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The Aftereffect of utilizing Mobile Phone towards Human Body
Nessa Jane I. Arnoza
nessajane.arnoza@nmsc.edu.ph
Northwestern Mindanao State College of Science and Technology
Abstract
The growing global use of mobile phones has attracted the attention of both the general public
and the media to the question of their safety, especially considering that they are primarily used
by children and teenagers for extended amounts of time each day and in close proximity to
critical organs. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential health hazards associated
with whole-body exposure to mobile phones, as well as the factors that predispose to the
development of these negative effects, in order to offer methods to minimize these risks to the
greatest extent feasible.
Keywords
Mobile Phone, electromagnetic radiation, Time, Sleep Habit.
Introduction
More electronic devices/gadgets are being developed, and these electronic devices/gadgets
are being progressively supported by the exponential development of information technology in
this new era of information abundance and access. Currently, the number of mobile phones in use
across the globe has grown dramatically in the past ten years, resulting in widespread concern
about the harmful health consequences of electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones.
According to the European Information Technology Observatory, an industry-based group
headquartered in Germany, the globe will have 5.1 billion mobile phone users by the end of 2010
an increase from the previous year's figure of 3.3 billion. According to estimates from the
investment company Bank of America Merril-Lynch, the global penetration of mobile phone users
is now double that of landline customers.
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The passage of time plays a significant role in the detrimental effect on the human body
caused by excessive exposure to mobile phones. According to a research performed by Kawada et
al. (2017), the majority of Japanese teenagers used their mobile phones on a daily basis for an
average of 3.44 hours per day on average. Fossum et.al., (2014) came to the conclusion that using
a mobile phone before bedtime was associated with poor sleep quality. Excessive use of time when
using a smart phone, particularly while lying in bed at night, may not only cause individuals to
become evening types, but it may also cause sleep hours to be shorter and mental health to
deteriorate (Harada, 2004).
According to Wang1, Sheng and Wang2 (2019), mobile games have a significant effect on
the human body, particularly in the areas of depression, social anxiety and loneliness. A large
number of desktop computer tasks have been moved to mobile devices such as the iPad and
smartphone as a result of the rapid growth of mobile technology, which is particularly true for
gaming apps. According to the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), the growth
rate of mobile online gaming has reached 9.6 percent in 2018, with teenagers being the largest user
demographic. It has been shown that video game addicts have worse mental health and cognitive
performance, as well as higher emotional problems, such as increased sadness and anxiety, as well
as more social isolation than the general population (Stockdale L, 2018).
Wurtman (2003) said that the negative effects of light on people's health have long been
known to be equally as important as the beneficial benefits of light on man's health. He went on to
say that as previously stated, exposure to LAN (light at night), especially blue light at night, may
worsen sleep and mental difficulties, as well as obesity, diabetes, and a variety of cancers, among
other things (Steven et.al., 2013). The blue light emitted by contemporary media, which includes
tablet computers, mobile phone laptops, and television displays, has been shown to decrease
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melatonin production, which is responsible for regulating your sleep/wake or circadian cycle.
When melatonin levels are low, it is difficult to fall asleep at night. The amount of light we get
influences our sleep and waking cycles. Light exposure causes the retina of the eye to follow a
path that leads to the hypothalamus, a brain area that regulates hunger and thirst.
According to different studies, a small percentage of the population (between 3 and 10
percent) has attributed various acute, non-specific effects to electromagnetic radiation. A wide
range of adverse health conditions such as cancer, miscarriage, injury to the hearing system,
alteration of blood cells and blood supply, neuropsychiatric, cognitive, and sleep disturbances, and
disruption of childhood growth have been reported in different studies (Wilen, 2013). Clinical
symptoms of Sovient medicine include, among other things, dermographism tumors, blood
alterations, reproductive and cardiovascular abnormalities, sadness, irritability, and memory
impairment, among other things. Between the exposure and sham periods, there was no evidence
of drowsiness, tiredness, or arousal, which is consistent with findings from studies of adolescents
during the nighttime hours (Micheal et al., 2013)
In addition, a random sample of mobile phone users will be included in this study. The
researcher was speaking about the consequences of concern on the body in general, not just on the
brain. Because of this, this study will examine the damage caused by mobile phones in terms of
time, mobile activities, and sleep habits.
