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URP3002: Introduction To Law (For Planners)
Bachelor of Science in Urban & Regional Planning
University of Technology, Jamaica
Study guide, definitions & notes
OVERVIEW BREAKDOWN
What is Law
Types of Law/Categories of Law
Sources of Law
Common law courts develop rights in:
Property
Torts
Contracts
Mechanisms for transferring land rights:
Easements
Covenants
Zoning
Power of Eminent Domain
Zoning Ordinance - Development Order
Zoning Restrictions
Zoning Problems
Spot Zoning
Variances
Smart Growth - How we organize and govern land use and development
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Related Case - US Supreme Court decisions:
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 US. 365 (1926)
Additional Info
Showing Page:
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What is Law?
Law is a body of rules enacted by public officials in a legitimate manner and
backed by the force of the state.
Law regulates the public and private institutions that are essential in our
lives. It has many meanings and is difficult to design.
The definition of law does not necessarily involve justice: the fairness in
treatment by the law.
Justice is used in 3 ways:
1. Justice is winning, the end result of the case.
2. Achieving the desired results good vs bad
3. Justice is equated with normal values [for example, the right to
education]
Sources of Law:
Constitution
Statutes
Case Law (used as reference)
Courts
Functions of Law:
Maintain social control
Resolve disputes
Protect citizens rights, provides justice
Types of Law/Categories of Law
1. Common Law
2. Civil Law
3. Criminal Law
4. Statute Law
5. Private Law
6. Public Law
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Civil vs Common Law
Common Law
- Widest used form of law.
- English legal system
-Traces its roots to medieval England. 1066 Norman conquest [one rule
being applied to the whole country]
- Viewed as general law as opposed to special law. Applied to everyone.
- Source of law: Case law and courts
- Equity - fair dealing The refusal of judges to adapt resulted in Equity.
When the British took over Jamaica, the principles of Common Law were
applied. Procedure was applied but not substance of law [ Equity]
- Parties call witness
- Parties responsibility to define the issue.
- Neutral and passive with decision making.
- Judge rule according to law [independent]
- Common law defines such felonies as crimes committed against another
person or property.
Development of a system of law from the judicial system.
Precedent is key as it deals with Common Law.
Precedent - central part of Common Law
Precedent - court decision that serves as authority for deciding a similar
question of law in a later case.
“Stare Decisis” let the decision stand
Judges own views (opinion)
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Civil Law/Roman Law/Continental Law
-The oldest form of law in the world.
-Starts with a written code (compilation of different laws) It expresses the
rules of laws as general principles. It provides answers for all disputes.
-Judges, not lawyers dominate the civil proceedings (for example, a judge
calls the witness, cross examines.
-Judges are not practicing lawyers.
Case Method of Law:
Judges make law [key character]
Precedent - unless Parliament says otherwise
Rules and Regulations
Body of statutory law referred to Privy Council
Civil vs Criminal Law
Law is an adversarial [defendant and plaintiff]
Civil Law - Judge and panel do the questioning. Lawyers just draft
questions.
Civil Law - Judge acts
Civil Law
The relationship between individual citizens settling arguments.
Need to prove case on the balance of probabilities
Criminal Law
Need to prove a case beyond a reasonable doubt.
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Statute Law
Statutes are the laws enacted by Parliament. A law made by Parliament
(state or Commonwealth).
Legislation created by government [ For example Sale of Goods Act 1979 ]
Public vs Private Law
Private Law
Private law governs the relationship between private citizens. It looks at the
relationship between people in business transactions.
- Law of Contract
- Law of Tort
Public Law
Public law looks at the relationship between government organizations and
ordinary citizens.
- Constitutional Law
- Administrative Law
- Criminal Law
Federal System
National law and applies to everyone limited in geographic area.
The Constitution is the most important.
Administrative Law - for example NEPA (zoning regulation)
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CHINA
- Legal system looks at civil law systems
- Written laws and codes very important in Chinese history - Qin
Dynasty
- European influences 19th and 20th centuries
- View legislation more important than case law (not source of law)
- The Statute made by the National People's Congress has the highest
authority.
