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Running head: COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Psychology: Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology refers to the study concerned with the function of the mind and its
processes including the use of language, attention, solving problems thinking, creative works
perception and memory. George Miller and Ulric Neisser are among the founders of cognitive
psychology. Their works made a significant and long-lasting importance towards the evolution
of cognitive psychology (Medin & Ross, 2005).
Ulric Neisser contribution to cognitive psychology
Ulric Neisser, famously known as Dick was and was being referred to as the cognitive
psychology father. He was in the forefront in promoting the employment of approaches that
were ecological by nature in the research towards research into cognitive psychology. Ulric
became a bright demonstrator of varied views and results that helped in recognition and
realization of cognitive psychology discipline. Ulric was a stylish, comprehensible, and a
convincing author and writer. He was, also, a persistently imaginative researcher, continually
determined in the formulation of procedures and ways of investigation of significant questions.
All the way through his profession, Ulric relentlessly helped champion and defended the
impenitent and underdog revolution. His main objective was to ensure psychology is being
pushed on the correct track. Additionally, he became an all-time fan of baseball, a tough adviser,
and an excellent pal to his colleagues (Miller, 1988).
Through the publication of his book “Cognitive Psychology” in the year 1967, Neisser
assembled collectively varied research relating to recognition of pattern, perception, solving
problems, notice, and recollection. With his usual stylish writing style, he ensured emphasis was
laid on processing of information together with productive processing. Ulric at all times used to
describe Cognitive Psychology the same as an attack on the theory of behaviorism. He was not
contented with behaviorism because he used to consider behaviorist theory assumptions to be
wrong. Also, he saw, the behaviorist assumptions to be restricted only on what could be studied
by psychologists. In Cognitive Psychology, was able to make a convincing option presentation
instead of blindly and openly laying an attack behaviorism thought. His book was able to become
an instantaneous success. Researchers conducting various works on problems all the way
through the field of Cognitive Psychology were able to view a combined theory. Because Ulric
initially aided in pulling these fields together, he came to be regularly known to be the “cognitive
George Miller’s contribution to cognitive psychology
On the other hand, George Miller as the pioneers of cognitive psychology viewed the
mind of human beings to be working in a way similar to a computer. It was being given by the
fact that the human mind was in a position of collecting, saving, retrieving and modifying the
information available to it. Miller knew that the mind of humans was being understood by the
use of a model that is being involved in processing of information. His thought facilitated the
movement of research on cognitive psychology away from behaviorist theorists’ methods and
procedures which was able to dominate the area during the years of 1950s. In the year 1991,
Miller got an award of the National Science Medal due to his considerable contribution to our
perception of in the mind. His famous paper ‘The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two’
in 1956 has remained to be among the mainly commonly used and cited paper in cognitive
psychology history in particular. In this model of cognitive psychology, George put forward a
proposal implying that short-term memory was a subject to particular restrictions together with
extent and the amount of information that was being stored in a given period. In the 1960s,
George Miller facilitated in the formation of the cognitive studies center at Harvard University.
Contrast and comparison between Ulric Neisser and George Miller
Miller while at Harvard University while he pursued undergraduate degree did work on
the parallel Pandemonium model of processing cognition of pattern on a computer. He helped
demonstrate the parallel visual exploration in a chain of creative, experimental works. While
Cognitive Psychology was being seen as the establishment book for the area, it can also be
viewed to be the work of a mentally inquisitive revolutionary. It is focused on ways to finding
the accurate method to understanding and knowing the human beings nature (Solso & Kagan,
Neisser helped develop and appreciated of direct perception theory by Eleanor J. Gibson
and James. Its idea was that information in the array optic openly specifies the condition of the
earth without necessarily needing a process that is constructive during the perception. Ulric had
developed dissatisfaction with theories of information-processing, studies on reaction-time, and
research on the simplistic laboratory. It led to his contribution to an additional revolution of
intellectual by advocating for a cognitive research that is ecological in nature. Neisser point of
argument was that research ought to be planned to discover the way in which human beings
imagine, recognize, and retain information. It applies to their duties and the environment that
reflects real situations in the world. In certainty and Cognition, Neisser incorporated perception
that is with processes that are constructive through his perceptual cycle in cognition. Information
was being picked up and singled out after which in turn guide concentration and the act leading
to exploration for the extra information.