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Schematic Diagram of the Study
Fig 1. Schematic Diagram of the study undertaking
The impacts of time, mobile activities, and sleeping patterns transmitted by mobile phones
on the human body will be represented in a schematic figure for reference.
Despite the fact that mobile phones may be used for a variety of reasons, it has been argued
that if they are not handled correctly, they can have negative effects. According to studies, one of
the risks connected with the usage of mobile phones is the electromagnetic radiation generated by
them (Sandstrom et.al., 2001). Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, which is energy produced
from energy sources such as electricity, is emitted by electricity lines, mobile phones, ordinary
electrical appliances, and some equipment. Ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and ultraviolet
light, emits high-frequency waves with enough energy to release a molecular electron from its
atom, while this kind of radiation does not (Zamanian and Hardiman, 2005).
The passage of time plays a significant role in the detrimental effect on the human body
caused by excessive exposure to mobile phones. According to a research performed by Kawada et
al. (2017), the majority of Japanese teenagers used their mobile phones on a daily basis for an
UTILIZING MOBILE PHONE
TIME
SLEEP HABIT
AFTEREFFECT TO HUMAN BODY
MOBILE
ACTIVITIES
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average of 3.44 hours per day on average. Fossum et.al., (2014) came to the conclusion that using
a mobile phone before bedtime was associated with poor sleep quality. Excessive use of time when
using a smart phone, particularly while lying in bed at night, may not only cause individuals to
become evening types, but it may also cause sleep hours to be shorter and mental health to
deteriorate (Harada, 2004).
According to the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), the pace of
growth in mobile online gaming reached 9.6 percent in 2018, with adolescents being the biggest
user group. Researchers have discovered that video game addicts have poorer mental health and
cognitive function than the average population. They also have greater levels of emotional
issues, such as increased melancholy and anxiety, and they are more isolated from their peers
than the overall population (Stockdale L, 2018).
Furthermore, mobile phone users are vulnerable to mobile addiction (Lee, 2002).
Technological dependency refers to a widespread behavioural dependence on the constant usage
of mobile phones, which is unhealthy and unproductive (Li Chen et al., 2016). Those who have
lost cell phone connection experience pain and aggravation as a result of this addiction. As a
consequence, individuals are enthralled, connected, and too reliant on their cellphones (Wikle,
2001).
Entertainment, instruments, companionship, immediacy, self-updates, and privacy are
among the benefits of mobile usage (Bae, 2001, 2002; Sung & Choi, 2002). Mobile phone
addiction is a multifaceted technical approach (conflict, withdrawal, relapse, and behaviorally) that
may be seen from two perspectives and is thought to be behavioral addiction (gambling, shopping,
and gambling) (Davazdahemami et.al., 2016).
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Our three hypotheses (Wang1, Sheng, and Wang2,2019) found that mobile-game addict
adolescents had higher self-reported melancholy, social anxiety, and soul, suggesting the
connection between mobile-game addiction and depression, social anxiety, and loneliness. When
compared to teenagers with low internet use, individuals with high internet use exhibited more
psychopathology on the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI, a shorter version of the Symptoms
Checklist) (Yen et.al., 2008).
Reports indicate that young people addicted to video games are becoming more depressed
and nervous, as well as feeling socially isolated. The link between mobile gaming addiction and
mental health may be due to social isolation, which is one of the reasons people spend too much
time gambling (Stockdale et.al., 2018). According to Beronay et.al (2009), gambling issues are
defined as a "pattern for chronic or recurring gaming activity" that results in a lack of control over
the gamers' actions and a preference for gaming over other interests and behaviors. These
consequences may be caused by impairments in social life, education, and familial relationships.
Light is the most effective zeitgeber for the human circadian clock (Wada et al. 2013).
