Evi
l
Definition of Evil
Psychology and philosophy have been interpreting human actions and feelings in
different ways. Human beings possess different behavioral psyche which can be interpreted as
good, bad, generous, keen, sympathetic, empathetic, envy or evil. Among all these attributes,
some express the Godly attributes of kindness while some are vivacious. Through the expression
of these emotions, human beings reflect their personality, morals, and values. Society also plays
a vital role in associating excellent or bad titles with people, and it eventually becomes their
identity or inseparable part of their lives. Apart from the clear differentiation among these
qualities, some people manage to hide the true personality and act differently (Darley, p.212). All
these features show the complexity of human existence, and different fields of science,
philosophy, psychology, and humanity have been evaluating the various aspects of human
behavior for decades.
Evil is one of the most powerful words used to describe extreme hatred or wicked
behavior. Evil is depicted through the actions, motives, and emotions of a person. An evil person
can cause danger to anyone through his fallacious nature. Apart from all other types of bad
intentions, evil is taken as the most heinous and destructive in nature. Evil motives always cause
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suffering to any individual or the whole society. It can be taken as another kind of selfishness
where the person is unable to realize anything except their own pleasure. Evil-minded people
always try to soothe themselves regardless of the consequences. Thus, evil blindfold a person so
that he/she cannot look beyond oneself. Such persons are unable and unsuitable for society. Like
all other human attributes, evil also has a prominent subject in literature and other genres of
studies. The sound and kind nature are glorified through various literature forms, while evil
reveals how anybody can go beyond human characteristics to harm someone.
Zimbardo’s definition of evil is psychologically based. According to him, “ Evil consists
in intentionally behaving in ways that harm, abuse, demean, dehumanize, destroy, innocent
others - or using one’s authority and systematic power to encourage or permit others to do so on
your behalf ( Zimbardo Chp 1 lecture slide 21).
Dr. Carl Goldberg defines evil with two primary components, "When one􀁠s actions
cause others to suffer unnecessarily-- that is to say, the conditions cause avoidable suffering --
we have reason to consider them malevolent." (Goldberg Lecture slides, slide 4). Sometimes the
evil actions are the reaction of any cruel or injustice, and the malevolent is justified enough to
cause harm in return. In such cases, evil comes from a person who is more powerful and strong
in some way or another. At the same time, another condition of evil or maltreatment occurs when
the other person is weak enough not to react or take revenge. In these cases, the malevolent
mainly considers the victim no more than an object to please himself by his sufferings. Through
his definition, Goldberg classified the two main categories of evil.
My definition of evil
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According to me, Evil is the cruelest form of human when he harms and insults others and
always finds a justification for his behavior. The sufferings of other people provide him non-
guilty pleasure and he does not feel ashamed for his acts
Besides, apart from categorizing evil, causes of evil have been an important subject of
various studies. One of the main causes is uncontrollable human lust. It is hard to satisfy human
nature, and most people intend to greed more. The wild human desires compel them to do violent
and wicked acts to grab all they want. The desires could be related to money, power, or any other
thing but the wrong way to get what they want makes things unbearable for other people. This
lust diminishes the line between right and wrong and the hidden evil tendency to drag towards
inhuman acts.
Another cause of evil is self-esteem and lust for superiority which involves different
people in corrupt activities to maintain pride and honor. In such cases, the target of evil activities
is mostly those people who fail to give the desired respect or are less respectful in society.
Narcissism is one of the causes of such evil acts where the person is indulging in high esteem
about himself and unable to tolerate any disrespectful act.
Furthermore, high ideal or spiritual or unrealistic goals also end in evil actions. The
political, religious and social history is full of such incidents where the people surrounded by
some unrealistically high goals end up hurting and suffering other through their action. The
terrorist acts throughout the world are carried out by elevating the motive behind such attacks,
and the attacker cause harm to so many innocent people to get the high ideals.
