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THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
For some, choosing a course is easy, because they have known for years what they want
to be when they grow up. For others choosing a course of study is not that easy. Choosing a
course should be a reflection of who you are and what you hope to become. In a way, the real
purpose of choosing a track should expand beyond receiving a quality education, but also
growing as a person and a leader. Hence, the most important factors in choosing a course depend
on your own interests, values, goals, beliefs, views, strengths, and weaknesses. Choosing a
college is such a personal experience. It can be challenging to not succumb to the influences of
family/friends, marketing tactics and financial factors. It is important to determine that the school
offers the course of study that interests you. It is equally critical that you feel good about the
extracurricular as well.
When, choosing and deciding on something it always has consequences. The results of what you
have chosen can either help you or may scourge you, it will hinder you in the future. It is also the
same with the track that the students will decide. In choosing a course or track, there are a lot of
factors that the students must consider when choosing a track or course for them.
According to Boyer (2002), “in taking a course, one of the life’s major decision is being
made. A lot of time, money, and effort will be involved. The shape excellence of the student’s
life may rest on the result.” In choosing junior, senior academic track, a student should take a
risk. F. Yates, Veinotte, &Patalano (2003) define a decision as “…a commitment to a course of
action that is intended to produce a satisfying state of affairs.”
Background of the Study
The Philippines is one of the three countries remaining in the world,namely
Djibouti and Angola in Africa, and the only remaining country in Asiawith a 10- year
pre-university program. This short period makes it difficult for Filipinos to be
competitive with other countries that have at least 12 years ofbasic education. The
majority who do not go to college are too young to enter the laborforce, thus, they would
either be unemployed to set up businessesor cannot legally enter into contracts.With this
apparent problem on education, the Department of Educationhas started to implement the
new K-12 Curriculum, which is a major reform inthe curriculum for all schools
nationwide. This reform includes decongestingand enhancing the basic education
curriculum for learners to master basiccompetencies, lengthening the cycle of basic
education to cover kindergarten through year 12. By prolonging the basic education, that
is, adding kindergarten and two years in high school, the program ensures that graduates
earn the necessary skills and reach the legal age for employment to qualify entrance into
the world of work, if they desire or need to do so. On the other hand, graduates who opt
(SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2012)
The school of STI College San Pablo is very consistent on preparing its Students
for the future specially in the Work Industry, the school focuses on the career planning of
students by guiding the students and preparing them for the reality inside the work
industry. The Researchers conducted the research at STI San Pablo because STI is a very
popular school all over the country and compared to other school in San Pablo, STI offers
much more courses than the other schools in San Pablo City.
In the table of the independent variable shows the four tracks or strand at STI College
San Pablo that the Selected Grade 11 and 12 students may choose. And on the other table, is the
dependent variable that shows the factors that the Grade11and 12 students may consider in
choosing a strand.
Statement of the problem
The Researchers constructed the following questions to be answered throughout the
What are the factors that helps students to know what is the most compatible course for them?
1.1 Family, because they are the person that the students spends time the most.
1.2 Peers, because it has the most influence in pursuadingthe students.
1.3 Self Interest, Self Interest also counts because students also think on what they want.
1.4 Financial State, Financial State also acts as a factor because most courses are much
expensive and the others are cheaper.
Is there a difference between the factors when analyzed according to gender?
2.1 Female, According to Quora Digest when most females chooses their course or track they
consider their family, self interest and financial state.
2.2 Male, based on Quora Digest when most males choose their course it is commonly based on
their friends they are influenced by their friends or peers.
The following hypothesis was based on the research questions formulated by the
researchers to know about the different Factors That Students Consider in choosing a Track.
1. Many of the Students will surely agree that their Family, Peers, Self Interest and Financial
support are the factors that they consider in choosing their course.
Significance of the study
This study is of great significance to the following
Students. The study may possibly know what are the factors that they will need to consider in
choosing their academic track.
Teachers. The result of this research will help them to guide the students well.
Parents. This research will lead them to encourage and support their children in choosing their
School. The school will also benefit for they will know what are the factors that the students will
Future Researcher. This study may possibly serve as their guide for other research about the
factors that students consider in choosing their academic track.
Scope and limitation
This Research study will be conducted at STI College San Pablo with the following 80
(Eighty) Senior Highschool Students that was randomly picked to be ask and interviewed by the
researchers to answer questions that was asked to them allowing the researchers to listen and
analyze the answers of the selected students that has been interviewed. The researchers chose
Senior High Students because the senior students are supposed to be college students if K-12 was
not applied or approved.
