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COMPUTER SCIENCE
1. Programming Language
Programming language is a formal language that uses different set of
instructions to produce various kinds of output. Programming languages
are important for the reason that it is use to implement algorithms.
There are different kinds of programming languages that are available for
future programmers to learn and establish their strength in developing
computing solutions. For us to know more about computer programming
let’s look at the following terms and concepts:
Programming
The process of taking an algorithm and encoding it into a notation, a
programming language, so that it can be executed by a computer.
According to Ali Asghar Manjotho (2014) it is the process of giving
instructions (commands) to the computer to do a meaningful task. It
is an act of teaching the computer on how to do task to follow; to do
something.
Why Programming?
Computer is just a dumb machine made up of different electronic
components. It is like a box which cannot do anything by itself. It is
the user who tells the computer “what it has to do?” If we need our
computer to perform some task, we first have to teach the computer
in detail “how it will accomplish that task?” Once the computer is
taught about a particular task, it will completely obey it but cannot
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do anything that it is not taught to. Programming is more about
problem solving skills than writing the code itself. Programming
teaches you how to understand, analyze and solve the problems. It
enhances your analytical reasoning abilities and helps you cope with
daily real-life problems as well. Hence learning to program is
important because it develops analytical and problem-solving
abilities.
Programmer
The person who gives instructions (commands) to the computer. A
person who designs and writes computer programs.
Program
A sequence of instructions that are interpreted and executed by a
computer. It can be made of a single or hundreds of instructions.
2. Types of Programming Languages
1. Low-level language
- A low-level language is one which is closer to the machine (computer).
- It is easier for machines to understand and difficult for humans to understand.
- It is faster in execution as compared to high and middle level languages.
2. Middle-level language
- A middle level language is one which is closer to machine (computer) as well as
to human (programmer).
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- A language that has the features of both low level and high-level languages.
- More formally, a high-level language that allows you to write low level programs
in it is called as middle level language.
3. High-level language
- A high-level language is one which is closer to the human (programmer).
- It is easier for humans to understand and difficult for machines to understand.
- It is slower in execution as compared to low level languages.
Source Code
The set of instructions written in any language other than machine
language is called as source code. It is not directly understood by the
machine (computer).
Object Code
The set of instructions written in machine language is called as object
code. It is also known as machine code. It is the only code which is
directly understood by the machine (computer).

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