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ABOUT BASIC CHEMISTRY NOTES
These notes are designed and fabricated as per student needs. Keeping in mind the basic
chemistry , it consists of only chemistry theory which is not so deep in terms of concepts just
right amount of knowledge. Best efforts are made to keep these notes simple and informative.
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CONTENTS OF THE NOTES
MATTER……………………………………………………………………………………………………………PAGE 03 TO 08
PURITY OF MATTER………………………………………………………………………………………….PAGE 09 TO 17
ATOMS AND MOLECULES…………………………………………………………………………………PAGE 18 TO 23
STRUCTURE OF ATOM………………………………………………………………………………………PAGE 24 TO 29
CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS………………………………………………………….PAGE 30 TO 33
ACID AND BASES………………………………………………………………………………………………PAGE 34 TO 39
METALS AND NON METALS………………………………………………………………………………PAGE 40 TO 44
CARBON……………………………………………………………………………………………………………PAGE 45 TO 46
PERIODIC TABLE………………………………………………………………………………………………. PAGE 47 TO 50
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MATTER
Everything in this universe is made up of some kind of materials which the scientists call matter.
For example The food we eat, stones, sand, book we read, planets, shoe we wear, clouds ,school
uniform ,is made up of matter. All the materials occupy space and have mass. In other words,
they have mass as well as volume .
SI unit of mass is Kilogram (Kg).SI unit of volume is cubic metre (m
3
).
Since a vast number of things are made up of matter and things have different shapes, sizes and
textures. This variation of shapes, sizes and textures is because of different physical and
chemical properties of matter therefore matter can be classified on the basis of their physical
properties and chemical properties.
Matter is made up of millions of tiny particles. These particles are so small that they are not
visible to unaided eye. Particles of matter possess kinetic energy due to which they move
continuously. High temperature increases kinetic energy. Kinetic energy of particles is least in
the solids, in liquids more than solids and in gases the maximum. Force acting between particles
of matter keep the particles together i.e particles of matter attract each other because of this force
of attraction. The strength of this force is maximum in solids and least in gases. This force
decreases with increase in distance between the particles. Solids consist of tightly packed
particles, very close to each other, hence solids have high force of attraction. In gases, particles
are very far from each other, hence lowest force of attraction between the particles.
Order of inter spaces between particles
Highest Lowest
Gases > Liquids > Solids
Order of force of attraction between particles
Highest Lowest
Solids > Liquids > Gases
Order of kinetic energy of particles
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Highest Lowest
Gases > Liquids > Solids
States of matter arises due to the variation in the characteristics of the particles of matter. Matter
exists in three different states which are as follows:
1) Solid
2) Liquid
3) Gas
Comparison of properties of three states of matter
SOLIDS
LIQUIDS
GAS
fixed shape and fixed
volume
fixed volume but no fixed
shape
neither fixed shape nor
fixed volume
negligibly compressible
Have negligibly
compressible
Highly compressible
High density
Less density than solids
Very low density
Solids do not diffuse into
one another
Liquids can easily diffuse in
liquids
Gases can also diffuse in
one another
We know that gases exert pressure. We fill air in our car tyres and we check pressure created
after filling the air in tyre but why gases exert pressure?
Answer to this question is based on very simple fact. In the gaseous state, the particles move
about randomly at high speed. Due to this random movement, the particles collide with each
other and also with the walls of tyre. The pressure exerted by the gas is because of this force
exerted by gas particles on the walls of the tyre.
We have seen that three states of matter and we are also familiar of the fact that matter can
change its state.
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