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Climate Change And Forced Migration 1
CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORCED MIGRATION
Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation
Course
Date
Author’s Note
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Climate Change And Forced Migration 2
Climate Change and Forced Migration
Introduction
People have been designed to adapt to different climatic environments, but these
conditions may often be adverse or indefensible. In these situations, they have to move and
retreat from their regions because of long-term or short-term changes in the local climate.
Sudden climate changes jeopardize their welfare and stable livelihoods. Some of the climatic
conditions include desertification, rising sea level, floods, droughts and seasonal disruption of
weather patterns (McLeman et al. 2006). Temporary displacement is already apparent as an
adaptive solution to climate stress in many areas. The picture, however, is nuanced; mobility
and resources (both financial and social) rely on migration. In other words, not the most
impoverished populations are currently migrating from climate change.
In the absence of primary evidence, distorted by the increase of population and
reliant on the changes in the environment and potential pollution, the movements of climate
migrants are dynamic predictors. Forced migration impedes progress in four ways: by
growing stresses on urban infrastructure and resources, disrupting economic growth,
increasing war probability and making immigrants less affluent
History of climatic migration
Archaeological evidence indicates that patterns of human settlement have repeatedly
reacted to climate changes. There is evidence that a mixture of climatic and environmental
desiccation was the root of the emergence of the first major urban societies. As individuals
moved away from desiccated rangelands and riverine regions, Egypt and Mesopotamia's
complex societies arose (Weniger et al., 2012). The need to organize closely packaged
populations to manage finite resources in contained areas was one of the leading forces of the
emergence of the first civilizations.
In a certain way, the migration of the Muslims into the 8th century's Mediterranean
and southern Europe was driven by famines in the Middle East. Migration is (and has always
been) an important tool to combat environmental stress. Pastoral societies and their animals
regularly migrated from the water supply to grassland to respond to drought and their normal
lifestyle. But it is becoming clear that migration is not restricted to nomadic cultures due to
environmental changes.
Global warming is one of the factors leading to climate change on the planet (cook et
al., 2013). The impact of this is groundwater and soil salinization, desertification drought and
increasing sea levels. All these consequences have been exacerbated and are related directly
to the displacement of human beings. People have no alternative but to move away from their
homes to face climate change (cook et al., 2013). Intergovernmental and climate change
observers have once claimed that while climate change has posed numerous challenges to the
world, the most serious of these is humanitarian immigration (McLeman et al. 2006).
According to (UNFCC), the effect of human activity on the atmospheric composition
is directly affected by climate change. People are responsible for their problems. As far as
people blame the Government for not doing enough, everybody has contributed to global
warming in one way or another that has influenced their lively cap. UNICEF has described
Showing Page:
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Climate Change And Forced Migration 3
climate refugees as fleeing from their homes, people unable to survive at home because they
fear adverse climatic effects. The floods, earthquakes, droughts and fighting have been cited
as part of why these people no longer feel safe at home. If life becomes intolerable, they seek
asylum where they think they find it safe (Ferris, 2020). People have been associating
refugees with conflicts for many years. However, after a comprehensive analysis of climate
refugees and forced displacement, it becomes evident that the climate is a significant threat to
humans. It thus becomes a central factor in helping to get people out of their homes
Effects of climate change and forced migration
The migration decision is generally taken at the level of families unless the State
clarifies a region and is dependent on individual calculations of social and financial equity.
Generally speaking, migration is not an initial adaptable response to family climate tension,
but rather when it is unsatisfactory to meet the immediate needs, such as livestock marketing
or when the populations or regimes of the countries have shown that they can't help.
Migration typically requires access in the destination area to capital, family networks and
connections, especially when it comes to slow climate processes instead of a sudden climate
event like a hurricane. Except in the most extreme, unanticipated natural disasters, refugees
will relocate through pre-existing routes to places where they have communities, social
networks, historical ties, and so on, whether they have a choice (Kober et al., 2016). Most
citizens impacted by environmental considerations find new homes within the boundaries of
their own countries.
