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Assignment Title:
Domestication of Animal in Mehrgarh and
Terracotta figurines in the Indus valley Civilization
Submitted to Dr. Muhammad Ashraf khan
Submitted by Muhammad Mubasher
M.phil first semester
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Introduction
Pakistan is witnessed with the earliest domestication of various animals
in South Asia. The earliest evidence of domestication we have found at
Mehrgarh in Baluchistan during excavation. Mehrgarh is a large
Neolithic and Chalcolithic site located at the foot of the Bolan pass on
the Kachi plain of Baluchistan in pakistan. Continuously occupied
between about 7000 to 2600 BC, Mehrgarh is the earliest known
Neolithic site in the northwest Indian subcontinent, with early evidence
of farming wheat and barley, herding cattle, sheep, and goats and
metallurg. The site is located on the principal route between what is
now Afghanistan and the Indus Valley. This route was also undoubtedly
part of a trading connection established quite early between the Near
East and the Indian subcontinent.
Chronology
Mehrgarh's importance to understanding the Indus Valley is its nearly
unparalleled preservation of pre-Indus societies.
Aceramic Neolithic founding 7000 to 5500 BC
Neolithic Period II 5500 to 4800
Chalcolithic Period III 4800 to 3500
Chalcolithic Period IV, 3500 to 3250 BC
Chalcolithic V 3250 to 3000
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Chalcolithic VI 3000 to 2800
Chalcolithic VII-Early Bronze Age 2800 to 2600
Plant foods used during this period included domesticated and wild six-
rowed barley, domestic einkorn and emmer wheat, and wild Indian
jujube and date palms. Sheep, goats, and cattle were herded at
Mehrgarh beginning during this early period. Hunted animals include
gazelle, swamp deer, nilgai, blackbuck onager, chital, water buffalo,
wild pig and elephant.
The earliest residences at Mehrgarh were freestanding, multi-roomed
rectangular houses built with long, cigar-shaped and mortared
mudbrickS. These structures are very similar to Prepottery Neolithic
hunter-gatherers in early 7th millennium Mesopotamia. Burials were
placed in brick-lined tombs, accompanied by shell and turquoise beads.
Even at this early date, the similarities of crafts, architecture, and
agricultural and funera. TShe first managed or domesticated bovid in
northwestern South Asia was the goat, evidence for which comes from
the earliest levels at the site of Mehrgarh located at the foot of the
Bolan Pass in eastern Balochistan. An extensive Aceramic Neolithic
occupation is represented by over six metres. The phylogeography and
evolutionary history of different sheep is more complicated than for
goats. The wild sheep found today in the mountains of eastern
Balochistan is the urial a species with a chromosome numbe that
differs from that of the Asiatic mouflon. In spite of such long recognized
cytogenetic differences, only recently have debates about relationships
between wild sheep been clarified by DNA, Y- chromosome, and
autosomal studies of modern forms, with the urial and mouflon seen
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as having diverged deep in the past. Although genetic relationships
between wild and domestic forms remain less well understood
practices indicate some sort of connection between Mehrgarh and
Mesopotamia. The first managed or domesticated bovid in
northwestern South Asia was the goat, evidence for which comes from
the earliest levels at the site of Mehrgarh located at the foot of the
Bolan Pass in eastern Balochistan. An extensive Aceramic Neolithic
occupation is represented by over six metres
The phylogeography and evolutionary history of different sheep is
more complicated than for goats. The wild sheep found today in the
mountains of eastern Balochistan is the urial, a species with a
chromosome number. that differs from that of the Asiatic mouflon. In
spite of such long recognized cytogenetic differences, only recently
have debates about relationships between wild sheep been clarified
by DNA, Y- chromosome, and autosomal studies of modern forms,
with the urial and mouflon seen as having diverged deep in the pas.
