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Running Head: ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 1
Students Name
Institution Affiliation
Date
Alcohol and its Effects on Liver
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ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 2
The element in beer, wine, and spirits that induces intoxication is alcohol. When yeast
ferments the carbohydrates in various foods, alcohol is produced. Long-term alcohol
consumption poses several health hazards, spanning from increased blood pressure to strokes.
One alcoholic drink takes the body's system around one hour to metabolize. For each beverage,
the time window lengthens (Lorist & Snel, 2013). The amount of time it takes for anyone to
digest alcohol, the higher their blood alcohol level is. At any given time, the liver can only
handle a particular quantity of alcohol. When a person consumes too much alcohol, the drink not
digested by the liver flows into the bloodstream. People become inebriated when the alcohol in
their blood starts to influence their hearts and brain (Lorist & Snel, 2013).
However, this paper will focus on the harmful effects of alcohol on the liver. Chronic
alcoholism destroys liver cells, resulting in liver cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and cellular
mutations resulting in chronic liver cancer (Kojiro, 2001). Excessive drinking is defined as
drinking eight or even more beverages per week for women and fifteen or more for males.
Though, heavy alcohol users may acquire alcoholic cirrhosis before even experiencing hepatitis-
related related symptoms. These disorders commonly advance from fatty liver to alcoholic
hepatitis to scarring. According to University Health Network, the quantity of alcohol considered
safe varies depending on a person's weight, stature, and gender (Kojiro, 2001). Compared to
men, women take more alcohol from every drink, putting them at increased risk of liver
impairment.
The liver can be harmed by drinking 2 to 3 alcoholic beverages every day. Moreover,
binge drinking might damage the liver. Combining alcohol with some other drugs can be
extremely harmful to a person's liver. It is not suggested to combine alcohol and medication at
the same time before even consulting a physician. When taken with some drugs, such as
acetaminophen, it might cause severe liver damage (Kojiro, 2001). Sedatives, antibiotics, pain
relievers, and antidepressants are among the drugs that should not be mixed with alcohol. About
90% of alcohol taken is processed by the liver. The rest of the body's waste is expelled by urine,
sweat, and breathing.
As stated earlier, the liver is responsible for breaking down most of the alcohol consumed
to be eliminated from the body. As a result, compounds that are even more dangerous than
alcohol are created. These compounds have the potential to harm liver cells, resulting in
significant liver disease. Alcohol is responsible for four out of every five deaths due to liver
cirrhosis. The following are liver diseases associated with alcohol: Steatosis, liver inflammation,
cirrhosis, liver failure, and acute alcoholic hepatitis. The most frequent alcoholic condition that
attacks the liver is steatosis, also known as fatty liver. Fat accumulates up in the liver, preventing
it from functioning normally. Chronic steatosis causes liver inflammation, which is also referred
to as alcoholic hepatitis. One might not notice if they have hepatitis because it doesn't show any
symptoms at first. Severe alcoholic hepatitis is a much more severe inflammatory liver condition
that can be fatal (Kojiro, 2001). One in every three people who get acute alcoholic hepatitis dies.
Liver cirrhosis, the main focus of this paper, is the most advanced stage of significant
liver diseases. The molecules that decompose and eliminate scar tissue are altered by alcohol.
Scar tissue forms in the liver as a result of this. The scar tissue takes the place of normal tissues.
This indicates that the liver is unable to function correctly and may eventually fail, resulting in
death. Most persons with liver failure and cirrhosis are unaware of their symptoms until too late.
An individual with cirrhosis caused by alcohol who does not even quit drinking has a much less
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ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 3
than 50% probability of living for another five years. Cirrhosis is diagnosed based on medical
background, medical examination, and medical tests. Blood test results, such as liver function
testing and virus-induced tests, diagnostic imaging, and liver biopsy, are among the tests
available. Liver cirrhosis is not quite the same thing as liver cancer. Cirrhosis, on the other hand,
is present in the majority of persons with liver cancer. Cirrhosis raises the risk of developing
liver cancer. If someone has hepatitis B or C, one is more likely to get liver cancer since cirrhosis
is common in these disorders.
Cirrhosis had a prevalent of around 270 in 100,000 people in the United States by 2015.