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Common Law courts develop rights in:
Property
Torts
Contracts
Property
Strict Liability
Classification
A. By Character of Property
Real vs Personal Property
Tangible vs Intangible
B. Scope (extent) of Interest
Complete vs Limited
C. Temporal Classification
Present vs Future
Unlimited duration vs Limited duration
D. By Character of Owner
Private vs Public
Corporate vs Individual
Origins of Property
Occupation
Natural Law (Aquinos)
Labour (Locke)
Legal Construct (Betham)
Ownership of Property - All rights reserved to you
Doctrine of Tenures - originated from Feudalism
Colonial Land Administration
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Tenancy
The term tenant describes a person who rents or leases a piece of
property. Tenancy in relation to Tenancy in Common and Joint Tenancy
(concurrent estates) is a co-owner of real property.
Joint Tenancy
In estate law, joint tenancy is a special form of ownership by two or more
persons of the same property. The individuals who are called joint tenants
share equal undivided right to keep or dispose of the property.
Joint Tenancy creates a Right of Survivorship. This right provides that if
any one of the joint tenants dies, the remainder of the property is
transferred to the survivors.
Joint tenants usually share ownership of land, but the property may instead
be money or other items.
4 Main Features of this type of ownership
1. The joint tenants own an undivided interest in the property as a
whole. Each share is equal and no one joint tenant can ever have a
larger share.
2. The estates of the joint tenants are vested (fixed and unalterable by
any condition) for exactly the same period of time in this case, the
tenants lifetime.
3. The joint tenants hold their property under the same title.
4. The joint tenants all enjoy the same rights until one of them dies.
If one joint tenant decides to convey his/her interest in the property to a
new owner, the joint tenancy is broken and the new owner has a Tenancy
in Common.
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Tenancy in Common
This is a specific type of simultaneous ownership of real property by two or
more parties.
All tenants in common hold an individual interest in the property. This
means that each party has the right to alienate or transfer the ownership of
her/his interest. This can be done by deed, will or other conveyance
(Operation of Law).
Tenants in common may hold unequal interests. Tenants in Common may
acquire their interests from different instruments.
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Torts
Tort - civil wrong
Foreseeability of a reasonable man
Negligence
A civil wrong for which a remedy may be obtained in the form of damages;
a breach of duty that law imposes.
Prove It
Duty - legal obligation
Breach of Duty - violation
Causation - cause in fact to proximate cause
Damages - Physical harm (monetary)
Reasonable Person
Legal fiction
Consider how likely harm is to occur.
Consider how serious harm would be if it occured.
Burden involved in avoiding the harm.
Circumstances
Defendant’s physical characteristics
Physical disabilities
Defendant acted during emergency
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Contracts
Contract - agreement between two or more parties enforceable at law.
Elements of a Contract
Offer
Acceptance
Consideration - value
Privity
Intention to create legal relationships - both parties must intend
Offer - a definite promise/ proposal made by the offeror to offeree
Counter Offer - rejection made by offer
Termination of Offer
By acceptance
By rejection (counter offer)
By revocation
Lapse of time
Death of offeror/offeree
Invitation to Offer/Threat - Proposal before actual offer
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Mechanisms for transferring land rights:
Easements
Covenants
Easements
Easement - defined as the right to use land. Profit right to take from your
land for another benefit. [Rights and Interest in land]
Nature/Types of Easements
1. Creation by Express Act
2. Implied from prior use/Implied
3. Easement Implied from Plat [map of a subdivision]/ Easement by
Necessity
4. Easement by Prescription [ Adverse Possession]
When not in writing and no agreement, action still continuously done
(this person has the right to tear down)
- Actual
- Hostile [will use whether or not agree]
- Open [ everyone knows]
- Exclusive [ only way to get to land]
- Notorious [ no agreement, ask to stop and refuse]
5. Creation by Estoppel/Part Performance
* Servient Estate - the land on which the easement is.
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Covenants
Covenant is an agreement between two persons and a promise contained
in such agreement. A promise to do or refrain from something.
For example, set in subdivision: only one story houses and certain
setbacks
Types of Covenants
1. Real Covenants - deals with real estate - must be written
2. Equitable Restrictions - does not have to be written [ In subdivisions -
Implied reciprocal servitude]
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Zoning
Zoning - Control of the use of land exercised by the planning authority/The
public regulation of land and building use to control the character of a
place. Define and restrict use of property.
Power of Eminent Domain
The right to take private property for public use without their consent.
Euclid v Ambler Realty Co.
Set the foundation for zoning. Ie Constitution for government to zone land
for a particular use.