During the early hours, exposure to sunshine or cell phone light may help to boost serotonin
production in the pineal body (Rosenthal et al., 1997; Wada et al., 2013). Harada and colleagues
(2012) discovered that the quantity of tryptophan eaten with dinner had no impact on M-E scores
or sleep patterns in young Japanese children in a 2005 research. Evening light has been shown to
affect human circadian rhythms (Kuller et al., 2002). Mice's mood is affected by afternoon light
(Fonken et al., 2009). According to a questionnaire study, tryptophan during breakfast may help
young toddlers fall and remain asleep. Another questionnaire study found that early infants who
were exposed to sunlight for more than 30 minutes after breakfast were more morning-typed than
those who were exposed for less than 30 minutes.
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According to Wurtman (2013), the negative effects of light on people's health have long
been acknowledged to be equally as important as the beneficial benefits of light on man. As
previously stated, LAN exposure, especially blue light exposure at night, has been linked to an
increase in sleep and mental difficulties, obesity, diabetes, and a variety of cancers (Steven et.al.,
2013). The circadian rhythm is a human endogenous sleep-wake cycle that reacts to daily changes
in day and night exposure to short-wavelength (blue) light.
Because people are increasingly exposed to blue light generated from various TV displays,
screens, and night cellphones, hazardous blue light is created not only by diverse artificial lights,
such as LED lamps, fluorescent lamps, and fires, but also by video displays, such as OLEDs and
LCDs (Park et.al., 2012). The danger of human health being harmed by electromagnetic radiation,
mobile games, and late-night exposure produced by mobile phones may be reduced by assisting
individuals in developing skills that promote healthy activities and help the body operate correctly.
Research Design and Methods
The qualitative method will be used by the researchers to answer the study's questions. Its
goal is to decipher the meanings, descriptions, and symbols. Qualitative research using an
interpretive naturalistic approach to the world is described by Ritche and Lewis (2003). This
implies qualitative research looks at objects in their natural settings, trying to make sense of and
understand occurrences through the lenses of the meanings individuals assign to them. Through
interviews, the researchers aimed to identify the participants' perceptions and ideas, as well as
provide explanations for the meaning. Rather than a superficial depiction of a broad sample of a
population, qualitative research aims to acquire a deep knowledge of a particular organization or
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event. Its goal is to give a clear representation of the structure, order, and general patterns that may
be discovered among a group of people.
The descriptive narrative style of study will be used by the researchers since it will explain
the particular circumstances and experiences of the participants in more detail. In this case, the
idea and meaning are constructed based on their description of the subject matter. Eunsook and
Owen (2000) define descriptive research as the study of a person's current situation. This kind of
research is extensively utilized in education, nutrition, epidemiology, and behavioral science,
among other fields. Because it is founded on the idea that issues may be addressed and practices
improved via the use of observation, analysis, and description, it has a lot of value. It also offers
important information in the data collection process since the researchers will ask for a short
explanation of their experiences in response to the question that has been provided, as well as what
the implications of the event are. When it comes to information exploration and explanation, it is
described as efforts to provide more information on a subject while also exploring and explaining
the information. This is the stage at which researchers attempt to explain what is occurring in more
detail, filling in the gaps and broadening our knowledge of the subject matter in general.
Results
Researchers will conduct an analysis and interpretation of all of the responses from the 28
participants in each of the sub-problems of the study in this section.
1. What is health?
(Description): Based from 28 participants, they defined health as the absence of disease
or impairment, but it also encompasses complete physical, mental and social well-being.
Participants gave various responses, but the definition contains the same ideas.
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According to Foucault (2009), health is defined as a body's ability to adapt to new
risks and diseases, as well as lack of illness. Meanwhile, Hughner & Kleine (2010) may
understand the term "health" differently depending on who is talking about it. The capacity
to comprehend how different individuals view health at a personal level may provide
important signals to experts as to what variables can influence behavior towards health and
well-being in the broader population.