Seventy percent of cirrhotic people are now uninformed that they have liver problems and then
go untreated. Cirrhosis is more common in non-Hispanic black people, people living in poverty,
Mexican Americans, and communities with lower literacy levels. Cirrhosis is caused by chronic
and excessive alcohol consumption, accounting for more than half of all cases in the United
States. Cirrhosis has a significant price tag in relation to human misery, hospital bills, and
productivity loss. Hepatocellular carcinoma develops at a rate of about 1 percent to 4 percent
annually in cirrhotic patients (Kojiro, 2001). Alcoholic cirrhosis occurs in 15% of people who
have consumed a large amount of alcohol for more than a decade. As stated earlier, the quantity
of alcohol required to produce cirrhosis varies significantly. Cirrhosis is never a hereditary
disorder. Some of the diseases that cause liver disease and contribute to cirrhosis are, however,
hereditary.
Some of the initial symptoms are exhaustion, fatigue, poor appetite, loss of weight,
vomiting, diarrhea, and irritation in the right upper part of the abdomen. Itching, inflammation in
the legs, fluid build-up in the belly, anemia, easy bruising, and the growth of spider-like blood
capillaries in the skin are all symptoms that might emerge as the disease progresses. The fluid
developed in the abdomen might become contaminated on its own. Hepatic encephalopathy,
bleeding from swollen veins throughout the intestines, esophagus, stomach, and liver cancer are
more significant consequences. Most of these indications may develop due to persistent portal
hypertension or high blood pressure inside the liver's blood circulation.
Cirrhosis can be diagnosed using a variety of laboratory testing to assess the severity and
cause of the condition. Cirrhosis is evaluated with liver function tests, complete blood counts, a
standard metabolic panel, and clotting factors (Kojiro, 2001). When certain syndromes are
suspected, further precise testing for indicators and serum enzymes may be undertaken. Cirrhosis
can be detected early on by lab problems. High serum bilirubin proportion, aberrant
aminotransferase rates, increased alkaline phosphatase, high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase,
and other abnormalities like hyponatremia, thrombocytopenia, and a prolonged prothrombin time
are prevalent.
In patients with cirrhosis, liver function tests on aminotransferases may indeed be
positive. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase are commonly found to be
somewhat high. When it comes to transaminases, aspartate transaminase is more commonly
increased than alanine transaminase. The level of alkaline phosphatase is usually high. The top
limit is generally below 2 to 3 times the lower limit. Individuals with preexisting cholestatic liver
problems may have elevated amounts, like primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing
cholangitis.
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ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 4
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase is non-specific in liver function testing. It has an inverse
correlation with alkaline phosphatase concentrations. It's also more common in people who have
chronic liver damage as a result of drinking. The liver's synthesizing function is reflected in
albumin levels. The prevalence of cirrhosis is graded using serum albumin concentrations.
Hypoalbuminemia is a non-specific symptom of liver illness that can occur in a variety of
conditions, including heart problems, protein-losing enteropathy, malnutrition, and nephrotic
syndrome. Bilirubin levels might well be average or elevated in various liver function tests. The
level of hepatic synthesis function is reflected in prothrombin time (Kojiro, 2001). The extent of
hepatic dysfunction is linked to deteriorating coagulopathy. Hyponatremia, caused by an
inability to eliminate free water, is prevalent in individuals with cirrhosis and ascites. This
problem is indicative of an unfavorable prognosis. Physicians all over the world use the previous
tests to determine how well the liver is working. They are pretty effective for detecting liver-
related issues.
Cirrhosis harm can be mitigated by fixing the core cause or the many problems that
follow if discovered early enough. Cirrhosis cannot be cured, but it can be managed. To remedy
this condition, doctors must first stop the damage to the patient's liver and prevent further
complications (Shah et al., 2016). The physician will tailor the patient's diagnosis based on the
etiology of liver cirrhosis and the severity of the liver problems. While no drug can erase fatty
accumulation, addressing the factors that cause it can help prevent liver injury. Liver damage has
been shown to repair itself in certain situations (Shah et al., 2016). There are currently antiviral
medications for hepatitis that heal the great majority of patients. Antiviral medications are the
drugs that target the hepatitis virus. The kind of hepatitis a patient has determines the drugs they
will receive. Fatigue, headaches, vomiting, and sleep issues are the most prevalent adverse
effects of these medications. If the patient's cirrhosis was triggered by protracted, excessive
alcohol intake, it's also critical that they cease drinking.
In several circumstances, the doctor will prescribe an alcohol addiction therapy program.