In 1978 during the conference on the first Practical Aspects of Memory, in his defining lecture to
the Conference in 1978, Ulric used an approach that was ecological to the memory of human
beings research. He notably implied that that “If X is an exciting or socially significant feature of
recollection, it means that psychologists had barely yet done studies on X.”. It led him to correct
this drawback by way of examining the memory in an autobiographical point of view. Ulric also
reviewed Observed Memory, an edition devoted to recollection research in an ecological
perspective. However during the early 1990s, Ulric’s general argument on the ecological
memory came under attack. He countered this criticism by declaring that his view was, in fact,
correct because the cognitive psychology field had required a move forward. Ulric was at all
times overconfident that by championing and pioneering the grounds of the ecological memory
research. He facilitated in making open this field of cognitive psychology to a better diversity of
methods of research and questions.
In the year 1983, Ulric later relocated to the University of Emory, where he solely
established the Cognition Project of Emory. This project enabled him to continue championing
for ecologically learning research. In particular the explanation of the self-was a problematic
field that necessitated Neisser to use both ecological perceptual analysis way. In his paper in
1988, Neisser confirmed that considerable information types were a contributing factor to a
person’s self-understanding. In the course of his analysis perceptually, he stated that the
beginning of the self as the physical position openly alleged, just as items and actions were being
openly alleged. In the seminars and conferences on Cognition Project of Emory, he led to the
revival in the study of cognitive of the self. Neisser too applied and used an analysis that was
ecological to the area of intellect. He started by pointing out that additionally to the intelligence
of academics, scientists of cognitive psychology ought to as well learn common intelligence as a
daily life skill. During his profession, he was concentrated on the difference in testing of IQ.
George Miller on the other hand was a psychological researcher when the field was in a
state of the furrow in mid-1950s. As a Harvard professor, he gave a public lecture on his research
paper in the title ‘‘The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two’’. The paper facilitated and
helped begin a flare-up of fresh thoughts about the view and led to opening of a latest research
field identified as cognitive psychology. The foremost type of psychological study at that time
was behaviorism. He had discarded theories of the mind by Freud to be excessively insubstantial
and unclearly mystical. The theory of the mind researchers was biased at laboratories study of
behavior observation. They took record of the subjects test response to administering stimuli
carefully. They mainly utilized rats to carry out this laboratory research. Miller was aged 92
when he passed on. He is accredited to be behind the force that helped change the psychology
world. He demonstrated and showed in his paper that the mind of humans, despite being
invisible and imperceptible, it could also undergo tests in the laboratory by way of observation.
George Miller used a model of testing previously used in up-and-coming computer
science programming in the late 1940s. It demonstrated a way in which the human beings’
temporary memory could approximately absorb seven new things within a time frame while
having encounter the unusual. Several people were in a position to remember as much as eight
things while some recalled less than seven items. But despite the items recalled, seven remained
the average statistical for short-term memory. On the other hand Long-term storage, which came
after another formula on cognitive psychology, remained to be almost unlimited. Miller could
not declare why his experiment result averaged at seven. It led him to speculate that endurance
may have been better to the earlier human beings were able to retain little information. . Miller
thought became a standard of cognitive science approach. No matter what the mind could be, it
was a processor of information, with a system of itself to obey the rules of mathematical. It
created another realization for additional research in this field
Miller trained in the field of behaviorism was among the first theorists and researchers
who confronted behaviorist principles of scientific analysis. He coined a name to his latest
research area when he set up a lab of psychology at Harvard University in early 1960s. Miller
named the lab a Cognitive Studies Center. Immediately by using the word ‘cognitive’ it was seen
to be a forbidden among other behaviorists’ scientists. Miller by so doing demonstrated a split
with the thought of the old school. It made his colleagues and fellow behaviorists view his
thought as an act of rebelliousness and defiance from the mainstream psychology way of
thought. Miller established the Cognitive psychology field by making a specific statement
meaning that his area of interest was in the brain and mind. That latest approach to research in
psychology is referred to as the cognitive revolution (Miller, 1988).
The model of processing of information and computer by Miller has however in the recent past
been discarded for a model majorly based on the brain thus contributing to the transformation in
cognitive psychology. The fundamental topics have notably remained and have despite the fact
that there has been a massive addition. This knowledge has formed more specialized fields of
study. Cognitive psychology similar to behaviorism has an impact on all the psychology
disciplines (Johnson, 1997).
Baars, B. (1986). The cognitive revolution in psychology. New York: Guilford Press.
Johnson, D. (1997). The future of the cognitive revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.
Medin, D., & Ross, B. (2005). Cognitive psychology (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &
Miller, G. (1988). The Making of cognitive science: Essays in honor of George A. Miller.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Neisser, U. (1999). Ecological approaches to cognition essays in honor of Ulric Neisser.
Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Solso, R., & Kagan, J. (1979). Cognitive psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.