Climate change has significantly affected the environment that affects animals' natural
habitats and has made many species homeless (Kober et al., 2016). Therefore, people are not
the only ones affected by climate change, but they are fortunate because they can migrate and
seek shelter in a safer environment. On the other hand, climate changes may lead to animal or
species extinction, which cannot support the changes (Christoff, 2016). Natural disasters have
plagued human beings for several decades. These natural disasters, however, have been
worse than ever. The livelihood of many people has eroded and degraded. Unless an effort is
taken to protect people at risk of natural disasters, the migration rate will rise, and more
people will be displaced.
The issues relating to climate refugees and forced relocations by the appropriate
institutions have not been well expressed. For example, OAU conventions have generalized
refugees as people fleeing their public order seriously. They were not clear about these cases.
Although these troubling conditions have not been categorized or entirely explained, few will
recognize that climate change is one of those causes. And as a consequence, very little is
being done to resolve these conditions. Many international conferences in response to war
refugees were coordinated, but the consideration of natural climate refugees has not been
equal (Jonathan, 2010).
Climate change poses a challenge to international security and nations because these
movements have the potential to create conflicts between the host and displaced citizens. The
international migration organization anticipates that global migration is increasing due to
rapid climate change (Jonathan et al., 2010). It is therefore essential to develop constructive
measures for all concerned citizens, including Government and politicians worldwide.
Climate refugees and forced displacement are more urgent than many believe.
Showing Page:
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Climate Change And Forced Migration 4
Climate refugees are not well accepted under international law, according to the
Environmental Justice Foundation. A new multilateral legal instrument needs to be created to
directly and adequately meet the needs of climate refugees. Policies to help people who leave
their homes due to environmental and climate change should be formulated. Additional
support for developing countries that have been similarly hit by climate change but cannot
address the problem and adapt to climate change is also required.
Predictions about a potential number of displaced persons must be treated very
carefully. An estimated 25 to 300 million people are likely to be permanently or temporarily
removed from their homes because of climate danger. But these forecasts are not seen as
factual (Isaac et al., 2019). Some of the highest estimates were provided by environmental
actors. They think that the efforts to galvanize international cooperation on climate change
are undergoing a vast population flow. The number of displaced persons currently exceeds
the amount previously expected. This means that the bodies involved need to develop suitable
policies that have the correct predictions and are ready to support the anticipated large
number of forcibly displaced individuals.
Climate refugee problems are not a recent phenomenon. For years, it has been there.
People were forced to leave home to seek safety because the harsh situation in their homes
threaten them. These people have been mainly in the camps of refugees or in their brokers.
Force relocation influences families' daily lives. Children are forced to stop education;
parents, on the other hand, are forced to give up everyday activity to produce income.
Under international humanitarian law, the Government must protect the rights of
Climate Refugees displaced within their country according to the governing principles of
internally displaced persons. While the climate refugees displaced due to biodiversity losses,
natural disasters, devastated ecosystems, and construction programs have been subject to
regulatory process measures; these rights have in some cases been improperly safeguarded.
Many who cross borders feel like they have their rights secured. However, it is the host
country's foreign affairs responsibility (Francis & Maguire 2016). It is mainly due to a
reduction in farming productivity, primarily due to climate variations, that some of these
climate refugees are prevented from staying in their region.
In certain situations, displacement is an independent adaptation method and,
therefore, a realistic anticipatory approach to climate change. This has a considerable impact
on international and national immigration policies and calls on the relevant authorities to
intervene and encourage relocations and devise means of preventing any forced resettlement
(Francis & Maguire 2016). Researchers have found that while the migration is an
autonomous response to climate change, everyone is not ready or able to migrate. They
should take care of their rights and not overestimate the role of migration in adaptation.
Some substantial global environmental implications have already influenced the
natural ecological structure and both social and economic life. There has been much anxiety
about the present and future of life in human life due to climate change. Therefore, a general
sense of solitude has caused concerns as people think about the complexity of global climate
issues and how their lives might be affected (Manou et al., 2017). The concerns about climate
change have been greatly influenced by a sense of helplessness, apathy and pessimism.