Definition of terms
The following terms were defined in order to familiarized words that are used in the
Aspiration. Reflects to educational goals of an individual that he/she has set.
Course. A program that students take for their future.
Aptitude. Is a natural ability to do something.
Peers. Closest friend
Track.Is a narrow road or path.
Compatible. Able to exist or occur together without conflict.
Family. A group consisting of parents and children living together in a household.
Financial State. Are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person,
or other entity
Self- interest. One’s personal interest or advantage, especially when pursued without regard for
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Educational aspiration refers to the wants, ambitions and expectation among grade 10
students. Educational aspiration denotes the determination of the student with skills, capacity and
abilities. Parents, in particular, have been seen as the most significant others in shaping
aspirations because they provide the opportunities, encouragement and support for their children
are teaching (Garg et al., 2002). For students who have aspiration and expectation for their
future, they have perseverance in pursuing their studies.
High School is an important period of time in an adolescent’s life. It is the time that
students are making decisions about their course that they want to take for future educational and
career plans. Every students carries the unique history of their past so as their experiences and
this determines how they view the world. In fact, one of the tasks of high school students is to
explore and plan for their post secondary career options. According to Super’s (2006)
Developmental Theory of Career Development, high school students are at the exploration stage
of career development, which involves crystallizing and specifying their occupational
preferences, while also making preliminary decisions about their career choice. The review of
the literature showed the areas of a student’s life affect the plans, decisions, and career choice
they make: Gender, Parental Influence, and Peer Influence. The study attempted to identify and
differentiate to what extent these factors played varying roles in future career choice.
Students may have all their school problems neatly solved, but maybe questions about
their plans for the future are baffling them. Perhaps they haven’t yet chosen the career they
would like to follow. They may be uncertain about their future educational plans. (Robert H.
Seashore)., (2005), Your Goals and You: A Guidance Handbook, Science Research Associates
USA) Getting along with others is in some ways related to the preceding one, because the way
people feel about themselves influences the way others feel. If they feel friendly and selfconfident, others are likely to look at them in the same way. Most young people want very much
to be liked and to be included in activities of the groups that interest them. (Robert H. Seashore).,
(2005), Your Goals and You: A Guidance Handbook, Science Research Associates USA) The
researchers found this selection precise since most of the youth today experience lack of selfesteem when it comes to the fact that they are pressured to do well in college. Like what is
mentioned above, some students find it hard to cope up with exams when they did not
understand the lesson. That is why some young people are discouraged to continue up to their
college degree because of their experiences in high school. For example, freshmen students who
are bullied in their high school days would become more cautious in all aspects especially in
choosing their friends and acquaintances.
Relating the given definitions to the researchers’ subject matter, the students’ abilities
make a great impact on their decision regarding which course they will go for. High school
students must meet the required average grade of the subjects for their selection of course. For
example, a student who has a vision of being an engineer cannot take engineering courses if he
falls short on trigonometry and mathematics; and a student cannot take BS Accountancy if he is
not fond of Accountancy at all. Thus, the ability and the performance of a student distress his
decision on what course he will take. Young people’s dreams and ambitions may take many
forms and go through many phases and changes. Some are practical and realistic; some can never
go beyond wishful thinking. But among the main factors that help determine the life they will
eventually have are the kind of schooling they get and the type of work they do. Their abilities,
in turn, help determine that they will be able to achieve in the way of education and a career.
(Excerpted from Your goals and You: A Guidance Handbook)
If a person’s ability does not support the course they like, they need to think for alternatives that
would suit it. It is better to go for a course in which the student is interested and which his
abilities go well rather than going for a course in which the abilities of the student are not
compatible which can results to failure. Choosing a course is a really tough decision to make but
the students must always put on their mind: “Will I able to manage this course with my abilities
whether intellectually or physically?; Am I confident enough to pursue with this course?; Will I
be able to get scores that will make me pass my subjects?; After studying this course, what
career am I going to get and where can that lead me?; Am I making good decision with whatever
course will I go for?” As students, they are more aware of their abilities and the courses they can
cope with. From that point, after assessing their limits, they can already anticipate if they can
qualify to that particular course. The decision can be done based on what field the student’s
excel. It is one of the bases that can be implied. If a student prefers a course that is not suitable
for him, he may not meet the Grade Point Average that in either way may result to failure or
even disqualification. The suggestion of the researchers is it will be best if the students identify
their abilities which they can utilize for the future. It will also be coherent if they pursue the
course they are comfortable with, which holds their interest and with what can meet the
arrangement of their abilities. Parenting involves providing a safe environment for their child’s
growth, providing for their basic needs, allowing them to develop their own identity, nurturing
their self-esteem, respecting them, educating them, spending time with them etc. Parents have a
duty to protect their children from abuse and neglect. Having parental responsibility basically
means that as a parent they have the right to make important decisions. Parents are the ones who
nurture and raise a child. Being a parent is not that easy, they have their duties and
responsibilities not only to themselves but also to their children. As their children grow up they
have needs that parents should provide. Parents provide them their basic needs, teach moral
values, show them what is right and help them develop their own being. Parents should also
provide their child’s education. We all know that every parent dreams for their child to have a
great future. For them, education is the best treasure they can give to their child.