The most envious and cause of evil is human nature, which gets satisfaction over other
people's sufferings (Notes by Dr. Christi Clogston, p 2-4). Human psychology is full of such
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Last Name 4
cases where a person, for his joy, harms others. This reflects human nature in the most
unpleasant and corrupts form.
Despite the various causes of evil, the fact remains unchangeable that evil is the cause of
suffering to other people. Though all the wrong actions do not fall in the category of evil, it is the
most malicious actions that cause pain and trouble in the form of immense pain, humiliation, and
death. Evil can result from any bad experience, but the chain of revenge keeps on nourishing evil
in many people. The ultimate result of evil is dreadfulness and horror, which affect the peace of
society.
Moreover, evil is the worst expression of human existence where they are least concerned
about other people's sufferings. Man has free will but utilizing liberty for justifying evil causes
complexities in society. Morals, ethical values, and societal berries are essential to maintain
balance in communities (Philosophical Perspective on Evil, Adam Morton, p 21). The social
berries retain people from exercising evil nature without any confrontation. Evil causes dismissal
and depression, which paves the way for more villainous acts.
Finally, such acts cause an imbalance in society, and people are unable to participate
positively. While, realizing someone's evil intentions and analyzing the root cause of the
behavior people can help each other get rid of the unfruitful attitudes. Constructive and positive
activities can be helpful to direct envy and anger towards optimism. Greed and lust have no end
while putting barriers towards personal desires, and one can avoid involving in wicked activities.
All human beings have some weaknesses, but overcoming the limitations and not surrendering to
evil can make society a better place. Setting realistic goals and ideals and having a sympathetic
approach towards others can help suppress the wicked human quality.
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Work Cited
Darley, John M. "Social organization for the production of evil." Psychological inquiry 3.2
(1992): 199-218.
Goldberg Lecture slides
AJ 271: The Study of Evil , Notes by Dr. Christi Clogston
Philosophical Perspective on Evil, Adam Morton
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Last Name 1 Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Number Date AJ 271: The Study of Evil Paper. Your Own Definition of Evi l Definition of Evil Psychology and philosophy have been interpreting human actions and feelings in different ways. Human beings possess different behavioral psyche which can be interpreted as good, bad, generous, keen, sympathetic, empathetic, envy or evil. Among all these attributes, some express the Godly attributes of kindness while some are vivacious. Through the expression of these emotions, human beings reflect their personality, morals, and values. Society also plays a vital role in associating excellent or bad titles with people, and it eventually becomes their identity or inseparable part of their lives. Apart from the clear differentiation among these qualities, some people manage to hide the true personality and act differently (Darley, p.212). All these features show the complexity of human existence, and different fields of science, philosophy, psychology, and humanity have been evaluating the various aspects of human behavior for decades. Evil is one of the most powerful words used to describe extreme hatred or wicked behavior. Evil is depicted through the actions, motives, and emotions of a person. An evil person can cause danger to anyone through his fallacious nature. Apart from all other types of bad intentions, evil is taken as the most heinous and destructive in nature. Evil motives always cause Last Name 2 suffering to any individual or the whole society. It can be taken as another kind of selfishness where the person is unable to realize anything except their own pleasure. Evil-minded people always try to soothe themselves regardless of the consequences. Thus, evil blindfold a person so that he/she cannot look beyond oneself. Such persons are unable and unsuitable for society. Like all other human attributes, evil also has a prominent subject in literature and other genres of studies. The sound and kind nature are glorified through various literature forms, while evil reveals how anybody can go beyond human characteristics to harm someone. Zimbardo’s definition of evil is psychologically based. According to him, “ Evil consists in intentionally behaving in ways that harm, abuse, demean, dehumanize, destroy, innocent others - or using one’s authority and systematic power to encourage or permit others to do so on your behalf” ( Zimbardo Chp 1 lecture slide 21). Dr. Carl Goldberg defines evil