Although genetic relationships between wild and domestic forms
remain less well understood than for goats, researchers generally agree
that one or more mouflon population within their range of distribution
in western Asia provided the original ancestors for modern domestic
sheep. Nevertheless, animals of another species of sheep might have
been managed or even domesticated in another region. The domestic
water buffalo is another important large bovine of South and Southeast
Asia that continues to have a major impact on the economies of the
region and beyond. Two forms have been morphologically and
genetically differentiated the river buffalo of much of South Asia and
the swamp buffalo in northeastern India.
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Animal domestication was a complex process of developing human
animal relationships and behaviours that varied according to the animal
form and the human population involved under specific circumstances
at any given time and in any given place. In the preceding pages, we
have highlighted some of these complexities by exploring aspects of
the archaeological, zooarchaeological, and genetic evidence for the
domestication of goat, sheep, zebu cattle, and water buffalo in
northwestern South Asia.
Terracotta figurine of Indus Valley Civilization
Terracotta means the use of fire baked clay for making sculptures.
Pinching Method was used to make these figures.The beginning of
terracotta production in South Asia can be traced to the aceramic or
pre-pottery levels of the site of Mehrgarh in Baluchistan, Pakistan,
dated to around 8th-7th millennium BCE. The earliest terracottas were
crude handmade unbaked clay figurines. The transition to baked clay or
terracotta can be seen from the later layers of occupation at the site of
Mehrgarh itself, dated to c. 5th millennium BCE. The Harappan
terracottas can genealogically be placed within a larger ambit of
terracotta production and the products of the period of the First
Urbanization continued some earlier trends of manufacture and usage
and simultaneously produced unique and typically Harappan forms
The Indus Valley people made terracotta images also but compared to
the stone and bronze statues the terracotta representations of human
form are crude in the Indus Valley. They are more realistic in Gujarat
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sites and Kalibangan. The most important among the Indus figures are
those representing the mother goddess.
It was used by the poor class to make toys, animal figures and
miniature carts and wheels etc. Cultures pre-dating and sometimes
contemporary with the Harappan culture from the same larger
geographical zone such as Mehrgarh, Zhob, and Kulli cultures in
Baluchistan; Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan sites in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and relevant finds from Jalilpur, Sarai Khola and Harappa in Punjab
have yielded a plethora of figurine types. These figurines vary in form.
The Kulli figurines end at the waist and are described as having a
‘scared hen’ like appearance whereas the Zhob figurines are
pedestalled and have a fierce skull-like countenance. The earliest
terracotta finds from Lewan in Bannu are seated, with elongated stick
shaped heads, raised arms and well modelled busts. Terracotta human
heads from Sheri Khan Tarakai are all roughly cylindrical with
prominent pinched noses. Three individual terracotta figurine
fragments were thought to be noteworthy a horned deity type, snake
goddess and a hermaphroditic figurine. The Gumla terracotta finds are
divided on the basis of legs, bent or straight and those holding a tray.
The excavator, A.H. Dani suggested that the later terracotta figurines
could be a seated figurine or a standing cobra. The pre-Harappan
assemblage from the Punjab sites has been compared to material from
Gumla and Sarai Khola and those, especially from Harappa, have been
delineated on the basis of manufacturing techniques employed and
ornamentation applied
The Mother Goddess Figure;
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The most important terracotta figure in the Indus Valley Civilization is
the figure of Mother Goddess. This figure is crude standing female
adorned with necklaces hanging over prominent breasts and wearing a
loin cloth and a girdle.This mother doddess was unearthed during
excavation at Mohenjo Daro. It is a figure of a standing female wearing
a necklace and a fan-shaped headgear. It was probably worshipped
The terracotta figurines had a universal popularity in the ancient world
and Harappan culture was no exception to this. There are plenty of
terracotta seals and figurines recovered from Harappan sites which
range from
toys to cult objects such as mother goddess to birds and animals ,
including monkeys, dogs, sheep, cattle-both humped and humpless
bullsThe terracotta figurines of Indus Valley were modelled with great
details of eyes, hand and neck. However, terracotta images are inferior
in depiction of the human forms in comparison to the copper and
bronze images of the Indus Valley. Among the human figurines, the
female were more common. The head dress in such figurines is more
elaborate
The most distinct feature of the mother goddess figurines is a fan-
shaped head-dress with a cup-like projection on each side. Rest of the
facial figures are very crude and distant from being realistic.