Climate change issues have also created confusion about human life due to potential
uncertainties (Manou et al., 2017).
Showing Page:
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Climate Change And Forced Migration 5
At present, climate change presents existential national and foreign risks to stability
that could ignite regional water, land and food disputes and ultimately threaten lives.
Contrary to common notions, climate change challenges are not merely a potential threat but
a significant threat for the current and the future. It is easier to believe that the potential
impact of climate change is more concentrated on the initiative. It is enough to prove that it is
needed to address the current needs when people have to move from their homes (Manou et
al., 2017).
The world was created to provide a safe refuge for humans and all living beings on
this planet. The same world, though, is now posing a threat to human survival. The
consistency of the air we're breathing sends shivers down our spines. Although we survive
because of the air we breathe, the food we consume, and the water we drink, there are ample
grounds to be concerned about whether our survival is assured, as studies show that the
consistency and quantity of all of these components have significantly decreased. Climate
change is a danger to humanity because it threatens the earth's premature demise and the
destruction of life's possible components.
A global threat is posed by climate refugees and forced relocations. The existing
urban population in coastal cities has contributed to a high population. It is important to
remember, though, that these cities still have their environmental problems. They also benefit
the most from the same environmental issues that people escape from home. The fighting
over scarce and vulnerable resources, including food, water and soil, is increasing.
Climate change continues to inflict both current and future shock and difficulty on
humankind. However, being vigilant will help to plan adequately for the possible effects of
climate change. The individual retains two ways to respond productively to the challenge of
adaptation. The first step is to ensure the economy is stable and the competition is effective.
The other crucial step is to ensure that the country has access to essential statistics about the
effects of climate change. If the Government has the necessary intelligence on the impact of
climate change, suitable measures will be adequately mitigated and prepared.
Several studies also stress the critical position that social movements have played in
the struggle for environmental protection. Movements have emerged to make a clear
argument about the dangers of global warming. Various industries must come together and
work to combat ecological destruction. (Borras et al. 2010) discuss early twentieth-century
transnational agrarian revolutions and more modern, high-profile global partnerships such as
Via Campesina (Borras et al. 2010). They've all succeeded in protecting their territory. In
order to protect climate refugees and forced displacement, the same spirit must be applied.
More movement of resistance must rise and put pressure on government officials and other
related institutions.
According to (World Watch Institute), a resistance movement will win by putting
pressure on the Government to act. According to (Doyle, 2005), all of these campaigns will
consider themselves involved in politics under the general symbol of the green or
environmental movement. As a result, it is clear that protests are essential vehicles for
combating global warming, which has been a significant contributor to climate change,
resulting in climate refugees.
Showing Page:
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Climate Change And Forced Migration 6
conclusion
Climate change has been listed as one of the contributing factors to migration in this
study. It is also clear that the fact that climate change causes displacement has not received
the same level of attention as other migration factors. Scientific reports also blame people for
climate change because of their global warming practices, but a solution to the problems is
still available. Governments and the Intergovernmental Conference need to develop strategies
that fix the root cause and not just climate migration issues.
On the other hand, the climate movements should aim to play watchdog to ensure that
relevant bodies take appropriate steps. Climate refugees and forced displacement are a major
global problem that requires immediate attention. Climate change caused by humans
exacerbates already current natural, economic, and social vulnerabilities. As a result, climate
change adaptation must go beyond addressing the marginally improved effects of
anthropogenic climate change. Focus on climate change implications and considering the
local context has resulted in certain strange policy distortions.
Showing Page:
7/8
Climate Change And Forced Migration 7
References
Borras Jr, S. M., McMichael, P., & Scoones, I. (2010). The politics of biofuels, land and
agrarian change: editors' introduction. The Journal of peasant studies, 37(4), 575-592.
Bradtmöller, M., Pastoors, A., Weninger, B., & Weniger, G. C. (2012). The repeated
replacement modelrapid climate change and population dynamics in Late
Pleistocene Europe. Quaternary International, 247, 38-49.