The portal vein, which delivers blood to the liver, can get clogged, resulting in elevated blood
pressure inside the portal vein. To lower the rising pressure in other blood arteries, medications
are frequently administered. The goal is to keep the bleeding from getting too bad. An endoscopy
can also be used to detect signs of bleeding. Cirrhosis individuals are at a substantially increased
risk of developing liver cancer. The physician may recommend constant blood examinations and
imaging tests. Cirrhosis can ruin 80% of the liver in certain instances, and this damage is
irreversible. In certain circumstances, the person may demand a new liver transplant (Hamaguchi
& Kaido, 2019). Finding an appropriate donor might take time; therefore, this treatment is
usually only recommended as a last choice.
Individuals with alcoholic liver disease have traditionally been barred from receiving a
liver transplant due to the danger of relapsing into harmful drinking following the procedure. On
the other hand, recent research suggests that persons with acute liver cirrhosis have post-
transplant life expectancies comparable to those of liver transplant patients with some different
kinds of liver problems (Hamaguchi & Kaido, 2019).
In conclusion, Physicians are attempting to expand current cirrhosis therapies, but their
progress has been constrained. Cirrhosis has a variety of causes and problems; thus, there are
several treatment options. If initiated early enough, a mixture of improved diagnostics, lifestyle
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ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 5
adjustments, and new drugs could enhance the quality of life for people with liver disease.
Scientists are developing medicines that selectively target liver cells, intending to slow or reverse
the scarring that leads to cirrhosis. Even though no targeted therapy is yet available, the
architecture for their development is in place, and progress is being made.
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ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 6
References
Hamaguchi, Y., & Kaido, T. (2019). Liver transplantation for liver cirrhosis. The Evolving
Landscape of Liver Cirrhosis Management, 191-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-
7979-6_16
Kojiro, M. (2001). Development of hepatocellular carcinoma in liver cirrhosis:
Pathomorphologic viewpoint. Liver Cirrhosis, 80-86. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-
68343-8_10
Lorist, M., & Snel, J. (2013). Nicotine, caffeine and social drinking: Behaviour and brain
function. Routledge.
Raghavan, N. (2018). Reverse liver cirrhosis in 90 days: Ancient wisdom with contemporary
scientific background. Independently Published.
Shah, S. C., Shah, P. S., & Shah, K. P. (2016). Prevention measures for cirrhosis of liver and its
progression. JP Medical.
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ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 7

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running Head: ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER Students Name Institution Affiliation Date Alcohol and its Effects on Liver 1 ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 2 The element in beer, wine, and spirits that induces intoxication is alcohol. When yeast ferments the carbohydrates in various foods, alcohol is produced. Long-term alcohol consumption poses several health hazards, spanning from increased blood pressure to strokes. One alcoholic drink takes the body's system around one hour to metabolize. For each beverage, the time window lengthens (Lorist & Snel, 2013). The amount of time it takes for anyone to digest alcohol, the higher their blood alcohol level is. At any given time, the liver can only handle a particular quantity of alcohol. When a person consumes too much alcohol, the drink not digested by the liver flows into the bloodstream. People become inebriated when the alcohol in their blood starts to influence their hearts and brain (Lorist & Snel, 2013). However, this paper will focus on the harmful effects of alcohol on the liver. Chronic alcoholism destroys liver cells, resulting in liver cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and cellular mutations resulting in chronic liver cancer (Kojiro, 2001). Excessive drinking is defined as drinking eight or even more beverages per week for women and fifteen or more for males. Though, heavy alcohol users may acquire alcoholic cirrhosis before even experiencing hepatitisrelated related symptoms. These disorders commonly advance from fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis to scarring. According to University Health Network, the quantity of alcohol considered safe varies depending on a person's weight, stature, and gender (Kojiro, 2001). Compared to men, women take more alcohol from every drink, putting them at increased risk of liver impairment. The liver can be harmed by drinking 2 to 3 alcoholic beverages every day. Moreover, binge drinking might damage the liver. Combining alcohol with some other drugs can be extremely harmful to a person's liver. It is not suggested to combine alcohol and medication at the same time before even consulting a physician. When taken with some drugs, such as acetaminophen, it might cause severe liver damage (Kojiro, 2001). Sedatives, antibiotics, pain relievers, and