2. How Mobile phone is important to you?
(Narration): Based on the responses of 28 participants stated that mobile phone is very
significance in their daily lives. Specifically that smartphones are now rampant in our
generation. It have a huge help especially in communicating their love ones, doing school
related activities, watching video and playing mobile games. Improved productivity is the
biggest contribution to mobile society. People behave more effectively when connected,
particularly when linked anytime, whenever, and whoever they choose. Moreover, mobile
phone is an invaluable instrument that may amuse, educate, enhance safety, and bring
convenience to our lives (Harris and Cooper, 2019).
3. How frequently do you use mobile phone per week
Fig.1 frequently used mobile phone per week.
everyday 4-5 times 2-3 times
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Out of 28 respondents 90% of them use mobile phone every day. 5% used mobile
phones in 4-5 times and another 5% respondents say that they use mobile phones 2-3 times
per week.
4. What time do you mainly use mobile phones in weekdays?
Figure 2. time used mobile phones in week days
Figure 4 As a result of this interview, it has been discovered that calling is the most
commonly used smartphone function for a short period of time (less than 1 hour duration),
followed by text messages (50 percent) and then gaming (10.7 percent), while social media
having the highest percentage (53.6 percent) for a period of time between 2-3 hours duration
among all smartphone functions. On the other hand, gaming (60.7 percent) was associated with a
longer time of everyday use (more than 3 hours duration).
5. Activities while using mobile phone?
The main activities they participate in are Facebook (100%), Instagram (30%), Tiktok
(90%), Messenger (80%), Mobile Legends (95%) and Youtube (91%).
22
2 3
14
4
15
8
6
2
10
17
8
CALLING SOCIAL MEDIA GAMING TEXT
MESSENGES
less than 1 hour about 2-3 hours more than 3 hours
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6. Time to sleep
Based on the respondents 60% of them sleep at 12 1 am. While 20% sleep at 2-3
in the morning and 20% sleep at 10 11 in the evening.
7. Health issues while using smartphones
HEADACHE
NO
8
VISION PROBLEM
EYE FATIGUE/ STRAIN/
PAIN/ DISCOMFORT
BLURRED/ DOUBLED
VISSION
EYE BURN/ ITCHING
YES
20
25
18
NO
8
3
10
EAR PROBLEM
HEARING IMPAIRMENT
EAR ITCHING
EAR PAIN
YES
10
15
22
NO
18
13
6
MUSCULO SKELETAL PROBLEM
TECH NECK
THUMB PAIN
PAIN IN OTHER
FINGER
YES
18
17
22
NO
10
11
6
SLEEP DISTURBANCE
INSOMIA
DECREASE ASLEEP
QUALITY
INCREASE TIME
TAKE TO FALL
ASLEEP
YES
12
13
15
NO
16
15
13
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
ANXIETY
DEPRESSION
OBSESSION
YES
11
18
16
NO
17
10
12
WEIGHT PROBLEMS
INCREASE
DECREASE
11
17
Table 1. Health issue while using smartphones.
Table 1 showed that the participants in the current research had a variety of symptoms at
the same time. More than 71.2% of total respondents suffered from headache. Eye fatigue, strain,
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pain or discomfort was encountered in 71.2% of respondents. In addition, 89.3% of participants
had blurred or double vision, while itching or burning occurred in 64.3%.
Ear discomfort was the most often reported ear complaint (78.6 percent), followed by ear
itching (53.6 percent), with hearing impairment being present in 35.7 percent of the population.
The musculoskeletal system was also implicated in the symptomatology linked with prolonged
smartphone usage; pain in the other finger was the most often reported complaint, with 78.6
percent of respondents reporting it, followed by tech neck (64.3 percent) and finally thumb
discomfort (64.3 percent).
Regarding to sleeping disruption, the rise in the time required to fall asleep happened in
almost half of the respondents (53.6 %) and decrease sleep quality present 46.4 percent, while
39.3 percent suffered from insomnia. The most frequent psychological difficulty reflected in the
current research was the depression counted 64.3 percent of respondents, followed by the
obsessive neurosis 57.1 percent and finally the anxiety problem were present 39.3 percent. In
addition, decrease in weight also counted 39.3 percent which result as the issue in weight.