Christoff, P. (2016). The promissory note: COP 21 and the Paris Climate
Agreement. Environmental Politics, 25(5), 765-787.
Cook, J., Nuccitelli, D., Green, S. A., Richardson, M., Winkler, B., Painting, R., ... & Skuce,
A. (2013). Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the
scientific literature. Environmental research letters, 8(2), 024024.
Doyle, T. (2005). Environmental movements in minority and majority worlds: a global
perspective. Rutgers University Press.
Ferris, E. (2020). Research on climate change and migration where are we and where are we
going?. Migration Studies.
Francis, A., & Maguire, R. (2016). Protection of refugees and displaced persons in the Asia
Pacific region. Routledge.
Goodland, R., & Anhang, J. (2009). Livestock and climate change: What if the key actors in
climate change are... cows, pigs, and chickens?. Livestock and climate change: what if
the key actors in climate change are... cows, pigs, and chickens?.
Isac, M. M., Palmerio, L., & van der Werf, M. G. (2019). Indicators of (in) tolerance toward
immigrants among European youth: an assessment of measurement invariance in
ICCS 2016. Large-scale Assessments in Education, 7(1), 1-21.
Kober, T., Summerton, P., Pollitt, H., Chewpreecha, U., Ren, X., Wills, W., ... & Rodriguez,
A. M. L. (2016). Macroeconomic impacts of climate change mitigation in Latin
America: A cross-model comparison. Energy Economics, 56, 625-636.
Lusthaus, J. (2010). Shifting sands: Sea level rise, maritime boundaries and inter-state
conflict. Politics, 30(2), 113-118.
Manou, D., Baldwin, A., Cubie, D., Mihr, A., & Thorp, T. (Eds.). (2017). Climate Change,
Migration and Human Rights: Law and Policy Perspectives. Taylor & Francis.
McLeman, R., & Smit, B. (2006). Migration as an adaptation to climate change. Climatic
change, 76(1), 31-53.
McLeman, R., & Smit, B. (2006). Migration as an adaptation to climate change. Climatic
change, 76(1), 31-53.
Showing Page:
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Climate Change And Forced Migration 8
Ruggerio, P., Brown, C. A., Komar, P. D., Jonathan, C. A., Reusser, D. A., & Lee, H. I.
(2010). 6. Impacts of climate change on Oregon's coasts and estuaries. Oregon Sea
Grant.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1 Climate Change And Forced Migration CLIMATE CHANGE AND FORCED MIGRATION Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Course Date Author’s Note Climate Change And Forced Migration 2 Climate Change and Forced Migration Introduction People have been designed to adapt to different climatic environments, but these conditions may often be adverse or indefensible. In these situations, they have to move and retreat from their regions because of long-term or short-term changes in the local climate. Sudden climate changes jeopardize their welfare and stable livelihoods. Some of the climatic conditions include desertification, rising sea level, floods, droughts and seasonal disruption of weather patterns (McLeman et al. 2006). Temporary displacement is already apparent as an adaptive solution to climate stress in many areas. The picture, however, is nuanced; mobility and resources (both financial and social) rely on migration. In other words, not the most impoverished populations are currently migrating from climate change. In the absence of primary evidence, distorted by the increase of population and reliant on the changes in the environment and potential pollution, the movements of climate migrants are dynamic predictors. Forced migration impedes progress in four ways: by growing stresses on urban infrastructure and resources, disrupting economic growth, increasing war probability and making immigrants less affluent History of climatic migration Archaeological evidence indicates that patterns of human settlement have repeatedly reacted to climate changes. There is evidence that a mixture of climatic and environmental desiccation was the root of the emergence of the first major urban societies. As individuals moved away from desiccated rangelands and riverine regions, Egypt and Mesopotamia's complex societies arose (Weniger et al., 2012). The need to organize closely packaged populations to manage finite resources in contained areas was one of the leading forces of the emergence of the first civilizations. In a certain way, the migration of the Muslims into the 8th century's Mediterranean and southern Europe was driven by famines in the Middle East. Migration is (and has always been) an important tool to combat environmental stress. Pastoral societies and their animals regularly migrated from the water supply to grassland to respond to drought and their normal lifestyle. But it is becoming clear that migration is not restricted to nomadic cultures due to environmental changes. Global warming is one of the factors leading to climate change on the planet (cook et al., 2013). The impact of this is groundwater and soil salinization, desertification drought and increasing sea levels. All these consequences have been exacerbated and are related directly to the displacement of human beings. People have no alternative but to move away