antidepressants are among the drugs that should not be mixed with alcohol. About 90% of alcohol taken is processed by the liver. The rest of the body's waste is expelled by urine, sweat, and breathing. As stated earlier, the liver is responsible for breaking down most of the alcohol consumed to be eliminated from the body. As a result, compounds that are even more dangerous than alcohol are created. These compounds have the potential to harm liver cells, resulting in significant liver disease. Alcohol is responsible for four out of every five deaths due to liver cirrhosis. The following are liver diseases associated with alcohol: Steatosis, liver inflammation, cirrhosis, liver failure, and acute alcoholic hepatitis. The most frequent alcoholic condition that attacks the liver is steatosis, also known as fatty liver. Fat accumulates up in the liver, preventing it from functioning normally. Chronic steatosis causes liver inflammation, which is also referred to as alcoholic hepatitis. One might not notice if they have hepatitis because it doesn't show any symptoms at first. Severe alcoholic hepatitis is a much more severe inflammatory liver condition that can be fatal (Kojiro, 2001). One in every three people who get acute alcoholic hepatitis dies. Liver cirrhosis, the main focus of this paper, is the most advanced stage of significant liver diseases. The molecules that decompose and eliminate scar tissue are altered by alcohol. Scar tissue forms in the liver as a result of this. The scar tissue takes the place of normal tissues. This indicates that the liver is unable to function correctly and may eventually fail, resulting in death. Most persons with liver failure and cirrhosis are unaware of their symptoms until too late. An individual with cirrhosis caused by alcohol who does not even quit drinking has a much less ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 3 than 50% probability of living for another five years. Cirrhosis is diagnosed based on medical background, medical examination, and medical tests. Blood test results, such as liver function testing and virus-induced tests, diagnostic imaging, and liver biopsy, are among the tests available. Liver cirrhosis is not quite the same thing as liver cancer. Cirrhosis, on the other hand, is present in the majority of persons with liver cancer. Cirrhosis raises the risk of developing liver cancer. If someone has hepatitis B or C, one is more likely to get liver cancer since cirrhosis is common in these disorders. Cirrhosis had a prevalent of around 270 in 100,000 people in the United States by 2015. Seventy percent of cirrhotic people are now uninformed that they have liver problems and then go untreated. Cirrhosis is more common in non-Hispanic black people, people living in poverty, Mexican Americans, and communities with lower literacy levels. Cirrhosis is caused by chronic and excessive alcohol consumption, accounting for more than half of all cases in the United States. Cirrhosis has a significant price tag in relation to human misery, hospital bills, and productivity loss. Hepatocellular carcinoma develops at a rate of about 1 percent to 4 percent annually in cirrhotic patients (Kojiro, 2001). Alcoholic cirrhosis occurs in 15% of people who have consumed a large amount of alcohol for more than a decade. As stated earlier, the quantity of alcohol required to produce cirrhosis varies significantly. Cirrhosis is never a hereditary disorder. Some of the diseases that cause liver disease and contribute to cirrhosis are, however, hereditary. Some of the initial symptoms are exhaustion, fatigue, poor appetite, loss of weight, vomiting, diarrhea, and irritation in the right upper part of the abdomen. Itching, inflammation in the legs, fluid build-up in the belly, anemia, easy bruising, and the growth of spider-like blood capillaries in the skin are all symptoms that might emerge as the disease progresses. The fluid developed in the abdomen might become contaminated on its own. Hepatic encephalopathy, bleeding from swollen veins throughout the intestines, esophagus, stomach, and liver cancer are more significant consequences. Most of these indications may develop due to persistent portal hypertension or high blood pressure inside the liver's blood circulation. Cirrhosis can be diagnosed using a variety of laboratory testing to assess the severity and cause of the condition. Cirrhosis is evaluated with liver function tests, complete blood counts, a standard metabolic panel, and clotting factors (Kojiro, 2001). When certain syndromes are suspected, further precise testing for indicators and serum enzymes may be undertaken. Cirrhosis can be detected early on by lab problems. High serum bilirubin proportion, aberrant aminotransferase rates, increased alkaline phosphatase, high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and other abnormalities like hyponatremia, thrombocytopenia, and a prolonged prothrombin time are prevalent. In patients with cirrhosis, liver function tests on aminotransferases may indeed be positive. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase are commonly found to be somewhat high. When it comes to transaminases, aspartate transaminase is more commonly increased than alanine transaminase. The level of alkaline phosphatase is usually high. The top limit is generally below 2 to 3 times the lower limit. Individuals with preexisting cholestatic liver problems may have elevated amounts, like primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 4 Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase is non-specific in liver function testing. It has an inverse correlation with alkaline phosphatase concentrations. It's also more common in people who have chronic liver damage as a result of drinking. The liver's synthesizing function is reflected in albumin levels. The prevalence of cirrhosis is graded using serum albumin concentrations. Hypoalbuminemia is a non-specific symptom of liver illness that can occur in a variety of conditions, including heart problems, protein-losing enteropathy, malnutrition, and nephrotic syndrome. Bilirubin levels might well be average or elevated in various liver function tests. The level of hepatic synthesis function is reflected in prothrombin time (Kojiro, 2001). The extent of hepatic dysfunction is linked to deteriorating coagulopathy. Hyponatremia, caused by an inability to eliminate free water, is prevalent in individuals with cirrhosis and ascites. This problem is indicative of an unfavorable prognosis. Physicians all over the world use the previous tests to determine how well the liver is working. They are pretty effective for detecting liverrelated issues. Cirrhosis harm can be mitigated by fixing the core cause or the many problems that follow if discovered early enough. Cirrhosis cannot be cured, but it can be managed. To remedy this condition, doctors must first stop the damage to the patient's liver and prevent further complications (Shah et al., 2016). The physician will tailor the patient's diagnosis based on the etiology of liver cirrhosis and the severity of the liver problems. While no drug can erase fatty accumulation, addressing the factors that cause it can help prevent liver injury. Liver damage has been shown to repair itself in certain situations (Shah et al., 2016). There are currently antiviral medications for hepatitis that heal the great majority of patients. Antiviral medications are the drugs that target the hepatitis virus. The kind of hepatitis a patient has determines the drugs they will receive. Fatigue, headaches, vomiting, and sleep issues are the most prevalent adverse effects of these medications. If the patient's cirrhosis was triggered by protracted, excessive alcohol intake, it's also critical that they cease drinking. In several circumstances, the doctor will prescribe an alcohol addiction therapy program. The portal vein, which delivers blood to the liver, can get clogged, resulting in elevated blood pressure inside the portal vein. To lower the rising pressure in other blood arteries, medications are frequently administered. The goal is to keep the bleeding from getting too bad. An endoscopy can also be used to detect signs of bleeding. Cirrhosis individuals are at a substantially increased risk of developing liver cancer. The physician may recommend constant blood examinations and imaging tests. Cirrhosis can ruin 80% of the liver in certain instances, and this damage is irreversible. In certain circumstances, the person may demand a new liver transplant (Hamaguchi & Kaido, 2019). Finding an appropriate donor might take time; therefore, this treatment is usually only recommended as a last choice. Individuals with alcoholic liver disease have traditionally been barred from receiving a liver transplant due to the danger of relapsing into harmful drinking following the procedure. On the other hand, recent research suggests that persons with acute liver cirrhosis have posttransplant life expectancies comparable to those of liver transplant patients with some different kinds of liver problems (Hamaguchi & Kaido, 2019). In conclusion, Physicians are attempting to expand current cirrhosis therapies, but their progress has been constrained. Cirrhosis has a variety of causes and problems; thus, there are several treatment options. If initiated early enough, a mixture of improved diagnostics, lifestyle ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 5 adjustments, and new drugs could enhance the quality of life for people with liver disease. Scientists are developing medicines that selectively target liver cells, intending to slow or reverse the scarring that leads to cirrhosis. Even though no targeted therapy is yet available, the architecture for their development is in place, and progress is being made. ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 6 References Hamaguchi, Y., & Kaido, T. (2019). Liver transplantation for liver cirrhosis. The Evolving Landscape of Liver Cirrhosis Management, 191-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-137979-6_16 Kojiro, M. (2001). Development of hepatocellular carcinoma in liver cirrhosis: Pathomorphologic viewpoint. Liver Cirrhosis, 80-86. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-43168343-8_10 Lorist, M., & Snel, J. (2013). Nicotine, caffeine and social drinking: Behaviour and brain function. Routledge. Raghavan, N. (2018). Reverse liver cirrhosis in 90 days: Ancient wisdom with contemporary scientific background. Independently Published. Shah, S. C., Shah, P. S., & Shah, K. P. (2016). Prevention measures for cirrhosis of liver and its progression. JP Medical. ALCOHOL AND ITS EFFECTS ON LIVER 7 Name: Description: ...
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