with two primary components, "When one􀁠s actions cause others to suffer unnecessarily-- that is to say, the conditions cause avoidable suffering -we have reason to consider them malevolent." (Goldberg Lecture slides, slide 4). Sometimes the evil actions are the reaction of any cruel or injustice, and the malevolent is justified enough to cause harm in return. In such cases, evil comes from a person who is more powerful and strong in some way or another. At the same time, another condition of evil or maltreatment occurs when the other person is weak enough not to react or take revenge. In these cases, the malevolent mainly considers the victim no more than an object to please himself by his sufferings. Through his definition, Goldberg classified the two main categories of evil. My definition of evil Last Name 3 According to me, “Evil is the cruelest form of human when he harms and insults others and always finds a justification for his behavior. The sufferings of other people provide him nonguilty pleasure and he does not feel ashamed for his acts” Besides, apart from categorizing evil, causes of evil have been an important subject of various studies. One of the main causes is uncontrollable human lust. It is hard to satisfy human nature, and most people intend to greed more. The wild human desires compel them to do violent and wicked acts to grab all they want. The desires could be related to money, power, or any other thing but the wrong way to get what they want makes things unbearable for other people. This lust diminishes the line between right and wrong and the hidden evil tendency to drag towards inhuman acts. Another cause of evil is self-esteem and lust for superiority which involves different people in corrupt activities to maintain pride and honor. In such cases, the target of evil activities is mostly those people who fail to give the desired respect or are less respectful in society. Narcissism is one of the causes of such evil acts where the person is indulging in high esteem about himself and unable to tolerate any disrespectful act. Furthermore, high ideal or spiritual or unrealistic goals also end in evil actions. The political, religious and social history is full of such incidents where the people surrounded by some unrealistically high goals end up hurting and suffering other through their action. The terrorist acts throughout the world are carried out by elevating the motive behind such attacks, and the attacker cause harm to so many innocent people to get the high ideals. The most envious and cause of evil is human nature, which gets satisfaction over other people's sufferings (Notes by Dr. Christi Clogston, p 2-4). Human psychology is full of such Last Name 4 cases where a person, for his joy, harms others. This reflects human nature in the most unpleasant and corrupts form. Despite the various causes of evil, the fact remains unchangeable that evil is the cause of suffering to other people. Though all the wrong actions do not fall in the category of evil, it is the most malicious actions that cause pain and trouble in the form of immense pain, humiliation, and death. Evil can result from any bad experience, but the chain of revenge keeps on nourishing evil in many people. The ultimate result of evil is dreadfulness and horror, which affect the peace of society. Moreover, evil is the worst expression of human existence where they are least concerned about other people's sufferings. Man has free will but utilizing liberty for justifying evil causes complexities in society. Morals, ethical values, and societal berries are essential to maintain balance in communities (Philosophical Perspective on Evil, Adam Morton, p 21). The social berries retain people from exercising evil nature without any confrontation. Evil causes dismissal and depression, which paves the way for more villainous acts. Finally, such acts cause an imbalance in society, and people are unable to participate positively. While, realizing someone's evil intentions and analyzing the root cause of the behavior people can help each other get rid of the unfruitful attitudes. Constructive and positive activities can be helpful to direct envy and anger towards optimism. Greed and lust have no end while putting barriers towards personal desires, and one can avoid involving in wicked activities. All human beings have some weaknesses, but overcoming the limitations and not surrendering to evil can make society a better place. Setting realistic goals and ideals and having a sympathetic approach towards others can help suppress the wicked human quality. Last Name 5 Last Name 6 Work Cited Darley, John M. "Social organization for the production of evil." Psychological inquiry 3.2 (1992): 199-218. Goldberg Lecture slides AJ 271: The Study of Evil , Notes by Dr. Christi Clogston Philosophical Perspective on Evil, Adam Morton Last Name 7 Name: Description: ...
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