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LIFE AND WORKS OF DR. JOSE RIZAL
CRITERIA FOR NATIONAL HEROES
(Adopted by the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee on June 3, 1993, Manila. Members of
the Committee included Drs. Onofre D. Corpuz, Samuel K. Tan, Marcelino Foronda, Alfredo Lagmay,
Bernardita R. Churchill, Serafin D. Quiason, Ambeth Ocampo, then known as Dom Ignacio Maria, Prof.
Minerva Gonzales and Mrs. Carmen Guerrero-Nakpil).
1. Heroes are those who have a concept of nation and thereafter aspire and struggle for the nation’s freedom.
Our own struggle for freedom was begun by Bonifacio and finished by Aguinaldo, the latter formally
declaring the revolution’s success. In reality, however, a revolution has no end. Revolutions are only the
beginning. One cannot aspire to be free only to sink back into bondage.
2. Heroes are those who define and contribute to a system or life of freedom and order for a nation. Freedom
without order will only lead to anarchy. Therefore, heroes are those who make the nations. /constitution
and laws, such as Mabini and Recto. To the latter, constitutions are only the beginning, for it is the people
living under the constitution that truly constitute a nation.
3. Heroes are those who contribute to the quality of life and destiny of a nation. (As defined by Dr. Onofre
D. Corpuz)
ADDITIONAL CRITERIA FOR HEROES
(Adopted by the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee on November 15, 1995, Manila)
1. A hero is part of the people’s expression. But the process of a people’s internalization of a hero’s life and
works takes time, with the youth forming a part of the internalization.
2. A hero thinks of the future, especially the future generations.
3. The choice of a hero involves not only the recounting of an episode or events in history, but of the entire
process that made this particular person a hero. (As defined by Dr. Alfredo Lagmay)
HISTORICAL FIGURES RECOMMENDED AS NATIONAL HEROES
On November 15, 1995, the Technical Committee after deliberation and careful study based on Dr. Onofre
D. Corpuz’ and Dr. Alfredo Lagmay’s criteria selected the following nine Filipino historical figures to be
recommended as National Heroes:
Jose Rizal
Andres Bonifacio
Emilio Aguinaldo
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Apolinario Mabini
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat
Juan Luna
Melchora Aquino
Gabriela Silang
STATUS OF THE REPORT/RECOMMENDATIONS SUBMITTED BY THE NATIONAL HEROES
COMMITTEE.
Since the submission of the report/recommendations by the National Heroes Committee to then Secretary
Ricardo T. Gloria of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports on November 22,1995, no action has been
taken. This was probably because this might trigger a flood of requests for proclamations. Another possibility is
that the proclamations can trigger bitter debates involving historical controversies about the heroes.
LAWS HONORING/ COMMEMORATING FILIPINO HISTORICAL FIGURES
1. Republic Act No. 3827, enacted by the Philippine Legislature on October 28, 1931, declared the last
Sunday of August of every year as National Heroes Day.
2. Republic Act No. 2946, enacted by the Philippine Legislature on February 16, 1921, made November 30
of each year a legal holiday to commemorate the birth of Andres Bonifacio.

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LIFE AND WORKS OF DR. JOSE RIZAL CRITERIA FOR NATIONAL HEROES (Adopted by the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee on June 3, 1993, Manila. Members of the Committee included Drs. Onofre D. Corpuz, Samuel K. Tan, Marcelino Foronda, Alfredo Lagmay, Bernardita R. Churchill, Serafin D. Quiason, Ambeth Ocampo, then known as Dom Ignacio Maria, Prof. Minerva Gonzales and Mrs. Carmen Guerrero-Nakpil). 1. Heroes are those who have a concept of nation and thereafter aspire and struggle for the nation’s freedom. Our own struggle for freedom was begun by Bonifacio and finished by Aguinaldo, the latter formally declaring the revolution’s success. In reality, however, a revolution has no end. Revolutions are only the beginning. One cannot aspire to be free only to sink back into bondage. 2. Heroes are those who define and contribute to a system or life of freedom and order for a nation. Freedom without order will only lead to anarchy. Therefore, heroes are those who make the nations. /constitution and laws, such as Mabini and Recto. To the latter, constitutions are only the beginning, for it is the people living under the constitution that truly constitute a nation. 3. Heroes are those who contribute to the quality of life and destiny of a nation. (As defined by Dr. Onofre D. Corpuz) ADDITIONAL CRITERIA FOR HEROES (Adopted by the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee on November 15, 1995, Manila) 1. A hero is part of the people’s expression. But the process of a people’s internalization of a hero’s life and works takes time, with the youth forming a part of the internalization. 2. A hero thinks of the future, especially the future generations. 3. The choice of a hero involves not only the recounting of an episode or events in history, but of the entire process that made this particular person a hero. (As defined by Dr. Alfredo Lagmay) HISTORICAL FIGURES RECOMMENDED AS NATIONAL HEROES On November 15, 1995, the Technical Committee after deliberation and careful study based on Dr. Onofre D. Corpuz’ and Dr. Alfredo Lagmay’s criteria selected the following nine Filipino historical figures to be recommended as National Heroes: • Jose Rizal • Andres Bonifacio • Emilio Aguinaldo • Apolinario Mabini • Marcelo H. del Pilar • Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat • Juan Luna • Melchora Aquino • Gabriela Silang STATUS OF THE REPORT/RECOMMENDATIONS SUBMITTED BY THE NATIONAL HEROES COMMITTEE. Since the submission of the report/recommendations by the National Heroes Committee to then Secretary Ricardo T. Gloria of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports on November 22,1995, no action has been taken. This was probably because this might trigger a flood of requests for proclamations. Another possibility is that the proclamations can trigger bitter debates involving historical controversies about the heroes. LAWS HONORING/ COMMEMORATING FILIPINO HISTORICAL FIGURES 1. Republic Act No. 3827, enacted by the Philippine Legislature on October 28, 1931, declared the last Sunday of August of every year as National Heroes Day. 2. Republic Act No. 2946, enacted by the Philippine Legislature on February 16, 1921, made November 30 of each year a legal holiday to commemorate the birth of Andres Bonifacio. Name: Description: ...
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