from their homes to face climate change (cook et al., 2013). Intergovernmental and climate change observers have once claimed that while climate change has posed numerous challenges to the world, the most serious of these is humanitarian immigration (McLeman et al. 2006). According to (UNFCC), the effect of human activity on the atmospheric composition is directly affected by climate change. People are responsible for their problems. As far as people blame the Government for not doing enough, everybody has contributed to global warming in one way or another that has influenced their lively cap. UNICEF has described Climate Change And Forced Migration 3 climate refugees as fleeing from their homes, people unable to survive at home because they fear adverse climatic effects. The floods, earthquakes, droughts and fighting have been cited as part of why these people no longer feel safe at home. If life becomes intolerable, they seek asylum where they think they find it safe (Ferris, 2020). People have been associating refugees with conflicts for many years. However, after a comprehensive analysis of climate refugees and forced displacement, it becomes evident that the climate is a significant threat to humans. It thus becomes a central factor in helping to get people out of their homes Effects of climate change and forced migration The migration decision is generally taken at the level of families unless the State clarifies a region and is dependent on individual calculations of social and financial equity. Generally speaking, migration is not an initial adaptable response to family climate tension, but rather when it is unsatisfactory to meet the immediate needs, such as livestock marketing or when the populations or regimes of the countries have shown that they can't help. Migration typically requires access in the destination area to capital, family networks and connections, especially when it comes to slow climate processes instead of a sudden climate event like a hurricane. Except in the most extreme, unanticipated natural disasters, refugees will relocate through pre-existing routes to places where they have communities, social networks, historical ties, and so on, whether they have a choice (Kober et al., 2016). Most citizens impacted by environmental considerations find new homes within the boundaries of their own countries. Climate change has significantly affected the environment that affects animals' natural habitats and has made many species homeless (Kober et al., 2016). Therefore, people are not the only ones affected by climate change, but they are fortunate because they can migrate and seek shelter in a safer environment. On the other hand, climate changes may lead to animal or species extinction, which cannot support the changes (Christoff, 2016). Natural disasters have plagued human beings for several decades. These natural disasters, however, have been worse than ever. The livelihood of many people has eroded and degraded. Unless an effort is taken to protect people at risk of natural disasters, the migration rate will rise, and more people will be displaced. The issues relating to climate refugees and forced relocations by the appropriate institutions have not been well expressed. For example, OAU conventions have generalized refugees as people fleeing their public order seriously. They were not clear about these cases. Although these troubling conditions have not been categorized or entirely explained, few will recognize that climate change is one of those causes. And as a consequence, very little is being done to resolve these conditions. Many international conferences in response to war refugees were coordinated, but the consideration of natural climate refugees has not been equal (Jonathan, 2010). Climate change poses a challenge to international security and nations because these movements have the potential to create conflicts between the host and displaced citizens. The international migration organization anticipates that global migration is increasing due to rapid climate change (Jonathan et al., 2010). It is therefore essential to develop constructive measures for all concerned citizens, including Government and politicians worldwide. Climate refugees and forced displacement are more urgent than many believe. Climate Change And Forced Migration 4 Climate refugees are not well accepted under international law, according to the Environmental Justice Foundation. A new multilateral legal instrument needs to be created to directly and adequately meet the needs of climate refugees. Policies to help people who leave their homes due to environmental and climate change should be formulated. Additional support for developing countries that have been similarly hit by climate change but cannot address the problem and adapt to climate change is also required. Predictions about a potential number of displaced persons must be treated very carefully. An estimated 25 to 300 million people are likely to be permanently or temporarily removed from their homes because of climate danger. But these forecasts are not seen as factual (Isaac et al., 