The end

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Assignment Title: Domestication of Animal in Mehrgarh and Terracotta figurines in the Indus valley Civilization Submitted to Dr. Muhammad Ashraf khan Submitted by Muhammad Mubasher M.phil first semester Introduction Pakistan is witnessed with the earliest domestication of various animals in South Asia. The earliest evidence of domestication we have found at Mehrgarh in Baluchistan during excavation. Mehrgarh is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic site located at the foot of the Bolan pass on the Kachi plain of Baluchistan in pakistan. Continuously occupied between about 7000 to 2600 BC, Mehrgarh is the earliest known Neolithic site in the northwest Indian subcontinent, with early evidence of farming wheat and barley, herding cattle, sheep, and goats and metallurg. The site is located on the principal route between what is now Afghanistan and the Indus Valley. This route was also undoubtedly part of a trading connection established quite early between the Near East and the Indian subcontinent. Chronology Mehrgarh's importance to understanding the Indus Valley is its nearly unparalleled preservation of pre-Indus societies. Aceramic Neolithic founding 7000 to 5500 BC Neolithic Period II 5500 to 4800 Chalcolithic Period III 4800 to 3500 Chalcolithic Period IV, 3500 to 3250 BC Chalcolithic V 3250 to 3000 Chalcolithic VI 3000 to 2800 Chalcolithic VII-Early Bronze Age 2800 to 2600 Plant foods used during this period included domesticated and wild sixrowed barley, domestic einkorn and emmer wheat, and wild Indian jujube and date palms. Sheep, goats, and cattle were herded at Mehrgarh beginning during this early period. Hunted animals include gazelle, swamp deer, nilgai, blackbuck onager, chital, water buffalo, wild pig and elephant. The earliest residences at Mehrgarh were freestanding, multi-roomed rectangular houses built with long, cigar-shaped and mortared mudbrickS. These structures are very similar to Prepottery Neolithic hunter-gatherers in early 7th millennium Mesopotamia. Burials were placed in brick-lined tombs, accompanied by shell and turquoise beads. Even at this early date, the similarities of crafts, architecture, and agricultural and funera. TShe first managed or domesticated bovid in northwestern South Asia was the goat, evidence for which comes from the earliest levels at the site of Mehrgarh located at the foot of the Bolan Pass in eastern Balochistan. An extensive Aceramic Neolithic occupation is represented by over six metres. The phylogeography and evolutionary history of different sheep is more complicated than for goats. The wild sheep found today in the mountains of eastern Balochistan is the urial a species with a chromosome numbe that differs from that of the Asiatic mouflon. In spite of such long recognized cytogenetic differences, only recently have debates about relationships between wild sheep been clarified by DNA, Y- chromosome, and autosomal studies of modern forms, with the urial and mouflon seen as having diverged deep in the past. Although genetic relationships between wild and domestic forms remain less well understood practices indicate some sort of connection between Mehrgarh and Mesopotamia. The first managed or domesticated bovid in northwestern South Asia was the goat, evidence for which comes from the earliest levels at the site of Mehrgarh located at the foot of the Bolan Pass in eastern Balochistan. An extensive Aceramic Neolithic occupation is represented by over six metres The phylogeography and evolutionary history of different sheep is more complicated than for goats. The wild sheep found today in the mountains of eastern Balochistan is the urial, a species with a chromosome number. that differs from that of the Asiatic mouflon. In spite of such long recognized cytogenetic differences, only recently have debates about relationships between wild sheep been clarified by DNA, Y- chromosome, and autosomal studies of modern forms, with the urial and mouflon seen as having diverged deep in the pas. Although genetic relationships between wild and domestic forms remain less well understood than for goats, researchers generally agree that one or more mouflon population within their range of distribution in western Asia provided the original ancestors for modern domestic sheep. Nevertheless, animals of another species of sheep might have been managed or even domesticated in another region. The domestic water buffalo is another important large bovine of South and Southeast Asia that continues to have a major impact on the economies of the region and beyond. Two forms have been morphologically and