Discussion
The majority of those who answered the survey said they used their phones on a regular
basis and seemed to depend on them. As previously stated, teenagers and people in their early
and mid-20s are the most frequent users of smart-phones because they are more accepting of new
and higher-level technologies than older generation groups and prefer to read e-books in their
educational pursuits, which is consistent with many previous studies (Kwon and Cho, 2018).
Overuse of mobile phones, where it takes more than 3 hours a day, is a risk factor for
sickness. A heavy reliance on smart phones, especially in bed at night, may not only result in
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respondents typing in the evening, but it may also result in sleep hours being cut short and
mental health being deteriorated. Short-wave light, such as lights with wavelengths of 460 nm,
exposed to at night seems to cause their circadian clock phase to be delayed, as well as to inhibit
melatonin production, according to research ( Zeither et.al, 2015). Other than the circadian
rhythm, long-term exposure to display lights may have impacts on the central nervous system of
humans, according to some research.
In the present study more than 71.2% of total respondents suffered from headache. Eye
fatigue, strain, pain or discomfort was encountered in 71.2% of respondents. In addition, 89.3%
of participants had blurred or double vision, while itching or burning occurred in 64.3%. The
amount of time spent using a smartphone increased the frequency of headaches, although this
connection is not statistically significant. According to Kapdi et al. (2009), mobile phone
radiation has the greatest effect on the brain, and the risk rises with mainly one-sided usage and
substantial daily exposure to mobile phone radiation.
The current study's findings may be attributed to non-thermal lens epithelial damage or
cataract induced by high frequency electromagnetic irradiation from cellphones. The direct
oscillating action of combined electrical and magnetic fields produces considerably more protein
unfolding than traditional heating of protein solutions. Artificial blue light (a visible light of
wavelength produced by cellphones and other digital gadgets) may cause macular degeneration.
Even while blue light has detrimental effects, natural daylight with its red and infrared
components has a regenerative impact that balances these harmful ones ( Garbazza et.al, 2011).
In the current study, ear pain was the commonest ear complaint followed by ear itching
and hearing impairment. These findings were in agreement with the study of Nair et.al, (2006),
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were individuals exhibited unsatisfactory outcomes on audiological tests such as pure tone
audiometry, speech reception threshold, and speech discrimination score, especially in the
dominant mobile phone used ear, indicating the possible detrimental impact of mobile phones on
auditory function.
Aside from the risks of EMR exposure, repeated movements with one finger for grip
control or texting may cause musculoskeletal problems. These included 46.3 percent thumb
discomfort and 56.4 percent other finger pain. As reported by Berolo et al. (2008), the right
thumb bottom was the most often reported complaint among their participants. A poor pinch
strength caused by thumb discomfort, according to Nal et al. (2010).
Sleep disturbance reported in the present study were in the form of increase time to sleep
is the main problem. According to Velizarov et al. (2013) electrophysiological alterations in the
nervous system may occur following RFR exposure to neural tissue. According to Huber et al.
(2008) and Loughran et al. (2009), the detrimental impacts of EMR produced by cellphones on
sleep EEG may affect brain blood flow, cerebral electrical activity, and inhibit pineal gland
melatonin production, reducing sleep depth and duration. Insufficient sleep disrupts the immune
and neuroendocrine systems.
Conclusion
Following the results of this research, it is concluded that using a cell phone on a daily
basis is detrimental to one's health for all people. It is possible that they will develop a variety of
illnesses depending on how much time they spend using and playing mobile phones, as well as
their sleeping habits. These illnesses include headaches, visual difficulties, hearing problems,
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musculoskeletal problems, sleep disturbances, psychological disorders, and weight problems, to
name a few.
Acknowledgement
I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to the following persons who made valuable
contributions for the fulfilment of this research:
The researcher expresses sincere appreciation to the proprietors of the research from whom
she got all of the data for her study.
To Mr. Milben A. Jumamil, SAS biology instructor and subject adviser, for this opportunity
to have a research and for his undying support, and guidance;
Above all to our Heavenly Father, for the gift of life, talents, knowledge and wisdom, for
all the blessings bestowed upon me and my family, for the greatest love and good health.
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