Search: Village of Euclid v Ambler Realty Co - This case sets the
foundation for zoning. It establishes the validity of zoning. Most zoning
plans are called euclidial plans.
Zoning Ordinance - Development Order
Search: Belle Terre v Boraas
A system of land use regulation exercised by local government and is
referred to as Zoning Planning.
Purpose of Zoning:
To segregate uses that are thought to be incompatible.
Used as a permitting system to prevent new development from harming
existing residences and businesses.
Approaches taken to Zoning:
Euclidean
Performance
Incentive
Design based
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Why Zoning is Important:
Zoning laws used in real estate development.
Zoning use is not compatible with another use.
Application to get variance changed is a different process.
Zoning Restrictions:
Use requirements refer to how property can be used
Residential (R1 -single, R2 - 6 stories, 12 stories)
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture (A1 acre ve A3 100 acre)
Recreation (no classification)
Use Restrictions
Height and size of build
Proximity to one another
What percentage of the of a building lot may contain structure (only
25% of lot structure)
Kinds of facilities included with certain use e.g handicap areas.
Bulk Requirements
Minimum lot size requirements if any. For example, one can’t have a
lot that is less than 1 acre.
The Square feet of space which a building provides.
Requirements of a zoning ordinance refer to the distance between the front
and back property lines and the distance from the side property lines.
Subdivision: land divided up into legal parcels. Include requirements that a
developer prepare a site plan/subdivision map which is a comprehensive
map.
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Zoning Problems
Non conforming Uses - does not comply with zoning ordinance.
Amortization
Way to limit non conforming uses Given and period of time for a person to
change the use. (division of Planning Authority_
Conditional use - use permitted under a zoning ordinance must be met with
certain conditions.
Variances
Variances - Approved uses of land outside the scope of an area zoning/An
exception made to the zoning rules for a specific property in a zoning area.
Spot Zoning - land use plans and zoning ordinance contain restrictions on
land use.
Urbanization
Read further - www.planning.org
https://www.planning.org/zoningpractice/
Urban Decay
Urban renewal -
Robert Noses - History of Urban Renewal
- eg. Inner city housing program
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Smart Growth
How we organize and govern land use and development
Smart Growth: Smart Growth is an urban planning and transportation
theory that concentrates growth in the centre of a city to avoid urban
sprawl. Smart Growth is a planned development that is intended to help
protect open space and farm land, revitalize existing communities, maintain
affordable housing and provide a variety of transportation choices.
[ https://www.nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/anr/agriassist/smartgrowth.html ]
Bullard and Johnson 1997 - Conservation Law Foundation 1998
This is where tax subsidies for urban sprawl were given through new roads
and highways at the expense of public transit. Tax subsidies made it
possible for new suburban employment centers to become dominant
outside of cities and to pull middle income workers and home owners from
the urban core. (Schmidt 1998)
Read further: https://www.usf.edu/arts-
sciences/departments/economics/documents/jrs-48-3-2008.pdf
Read Further:
West Coast Environmental Law
The Smart Growth Guide To Local Government Law and Advocacy
A Project of the Institute for New Economics and Smart Growth British
Columbia
By Linda Nowlan, Chris Rolfe, and Kathy Grant
Link:https://www.wcel.org/sites/default/files/publications/The%20Smart%20
Growth%20Guide%20to%20Local%20Government%20Law%20and%20Ad
vocacy.pdf
Cases to the Supreme Court: BURG Fights for Smart Growth
http://www.collegiatetimes.com/news/burg-fights-for-smart-
growth/article_60fe575d-7e3b-55e1-a934-600b9b00d52f.html
Related Case - US Supreme Court decisions:
Showing Page:
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19
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 US. 365 (1926)
Concerned over urban sprawl from fast growing industrial Cleveland,
suburban Euclid enacted a zoning plan that created multiple residential
districts while restricting building use and size in various districts.
A real estate company challenged the zoning because its vacant property
was transferred from industrial to residential. Under the city’s new zoning
ordinance the property decreased 75% in value.
The court held that zoning was a valid use of police power not violating the
constitutional protection of property rights.
Read Further:
https://vnrc.org/smart-growth/smart-growth-principles/
https://vnrc.org/smart-growth/
Additional Info:
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NOTES:
Planned Unit Development - PUD
PUD is both a type of building development as well as a regulatory
process.