2019). Some of the highest estimates were provided by environmental actors. They think that the efforts to galvanize international cooperation on climate change are undergoing a vast population flow. The number of displaced persons currently exceeds the amount previously expected. This means that the bodies involved need to develop suitable policies that have the correct predictions and are ready to support the anticipated large number of forcibly displaced individuals. Climate refugee problems are not a recent phenomenon. For years, it has been there. People were forced to leave home to seek safety because the harsh situation in their homes threaten them. These people have been mainly in the camps of refugees or in their brokers. Force relocation influences families' daily lives. Children are forced to stop education; parents, on the other hand, are forced to give up everyday activity to produce income. Under international humanitarian law, the Government must protect the rights of Climate Refugees displaced within their country according to the governing principles of internally displaced persons. While the climate refugees displaced due to biodiversity losses, natural disasters, devastated ecosystems, and construction programs have been subject to regulatory process measures; these rights have in some cases been improperly safeguarded. Many who cross borders feel like they have their rights secured. However, it is the host country's foreign affairs responsibility (Francis & Maguire 2016). It is mainly due to a reduction in farming productivity, primarily due to climate variations, that some of these climate refugees are prevented from staying in their region. In certain situations, displacement is an independent adaptation method and, therefore, a realistic anticipatory approach to climate change. This has a considerable impact on international and national immigration policies and calls on the relevant authorities to intervene and encourage relocations and devise means of preventing any forced resettlement (Francis & Maguire 2016). Researchers have found that while the migration is an autonomous response to climate change, everyone is not ready or able to migrate. They should take care of their rights and not overestimate the role of migration in adaptation. Some substantial global environmental implications have already influenced the natural ecological structure and both social and economic life. There has been much anxiety about the present and future of life in human life due to climate change. Therefore, a general sense of solitude has caused concerns as people think about the complexity of global climate issues and how their lives might be affected (Manou et al., 2017). The concerns about climate change have been greatly influenced by a sense of helplessness, apathy and pessimism. Climate change issues have also created confusion about human life due to potential uncertainties (Manou et al., 2017). Climate Change And Forced Migration 5 At present, climate change presents existential national and foreign risks to stability that could ignite regional water, land and food disputes and ultimately threaten lives. Contrary to common notions, climate change challenges are not merely a potential threat but a significant threat for the current and the future. It is easier to believe that the potential impact of climate change is more concentrated on the initiative. It is enough to prove that it is needed to address the current needs when people have to move from their homes (Manou et al., 2017). The world was created to provide a safe refuge for humans and all living beings on this planet. The same world, though, is now posing a threat to human survival. The consistency of the air we're breathing sends shivers down our spines. Although we survive because of the air we breathe, the food we consume, and the water we drink, there are ample grounds to be concerned about whether our survival is assured, as studies show that the consistency and quantity of all of these components have significantly decreased. Climate change is a danger to humanity because it threatens the earth's premature demise and the destruction of life's possible components. A global threat is posed by climate refugees and forced relocations. The existing urban population in coastal cities has contributed to a high population. It is important to remember, though, that these cities still have their environmental problems. They also benefit the most from the same environmental issues that people escape from home. The fighting over scarce and vulnerable resources, including food, water and soil, is increasing. Climate change continues to inflict both current and future shock and difficulty on humankind. However, being vigilant will help to plan adequately for the possible effects of climate change. The individual retains two ways to respond productively to the challenge of adaptation. The first step is to ensure the economy is stable and the competition is effective. The other crucial step is to ensure that the country has access to essential statistics about the effects of climate change. If