genetically differentiated the river buffalo of much of South Asia and the swamp buffalo in northeastern India. Animal domestication was a complex process of developing human– animal relationships and behaviours that varied according to the animal form and the human population involved under specific circumstances at any given time and in any given place. In the preceding pages, we have highlighted some of these complexities by exploring aspects of the archaeological, zooarchaeological, and genetic evidence for the domestication of goat, sheep, zebu cattle, and water buffalo in northwestern South Asia. Terracotta figurine of Indus Valley Civilization Terracotta means the use of fire baked clay for making sculptures. Pinching Method was used to make these figures.The beginning of terracotta production in South Asia can be traced to the aceramic or pre-pottery levels of the site of Mehrgarh in Baluchistan, Pakistan, dated to around 8th-7th millennium BCE. The earliest terracottas were crude handmade unbaked clay figurines. The transition to baked clay or terracotta can be seen from the later layers of occupation at the site of Mehrgarh itself, dated to c. 5th millennium BCE. The Harappan terracottas can genealogically be placed within a larger ambit of terracotta production and the products of the period of the First Urbanization continued some earlier trends of manufacture and usage and simultaneously produced unique and typically Harappan forms The Indus Valley people made terracotta images also but compared to the stone and bronze statues the terracotta representations of human form are crude in the Indus Valley. They are more realistic in Gujarat sites and Kalibangan. The most important among the Indus figures are those representing the mother goddess. It was used by the poor class to make toys, animal figures and miniature carts and wheels etc. Cultures pre-dating and sometimes contemporary with the Harappan culture from the same larger geographical zone – such as Mehrgarh, Zhob, and Kulli cultures in Baluchistan; Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan sites in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and relevant finds from Jalilpur, Sarai Khola and Harappa in Punjab – have yielded a plethora of figurine types. These figurines vary in form. The Kulli figurines end at the waist and are described as having a ‘scared hen’ like appearance whereas the Zhob figurines are pedestalled and have a fierce skull-like countenance. The earliest terracotta finds from Lewan in Bannu are seated, with elongated stick shaped heads, raised arms and well modelled busts. Terracotta human heads from Sheri Khan Tarakai are all roughly cylindrical with prominent pinched noses. Three individual terracotta figurine fragments were thought to be noteworthy – a horned deity type, snake goddess and a hermaphroditic figurine. The Gumla terracotta finds are divided on the basis of legs, bent or straight and those holding a tray. The excavator, A.H. Dani suggested that the later terracotta figurines could be a seated figurine or a standing cobra. The pre-Harappan assemblage from the Punjab sites has been compared to material from Gumla and Sarai Khola and those, especially from Harappa, have been delineated on the basis of manufacturing techniques employed and ornamentation applied The Mother Goddess Figure; The most important terracotta figure in the Indus Valley Civilization is the figure of Mother Goddess. This figure is crude standing female adorned with necklaces hanging over prominent breasts and wearing a loin cloth and a girdle.This mother doddess was unearthed during excavation at Mohenjo Daro. It is a figure of a standing female wearing a necklace and a fan-shaped headgear. It was probably worshipped The terracotta figurines had a universal popularity in the ancient world and Harappan culture was no exception to this. There are plenty of terracotta seals and figurines recovered from Harappan sites which range from toys to cult objects such as mother goddess to birds and animals , including monkeys, dogs, sheep, cattle-both humped and humpless bullsThe terracotta figurines of Indus Valley were modelled with great details of eyes, hand and neck. However, terracotta images are inferior in depiction of the human forms in comparison to the copper and bronze images of the Indus Valley. Among the human figurines, the female were more common. The head dress in such figurines is more elaborate The most distinct feature of the mother goddess figurines is a fanshaped head-dress with a cup-like projection on each side. Rest of the facial figures are very crude and distant from being realistic. The end Name: Description: ...