It is a designed grouping of varied and compatible land uses
[housing,recreation, commercial] etc all within one contained
development/subdivision.
PUD is a means of land regulation (for example, the clustering of
residential land uses providing public and common open space.
Branches of Government :
1. Judicial: involves legal system, settling of disputes
2. Legislative: determine rules that will govern the process of the legal
system
3. Executive: ensure parties submit to adjudication

Unformatted Attachment Preview

URP3002: Introduction To Law (For Planners) Bachelor of Science in Urban & Regional Planning University of Technology, Jamaica Study guide, definitions & notes OVERVIEW BREAKDOWN What is Law Types of Law/Categories of Law Sources of Law Common law courts develop rights in: ● Property ● Torts ● Contracts Mechanisms for transferring land rights: ● Easements ● Covenants Zoning ● Power of Eminent Domain ● Zoning Ordinance - Development Order ● Zoning Restrictions ● Zoning Problems ● Spot Zoning Variances Smart Growth - How we organize and govern land use and development 1 Related Case - US Supreme Court decisions: Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 US. 365 (1926) Additional Info 2 What is Law? Law is a body of rules enacted by public officials in a legitimate manner and backed by the force of the state. Law regulates the public and private institutions that are essential in our lives. It has many meanings and is difficult to design. The definition of law does not necessarily involve justice: the fairness in treatment by the law. Justice is used in 3 ways: 1. Justice is winning, the end result of the case. 2. Achieving the desired results good vs bad 3. Justice is equated with normal values [for example, the right to education] Sources of Law: Constitution Statutes Case Law (used as reference) Courts Functions of Law: Maintain social control Resolve disputes Protect citizens rights, provides justice Types of Law/Categories of Law 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Common Law Civil Law Criminal Law Statute Law Private Law Public Law 3 Civil vs Common Law Common Law - Widest used form of law. - English legal system -Traces its roots to medieval England. 1066 Norman conquest [one rule being applied to the whole country] - Viewed as general law as opposed to special law. Applied to everyone. - Source of law: Case law and courts - Equity - fair dealing The refusal of judges to adapt resulted in Equity. When the British took over Jamaica, the principles of Common Law were applied. Procedure was applied but not substance of law [ Equity] - Parties call witness - Parties responsibility to define the issue. - Neutral and passive with decision making. - Judge rule according to law [independent] - Common law defines such felonies as crimes committed against another person or property. Development of a system of law from the judicial system. Precedent is key as it deals with Common Law. Precedent - central part of Common Law Precedent - court decision that serves as authority for deciding a similar question of law in a later case. “Stare Decisis” let the decision stand Judges own views (opinion) 4 Civil Law/Roman Law/Continental Law -The oldest form of law in the world. -Starts with a written code (compilation of different laws) It expresses the rules of laws as general principles. It provides answers for all disputes. -Judges, not lawyers dominate the civil proceedings (for example, a judge calls the witness, cross examines. -Judges are not practicing lawyers. Case Method of Law: Judges make law [key character] Precedent - unless Parliament says otherwise Rules and Regulations Body of statutory law referred to Privy Council Civil vs Criminal Law Law is an adversarial [defendant and plaintiff] Civil Law - Judge and panel do the questioning. Lawyers just draft questions. Civil Law - Judge acts Civil Law The relationship between individual citizens settling arguments. Need to prove case on the balance of probabilities Criminal Law Need to prove a case beyond a reasonable doubt. 5 Statute Law Statutes are the laws enacted by Parliament. A law made by Parliament (state or Commonwealth). Legislation created by government [ For example Sale of Goods Act 1979 ] Public vs Private Law Private Law Private law governs the relationship between private citizens. It looks at the relationship between people in business transactions. - Law of Contract - Law of Tort Public Law Public law looks at the relationship between government organizations and ordinary citizens. - Constitutional Law - Administrative Law - Criminal Law Federal System National law and applies to everyone limited in geographic area. The Constitution is the most important. Administrative Law - for example NEPA (zoning regulation) 6 CHINA - Legal system looks at civil law systems - Written laws and codes very important in Chinese history - Qin Dynasty - European influences 19th and 20th centuries - View legislation more important than case law (not source of law) - The Statute made by the National People's Congress has the highest authority. 