the Government has the necessary intelligence on the impact of climate change, suitable measures will be adequately mitigated and prepared. Several studies also stress the critical position that social movements have played in the struggle for environmental protection. Movements have emerged to make a clear argument about the dangers of global warming. Various industries must come together and work to combat ecological destruction. (Borras et al. 2010) discuss early twentieth-century transnational agrarian revolutions and more modern, high-profile global partnerships such as Via Campesina (Borras et al. 2010). They've all succeeded in protecting their territory. In order to protect climate refugees and forced displacement, the same spirit must be applied. More movement of resistance must rise and put pressure on government officials and other related institutions. According to (World Watch Institute), a resistance movement will win by putting pressure on the Government to act. According to (Doyle, 2005), all of these campaigns will consider themselves involved in politics under the general symbol of the green or environmental movement. As a result, it is clear that protests are essential vehicles for combating global warming, which has been a significant contributor to climate change, resulting in climate refugees. Climate Change And Forced Migration 6 conclusion Climate change has been listed as one of the contributing factors to migration in this study. It is also clear that the fact that climate change causes displacement has not received the same level of attention as other migration factors. Scientific reports also blame people for climate change because of their global warming practices, but a solution to the problems is still available. Governments and the Intergovernmental Conference need to develop strategies that fix the root cause and not just climate migration issues. On the other hand, the climate movements should aim to play watchdog to ensure that relevant bodies take appropriate steps. Climate refugees and forced displacement are a major global problem that requires immediate attention. Climate change caused by humans exacerbates already current natural, economic, and social vulnerabilities. As a result, climate change adaptation must go beyond addressing the marginally improved effects of anthropogenic climate change. Focus on climate change implications and considering the local context has resulted in certain strange policy distortions. 7 Climate Change And Forced Migration References Borras Jr, S. M., McMichael, P., & Scoones, I. (2010). The politics of biofuels, land and agrarian change: editors' introduction. The Journal of peasant studies, 37(4), 575-592. Bradtmöller, M., Pastoors, A., Weninger, B., & Weniger, G. C. (2012). The repeated replacement model–rapid climate change and population dynamics in Late Pleistocene Europe. Quaternary International, 247, 38-49. Christoff, P. (2016). The promissory note: COP 21 and the Paris Climate Agreement. Environmental Politics, 25(5), 765-787. Cook, J., Nuccitelli, D., Green, S. A., Richardson, M., Winkler, B., Painting, R., ... & Skuce, A. (2013). Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature. Environmental research letters, 8(2), 024024. Doyle, T. (2005). Environmental movements in minority and majority worlds: a global perspective. Rutgers University Press. Ferris, E. (2020). Research on climate change and migration where are we and where are we going?. Migration Studies. Francis, A., & Maguire, R. (2016). Protection of refugees and displaced persons in the Asia Pacific region. Routledge. Goodland, R., & Anhang, J. (2009). Livestock and climate change: What if the key actors in climate change are... cows, pigs, and chickens?. Livestock and climate change: what if the key actors in climate change are... cows, pigs, and chickens?. Isac, M. M., Palmerio, L., & van der Werf, M. G. (2019). Indicators of (in) tolerance toward immigrants among European youth: an assessment of measurement invariance in ICCS 2016. Large-scale Assessments in Education, 7(1), 1-21. Kober, T., Summerton, P., Pollitt, H., Chewpreecha, U., Ren, X., Wills, W., ... & Rodriguez, A. M. L. (2016). Macroeconomic impacts of climate change mitigation in Latin America: A cross-model comparison. Energy Economics, 56, 625-636. Lusthaus, J. (2010). Shifting sands: Sea level rise, maritime boundaries and inter-state conflict. Politics, 30(2), 113-118. Manou, D., Baldwin, A., Cubie, D., Mihr, A., & Thorp, T. (Eds.). (2017). Climate Change, Migration and Human Rights: Law and Policy Perspectives. Taylor & Francis. McLeman, R., & Smit, B. (2006). Migration as an adaptation to climate change. Climatic change, 76(1), 31-53. McLeman, R., & Smit, B. (2006). Migration as an adaptation to climate change. Climatic change, 76(1), 31-53. Climate Change And Forced Migration Ruggerio, P., Brown, C. A., Komar, P. D., Jonathan, C. A., Reusser, D. A., & Lee, H. I. (2010). 6. Impacts of climate change on Oregon's coasts and estuaries. Oregon Sea Grant. 8 Name: Description: ...
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