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Carbs:
Starches, sugars
Stored in the body as glycogen animal starch
4 kcal/g
Contain long intricate chains of glucose
Absorbed slowly, main source of energy
3 types of carbs
1. Monosaccharides (simple carbs)
a. Glucose simple sugar, absorbed quickly in blood
b. Fructose fruit sugar
c. Galactose product of digested lactose, converted to glucose in liver
2. Disaccharides (2 monosaccharides linked together)
a. Sucrose most prevalent, 30% body kilocal, table sugar
b. Lactose
c. Maltose
3. Polysaccharides (complex carbs, many monosaccharide units)
a. Starch units of glucose
b. Dietary fiber cellulose, absorption of water, binds to cholesterol and bile salts
to prevent absorption, substrate for colon bacteria
Food source
White bread, cakes, pasta, candy bar, rice
Functions
Energy source
Glycogen reserve
Affects fat / protein metabolism
Heart action
CNS function
Disease:
- Lactose intolerance:
o Symptoms: diarrhea, nausea, cramps
o Deficiency in lactase (to digest lactose)
o Lactase is a digestive enzyme that is in the sm. Intestine (milk lactose into
monosaccharide)
o No cure, just take low lactose products
Fats:
2 types of basic lipids
- Fatty acids (carboxylic acid w a hydrocarbon chain)
Triglycerides (store energy, insulation)
Food source
- Nuts, oils, fish, avocado, dark chocolate
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Functions
- Energy source
- Thermal insulation
- Vital organ protection
- Tissue membrane structure
- Cell metabolism
- Carriers of fat soluble vitamins
Problems: too much fat leads to hypertension, cardio disease, diabetes, increase in adipose
tissue and weight, atherosclerosis formation of fatty plaques in blood vessel walls, prevents
blood circulation
Proteins:
Examples of proteins
- Myosin: muscle contraction/relaxation
- Collagen: for the bone, cartilage, skin
- Hemoglobin: blood protein
- Albumin: liver protein
- All enzymes
- Some hormones: insulin
- Antibodies
- Fibrinogen: blood clotting
Food source
- Meats, dairy, legumes, veggies
Function
- Tissue building, maintain body structure, and regulate body processes
Vitamins:
- Vital dietary substance not for energy
- Maintain healthy tissue and regulate body processes
A
Types retinol, provitamin A
Function maintain healthy tissue and good eyesight
food source yellow and green veggies (cooked), liver, margarine
deficiency night blindness, dry skin, respiratory issues
toxicity hair loss, jaundice, joint pain
D
Types hormone, D2 and D3
Function transport of Ca and P to sm intestine, normal bone mineralization, maintain
appropriate blood Ca
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food source yeast, fish liver oils
deficiency osteomalacia, rickets
toxicity Ca deposited in kidney nephron, bone pain, weakness
E
Function antioxidant (protects cell membrane from oxidation), helps reduce Alzheimer’s,
cardio disease, rheumatoid arthritis
food source nuts and oils
deficiency hemolytic anemia, CNS probs (spinal cord and retina)
K
Types found in gut flora, animal/veggie food, water soluble form
Function synthesis of 4 blood clotting factors, skeletal metabolism
food source liver, leafy green veggies
deficiency hemorrhagic disease in infants
B
Types - 1,2,3,6,12,folate,pantothenic acid, biotin
Function coenzyme, tissue building
food source grains and liver
deficiency (b1): beriberi weakness, paralysis, anemia / (b3): pellagra dermatitis, GI
disorders, mental disturbance
C
Types absorbic acid
Function general body metabolism, general antioxidant, intracellular cement formation
(bone, cartilage, dentin, etc.)
food source citrus fruits, tomatoes
deficiency probs with body defense, healing, stress, infections
Minerals:
Inorganic substances, metabolic role (building, regulating, controlling), and regulatory role
(maintain fluid balance and muscle contraction)
5 types
Calcium - macromineral
function skeletal growth, bone / tooth formation, physiological processes
food source - milk
deficiency - hypocalcemia
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Sodium- micromineral
Water balance, related to hypertension
Meats
Hyponatremia
Iron micromineral
Oxygen transport helps make oxygen carrying RBCs, also important for infants, menstruation,
and pregnancy due to blood loss
Red meat
Anemic
Iodine micromineral
Synthesis of thyroid hormone
Abnormal iodine function: hypo/hyperthyroidism
Seafood
Goiter iodine deficiency
Water
Temp control, and transport of nutrients and waste

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