That is why sometimes they don’t even care how much money it will cost them just to put their
child in a school with high standard a school they envision to help their child embodiment his
skills and flourish it for him to be a great and successful person as he grow-up. It is also part of
their duty not to abuse their child. As we all know many parents now a day abuse their own
child. They punish them, bit them to death. As parents it is not right to commit such thing,
parents can’t just bit their child because he commit a mistake or didn’t emulate their command.
Children have the right to be protected, to be loved by their parents not to be abused.
There is a lot of different factors that affect students’ choice of course in college or in Senior
High School. One of this is family related factors. Study revealed that Filipino immigrants and
non-immigrants rely heavily on their family’s decision-making. Students cope by following their
parents’ advice. They also have to cope with an expectation of financially supporting the family
upon completing their education. Studies from other Asian countries also show parents’ impact
in decision making of students when it comes to students’ course preference. Another study
highlighted that parental involvement have positive impact on adolescents’ education and career
choice. Furthermore, it is reported that parents are deeply involved and influential to their highachieving children’s college choices. The studies presented are important to the present study
since the studies explain the importance of taking parents’ advice and permission in choosing a
college course. Respect for family is one of the most influential factors that impact Filipino
students’ career decision. It is concurred that “Out of respect and loyalty, it may not be
appropriate to express personal desires; rather, one may alter one’s interests to maintain harmony
For practicality reasons, it is also reported that parents usually encourage careers that will not
cost much money, but at the same time, are stable sources of income. Careers in nursing,
accounting, and engineering are highly popular for Filipino families . These writings discuss that
the family decides in what college course students should take is also associated with the
financial status of the family.
Aside from family related factors, economic factors which includes the employability and
availability of job in the future is also considered by students. Employability, i.e., the realistic
feasibility of being employed in a stable job, then becomes an important factor in career
decision-making. Coming from a collective culture, immigrant parents and children seek careers
that will support the whole family. Moreover, it is found that Asian American men and women
tend to be more interested in technical fields, the physical sciences, and nonenterprising business
positions over artistic, social, or socially interactive business careers.
Aside from economic factors, exposure of students to career related technical and academic
subjects also known as elective subjects in the Philippines also helps in students’ decision
making in career choices in college. It was revealed that career technical Education (CTE) was
perceived positively by middle school and high school counselors in Tenessee, and the need for
career awareness should begin in a student’s early years before high school.
However, there was a difference in perceptions of CTE by middle school and high school
counselors. Being informed and ready to choose a career focus area in a student freshmen year
could help make the transition from middle school to high school easier thus help prevent the
student from dropping out of school before graduation. On the importance of integrating the
academic curriculum in students’ preparation for a college course choice, it is explained that
academics should be integrated with career-focused courses so students can see practical
application for the academic courses such as mathematics, science, reading and writing .
Personality and interest are not the only criteria for choosing a career. An individual’s aptitude
and intellectual abilities are equally of great importance. The importance of having effective
career planning is emphasized by SREB. It was found that students who receive help in
exploring careers and planning programs of study related to their career interest are more likely
to see school as meaningful. High Schools That Work recommended that students as early as the
eighth grade develop a six-year plan for all four years of high school and two years after
graduation. These students should work with their parents, teachers, and school counselors to
develop high school courses and future goals. Students who see a direct link between school and
the future are more definite in their career and postsecondary goals. Middle schools lay the
foundation for career choices by getting students to explore career fields which interest them,
and then in high school, counselors help students align the curriculum to the academic and
industry standards of those careers . The involvement of family, school administrators and
guidance counselor to help students make good career choice in the future is emphasized in the
study who mentioned that parents, teachers, and school counselors are all involved in students’
career decision-making process .