7 Common Law courts develop rights in: ● Property ● Torts ● Contracts Property Strict Liability Classification A. By Character of Property Real vs Personal Property Tangible vs Intangible B. Scope (extent) of Interest Complete vs Limited C. Temporal Classification Present vs Future Unlimited duration vs Limited duration D. By Character of Owner Private vs Public Corporate vs Individual Origins of Property – Occupation – Natural Law (Aquinos) – Labour (Locke) – Legal Construct (Betham) Ownership of Property - All rights reserved to you Doctrine of Tenures - originated from Feudalism Colonial Land Administration 8 Tenancy The term tenant describes a person who rents or leases a piece of property. Tenancy in relation to Tenancy in Common and Joint Tenancy (concurrent estates) is a co-owner of real property. Joint Tenancy In estate law, joint tenancy is a special form of ownership by two or more persons of the same property. The individuals who are called joint tenants share equal undivided right to keep or dispose of the property. Joint Tenancy creates a Right of Survivorship. This right provides that if any one of the joint tenants dies, the remainder of the property is transferred to the survivors. Joint tenants usually share ownership of land, but the property may instead be money or other items. 4 Main Features of this type of ownership 1. The joint tenants own an undivided interest in the property as a whole. Each share is equal and no one joint tenant can ever have a larger share. 2. The estates of the joint tenants are vested (fixed and unalterable by any condition) for exactly the same period of time in this case, the tenants lifetime. 3. The joint tenants hold their property under the same title. 4. The joint tenants all enjoy the same rights until one of them dies. If one joint tenant decides to convey his/her interest in the property to a new owner, the joint tenancy is broken and the new owner has a Tenancy in Common. 9 Tenancy in Common This is a specific type of simultaneous ownership of real property by two or more parties. All tenants in common hold an individual interest in the property. This means that each party has the right to alienate or transfer the ownership of her/his interest. This can be done by deed, will or other conveyance (Operation of Law). Tenants in common may hold unequal interests. Tenants in Common may acquire their interests from different instruments. 10 Torts Tort - civil wrong Foreseeability of a reasonable man Negligence A civil wrong for which a remedy may be obtained in the form of damages; a breach of duty that law imposes. Prove It Duty - legal obligation Breach of Duty - violation Causation - cause in fact to proximate cause Damages - Physical harm (monetary) Reasonable Person Legal fiction Consider how likely harm is to occur. Consider how serious harm would be if it occured. Burden involved in avoiding the harm. Circumstances Defendant’s physical characteristics Physical disabilities Defendant acted during emergency 11 Contracts Contract - agreement between two or more parties enforceable at law. Elements of a Contract Offer Acceptance Consideration - value Privity Intention to create legal relationships - both parties must intend Offer - a definite promise/ proposal made by the offeror to offeree Counter Offer - rejection made by offer Termination of Offer By acceptance By rejection (counter offer) By revocation Lapse of time Death of offeror/offeree Invitation to Offer/Threat - Proposal before actual offer 12 Mechanisms for transferring land rights: Easements Covenants Easements Easement - defined as the right to use land. Profit right to take from your land for another benefit. [Rights and Interest in land] Nature/Types of Easements 1. Creation by Express Act 2. Implied from prior use/Implied 3. Easement Implied from Plat [map of a subdivision]/ Easement by Necessity 4. Easement by Prescription [ Adverse Possession] When not in writing and no agreement, action still continuously done (this person has the right to tear down) - Actual - Hostile [will use whether or not agree] - Open [ everyone knows] - Exclusive [ only way to get to land] - Notorious [ no agreement, ask to stop and refuse] 5. Creation by Estoppel/Part Performance * Servient Estate - the land on which the easement is. 13 Covenants Covenant is an agreement between two persons and a promise contained in such agreement. A promise to do or refrain from something. For example, set in subdivision: only one story houses and certain setbacks Types of Covenants 1. Real Covenants - deals with real estate - must be written 2. Equitable Restrictions - does not have to be written [ In subdivisions Implied reciprocal servitude] 14 Zoning Zoning - Control of the use of land exercised by the planning authority/The public regulation of land and building use to control the character of a place. Define and restrict use of property. Power of Eminent Domain The right to take private property for public use without their consent. Euclid v Ambler Realty Co. Set the foundation for zoning. Ie Constitution for government to zone land for a particular use. Search: Village of Euclid v Ambler Realty Co - This case sets the foundation for zoning. It establishes the validity of zoning. Most zoning plans are called euclidial plans. Zoning