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Discuss the cognitive therapy approaches to mental disorders and how they can be used in the psychiatric-
mental health nursing practice
1. Make your own psychosocial development applying the 8 ages of man according to Erik Erikson
following the pattern below.
Stages
Developmental
Tasks
Your Development
Infancy (0-1 ½
year old)
Trust vs. mistrust
It is the most important stage in one's life. For everything
they need to survive, including food, love, warmth, safety,
and caring, children are completely reliant on adults,
particularly mothers. I actually not remember anything at
this time.
Early Childhood
(2 to 3 years)
Autonomy vs.
Shame and Doubt
The role of independence is the major focus at this time. At
this age, the child is beginning to learn how to be self-
sufficient. They can do things like toilet train and eat on their
own. I actually not remember anything at this time.
Preschool (3 to 5
years)
Initiative vs. Guilt
At this point in my life, I recall being more adventurous. And
at this point, the concentration is on the children's
exploration of their interests.
School Age (6 to
11 years)
Industry vs.
Inferiority
I recall being overly shy at the time, which is a quality I don't
believe I developed. This stage places a greater emphasis
on a child's social interactions and self-assurance.
Adolescence (12
to 18 years)
Identity vs.
Confusion
This stage focuses on the creation of a sense of personal
identity, which will continue to affect behavior and
development for the remainder of a person's life.
Young Adulthood
(19 to 40 years)
Intimacy vs.
Isolation
I haven't encountered this stage of Erikson's theory since I
haven't been single for a long time, thus I haven't come
across Intimacy and Isolation. This stage encompasses the
early adult years when people are experimenting with
intimate connections.
Middle
Adulthood (40 to
65 years)
Generativity vs.
Stagnation
Adults must develop or nurture something that will outlast
them, which they frequently do by having children or by
making a beneficial change that benefits others. This stage
is more focus on failure and success. Failure leads to a
superficial sense of connection in the world, whereas
success leads to emotions of usefulness and achievement.
Maturity (65 to
death)
Integrity vs. Despair
Adults must develop or nurture something that will outlast
them, which they frequently do by having children or by
making a beneficial change that benefits others. Failure
leads to a superficial sense of connection in the world,
whereas success leads to emotions of usefulness and
achievement.
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2. Compare and contrast the theories of Aaron Beck Cognitive therapy (CT) and Albert Ellis Rational
emotive therapy (RET)
Cognitive therapy
Rational emotive therapy (RET)
Widely used in cases of
depression
Help clients to recognize
the negative thoughts and
errors in logic that cause
them to be depressed.
New Version of REBT
Cognitive therapy is based
on the belief that what we
think influences how we
feel, behave, and react to
our environment.
The goal of cognitive
therapy is to identify and
alter our distorted or
negative beliefs in order to
improve our behaviors and
lives.
It's an approach that helps
you identify irrational
beliefs and negative
thought patterns that may
lead to emotional or
behavioral issues
REBT is grounded in the
idea that people generally
want to do well in life
REBT is unique because it
sometimes uses humor as
a therapeutic tool to help
you take things less
seriously or look at things
differently. This might
involve cartoons,
humorous songs, or irony.
REBT makes a point of
addressing secondary
symptoms, such as
becoming anxious about
experiencing anxiety or
feeling depressed about
having depression

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Discuss the cognitive therapy approaches to mental disorders and how they can be used in the psychiatricmental health nursing practice 1. Make your own psychosocial development applying the 8 ages of man according to Erik Erikson following the pattern below. Stages Developmental Tasks Your Development Infancy (0-1 ½ year old) Trust vs. mistrust It is the most important stage in one's life. For everything they need to survive, including food, love, warmth, safety, and caring, children are completely reliant on adults, particularly mothers. I actually not remember anything at this time. Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt The role of independence is the major focus at this time. At this age, the child is beginning to learn how to be selfsufficient. They can do things like toilet train and eat on their own. I actually not remember anything at this time. Preschool (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt At this point in my life, I recall being more adventurous. And at this point, the concentration is on the children's exploration of their interests. School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Inferiority I recall being overly shy at the time, which is a quality I don't believe I developed. This stage places a greater emphasis on a child's social interactions and self-assurance. Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Identity vs. Confusion This stage focuses on the creation of a sense of personal identity, which will continue to affect behavior and development for the remainder of a person's life. Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation I haven't encountered this stage of Erikson's theory since I haven't been single for a long time, thus I haven't come across Intimacy and Isolation. This stage encompasses the early adult years when people are experimenting with intimate connections. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Generativity vs. Stagnation Adults must develop or nurture something that will outlast them, which they frequently do by having children or by making a beneficial change that benefits others. This stage is more focus on failure and success. Failure leads to a superficial sense of connection in the world, whereas success leads to emotions of usefulness and achievement. Maturity (65 to death) Integrity vs. Despair Adults must develop or nurture something that will outlast them, which they frequently do by having children or by making a beneficial change that benefits others. Failure leads to a superficial sense of connection in the world, whereas success leads to emotions of usefulness and achievement. 2. Compare and contrast the theories of Aaron Beck Cognitive therapy (CT) and Albert Ellis Rational emotive therapy (RET) Cognitive therapy • Widely used in cases of depression • Help clients to recognize the negative thoughts and errors in logic that cause them to be depressed. • New Version of REBT • Cognitive therapy is based on the belief that what we think influences how we feel, behave, and react to our environment. • The goal of cognitive therapy is to identify and alter our distorted or negative beliefs in order to improve our behaviors and lives. Comparison • Philosophic. REBT addresses the philosophic basis of emotional disturbance as well as the distorted cognitions (the focus of CBT), which makes it more powerful. As you uproot your absolutistic demands, your cognitive distortions get corrected. • Secondary disturbance. REBT highlights the significance of secondary disturbance. Disturbing yourself about your disturbance is often the major factor in life-long (endogenous) depression, severe anxiety, and panic attacks. Most CBT ignores secondary disturbance. For example, you feel anxious about appearing anxious when requesting the date. You are worrying about worrying. • Unconditional SelfAcceptance (USA). REBT presents an elegant solution to the self-esteem problem. It teaches unconditional selfacceptance (USA) rather than any type of self-rating • Helpful negative emotions. REBT is unique among CBT therapies in differentiating between self-destructive, inappropriate negative emotions vs. helpful, appropriate negative ones. • All anger inappropriate. CBT views some anger as healthy and appropriate. Counter to this, REBT maintains all anger has a commanding and condemning, dictatorial, philosophic core. Rational emotive therapy (RET) • It's an approach that helps you identify irrational beliefs and negative thought patterns that may lead to emotional or behavioral issues • REBT is grounded in the idea that people generally want to do well in life • REBT is unique because it sometimes uses humor as a therapeutic tool to help you take things less seriously or look at things differently. This might involve cartoons, humorous songs, or irony. • REBT makes a point of addressing secondary symptoms, such as becoming anxious about experiencing anxiety or feeling depressed about having depression Name: Description: ...
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