The researchers suggested that the “American education career development plan” is to
prepare students for the next formal learning experience with little opportunity in career
development activities, and students are simply encouraged to attend school until they can go no
further. Continuity of career development program should be continuous and progressive. In
2001 it was mentioned that as early as the third grade, students are expected to acquire the skills
to investigate the world of work in relation to knowledge of self and to make informed career
decisions. In the middle school grades of six through eight, school counselors help students
identify interests and abilities through self-assessment activities, comparing middle school with
high school, and then use assessment results in academic and career planning.
Students are expected to research their future options and investigate the world of work in
relation to self knowledge and use that information to make informed career decisions. Then, in
high school, students are expected to create strategies to achieve future career success and
satisfaction by modifying their educational plans to support their career goals, to evaluate and
update their career-planning portfolios, and to apply academic and employment readiness skills
through programs such as work-based learning . Furthermore, it was emphasized that a
comprehensive and developmental view of education and career planning, especially in middle
schools. Middle school counselors are instrumental in implementing effective education and
career planning systems to help students with their educational and career development.
Research shows that the choices middle school students make have a strong bearing on their
educational and career development for decades to come, particularly academic choices .
Furthermore, it is mentioned that school counselors and school counseling programs play key
roles in preparing students to successfully transition to the next level, whether it is some type of
postsecondary education or joining the workforce . To add with, it is emphasized that education
and career planning from a life-career perspective, with career development and planning
encompassing education, work, and leisure
Therefore, extracurricular activities, hobbies, civic participation, and cultural experiences should
be part of middle school students’ education and career planning .
This chapter gives an outline of research and methods that were followed in the
study. It provides information on the participants, that is the criteria for inclusion in the study,
who the participants were and how they were sampled. The researcher describes the research
design that was chosen for the purpose of this study and the reason for this choice. The
instrument that was used for the purpose of the study and the reasons for this choice. The
instrument that was used for data collecting is also described and the procedures that were
followed to carry out this study are included. The researcher also discusses the methods used to
analyze the data. Lastly, the ethical issues that were followed in the process are also discussed.
The researcher used descriptive study because it’s suited to the study. This makes the
researcher to get clear information about the problem. To know the factors that the students
consider in choosing a track, and how it affects with the track that they have been chosen.
According to Shuttleworth, (2005) Descriptive research design is a scientific method
which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any
way, also if aims to accurately and systematically describe a population situation a phenomenon.
The study was held in STI College San Pablo to the Students of selected grade 11 and
12More, specifically, the researcher will ask them to participate in the research after knowing
thebyfactors that the students consider in choosing a track and the scope of the study. In general
terms if the respondents were willing to participate in the research then the questionnaire will be
start and made at the appointed time. The discussions took place at STI College San Pablo and
lasted in approximately 5 to 10 minutes. During the survey the respondents participate well and
the questionnaire done and flowed smoothly and pleasantly.
Respondents of the Study
In the Selected Senior High School Students, the researcher conducted a research about
the factors that students consider in choosing a track, the researcher randomly picked
respondents a number of 80 respondents so that the researcher get a valid information, but before
the researcher start, the selected Senior High Students ask a permission to allow the researchers
to get information.
The main research instrument to be used is a survey questionnaire. The first part contains
demographical profile of the respondents and the second part are the questions related to track
that the students considered. It has four categories containing family, peers, self-interest and
financial state each category has 5 questions that pertains choices from scale 4-1 the strongly
agree, agree, strongly disagree and disagree.
After the validation of the instruments the researchers secured a written permit to the
practical research adviser of Grade 12 Culinary Arts Students of STI College San Pablo, records
from the advisers of the grade 11 and 12 are useful enough for the needed data on the list of the
Culinary Students after given permission, the researchers explain the purpose of the study to the
selected respondents and then they made sure each participant corresponds to their predefined
criteria. The researchers collected data by means of survey questionnaire that comprises their
name, gender, year level and students’ status. The factors that the respondents used in choosing a
track in senior high will be identified through the second part of the survey questionnaire that
was given to them. After, the respondents have taken the test, the papers were checked, tailed,
interpreted and analyzed.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers first made a letter to the head office in permission to conduct research
inside STI College San Pablo then the researchers asked for the list of the students name from
the advisers of the following Grade 11 and 12 students after asking for the list of students the
researchers randomly picked Eighty (80) Grade 11 and 12 students to answer questions
formulated by the researchers. After the researchers randomly picked the respondents the
researchers asked permission from the respondents to conductthe survey and collected a survey
questionnaire that contains their name, section, gender and track.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The statistical tools to be used in the study are the following:
Mean – intend to convey, indicate, or refer to a particular thing or notion; signify.
Frequency – The number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Percentage – a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100. It is often denoted using the