Ordinance - Development Order Search: Belle Terre v Boraas A system of land use regulation exercised by local government and is referred to as Zoning Planning. Purpose of Zoning: To segregate uses that are thought to be incompatible. Used as a permitting system to prevent new development from harming existing residences and businesses. Approaches taken to Zoning: Euclidean Performance Incentive Design based 15 Why Zoning is Important: ● Zoning laws used in real estate development. ● Zoning use is not compatible with another use. ● Application to get variance changed is a different process. Zoning Restrictions: ● Use requirements refer to how property can be used ● Residential (R1 -single, R2 - 6 stories, 12 stories) ● Commercial ● Industrial ● Agriculture (A1 acre ve A3 100 acre) ● Recreation (no classification) Use Restrictions ● Height and size of build ● Proximity to one another ● What percentage of the of a building lot may contain structure (only 25% of lot structure) ● Kinds of facilities included with certain use e.g handicap areas. Bulk Requirements ● Minimum lot size requirements if any. For example, one can’t have a lot that is less than 1 acre. ● The Square feet of space which a building provides. Requirements of a zoning ordinance refer to the distance between the front and back property lines and the distance from the side property lines. Subdivision: land divided up into legal parcels. Include requirements that a developer prepare a site plan/subdivision map which is a comprehensive map. 16 Zoning Problems Non conforming Uses - does not comply with zoning ordinance. Amortization Way to limit non conforming uses Given and period of time for a person to change the use. (division of Planning Authority_ Conditional use - use permitted under a zoning ordinance must be met with certain conditions. Variances Variances - Approved uses of land outside the scope of an area zoning/An exception made to the zoning rules for a specific property in a zoning area. Spot Zoning - land use plans and zoning ordinance contain restrictions on land use. Urbanization Read further - www.planning.org https://www.planning.org/zoningpractice/ Urban Decay Urban renewal Robert Noses - History of Urban Renewal - eg. Inner city housing program 17 Smart Growth How we organize and govern land use and development Smart Growth: Smart Growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in the centre of a city to avoid urban sprawl. Smart Growth is a planned development that is intended to help protect open space and farm land, revitalize existing communities, maintain affordable housing and provide a variety of transportation choices. [ https://www.nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/anr/agriassist/smartgrowth.html ] Bullard and Johnson 1997 - Conservation Law Foundation 1998 This is where tax subsidies for urban sprawl were given through new roads and highways at the expense of public transit. Tax subsidies made it possible for new suburban employment centers to become dominant outside of cities and to pull middle income workers and home owners from the urban core. (Schmidt 1998) Read further: https://www.usf.edu/artssciences/departments/economics/documents/jrs-48-3-2008.pdf Read Further: West Coast Environmental Law The Smart Growth Guide To Local Government Law and Advocacy A Project of the Institute for New Economics and Smart Growth British Columbia By Linda Nowlan, Chris Rolfe, and Kathy Grant Link:https://www.wcel.org/sites/default/files/publications/The%20Smart%20 Growth%20Guide%20to%20Local%20Government%20Law%20and%20Ad vocacy.pdf Cases to the Supreme Court: BURG Fights for Smart Growth http://www.collegiatetimes.com/news/burg-fights-for-smartgrowth/article_60fe575d-7e3b-55e1-a934-600b9b00d52f.html Related Case - US Supreme Court decisions: 18 Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 US. 365 (1926) Concerned over urban sprawl from fast growing industrial Cleveland, suburban Euclid enacted a zoning plan that created multiple residential districts while restricting building use and size in various districts. A real estate company challenged the zoning because its vacant property was transferred from industrial to residential. Under the city’s new zoning ordinance the property decreased 75% in value. The court held that zoning was a valid use of police power not violating the constitutional protection of property rights. Read Further: https://vnrc.org/smart-growth/smart-growth-principles/ https://vnrc.org/smart-growth/ Additional Info: 19 NOTES: Planned Unit Development - PUD PUD is both a type of building development as well as a regulatory process. It is a designed grouping of varied and compatible land uses [housing,recreation, commercial] etc all within one contained development/subdivision. PUD is a means of land regulation (for example, the clustering of residential land uses providing public and common open space. Branches of Government : 1. Judicial: involves legal system, settling of disputes 2. Legislative: determine rules that will govern the process of the legal system 3. Executive: ensure parties submit to adjudication 20 Name: Description: ...
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