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Introduction to Clinical and School Psychology Study Guide for School
Final Exam
The final will include material from the full semester, however, there will be more questions on
information that was presented after the mid-term.
Be familiar with how to apply concepts (i.e., an example may be given of a student or school
situation).
Be knowledgeable of main concepts and terms from lectures:
History of Field and What School Psychologists Do
First it was recognized through APA and then own national organization and what
that did and now legislation that guides what school psychologists actually do
The requirements to be a school psychologist and what differentiates it from other
professions
Demographics of the field
o More women than men
o Mostly white
The different roles of a school psychologist (assessment, consultation, prevention,
intervention, staff, parent, and student education, research and program development,
mental health care, advocacy, systems change)
o Understand the different hats that school psychologists wear
o Direct servicingassessment consultation
o Indirect servicingprevention intervention
Ecological Model and Schools as Systems
Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory (Microsystem, Mesosystem,
Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem) and be able to applied it to case examples and
situations
o Framework through which they conceptualize certain problems
o Instead of assuming that they are just bad you have to look at different parts of the
child’s life to get to the bottom of why they act like that
o Be able to differentiate between these systems
o Mesosystemdoes not directly involve the individualrelationships between
people in the microsystem but not the individual
Ex. His parents interacting with his classmates or teachers
What is school connectedness, why does it matter (i.e., what outcomes are associated
with it?), and what can we do to improve it?
o Outcomes associated with school connectedness- why this needs to be more of a
priority in schoolsso you can improve graduation rates ect
o Showing students work on the walls can improve it
o Get specific feedback on reports going home
o Events and themes and coordination
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IDEA (IDEIA) and 504 Plans
Differentiate between IDEIA and Section 504, components of each piece of legislation,
and the types of services provided under each
o Section 504 provides legislation to guide general education supports and services
for students with disabilitiesaccommodations (things that change the way the
student is accessing the curriculum without changing the curriculum)
o You cannot have an IEP (Individualized Education Plan) without being in special
education
o Scenario and ask which classification would be most appropriate for that child
o Understand what goes into IEPgoals, present levels of functioning, whose
responsible for writing and managing those
o Accommodations vs modifications (specialized instructions and changes to the
curriculum)
o Counseling services, OT, PT, speech therapy, transportation
o Child Study Team
School psychologist
Social worker
Learning disabilities teaching consultant
o IDEIA
Emotionally disturbed is somewhat controversial and stigmatized
Specific learning disability and how they are identifieddiscrepancy
model
Be familiar with the eligibility criteria for special education and the different categories
of disabilities
Accommodations, modifications, and related services
Child Study Team members
Assessmenttests
Differentiate between testing and assessment
o Collecting information in a variety of ways to make a specification and decide
what needs to be done next
o A lot of different people doing it to get a comprehensive look
o DISCREPANCY MODELON THE FINAL
o Cognitive ability and intellectual ability are the same thing (as well as aptitude)
o Academic ability
o Behaviors
o emotions
Discrepancy model understand how it can be applied to the identification of a learning
disability
Need for standardization of assessment
o It is important to best compare scores and compare the ability of individuals
o Scripted and written out exactly how that test should be administered so that it is
the same for everyone and the only difference would then be their performance
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Diversity and Multiculturalism
Cultural competence
o Not being experts but knowing what we know and knowing what we don’t know
and applying that
Disproportionality, specifically how it relates to schools and students in special education
o Overrepresentation and underrepresentation of different groups
Over representation of certain groups and underrepresentation of certain
groups in special education
African American and Hispanic are overrepresented
Asians are underrepresented
If 50% of the population is white50% of special education population
should be 50% if it is less that’s under if its more that’s over
In discipline referrals in academic achievement and special education
Discipline Gap
o Gap between different racial groups and how often they are referred to for disciplinary
actions
Achievement Gap
o Different races performing differently academically in school
Implicit Bias
o Unconscious bias that we all have that become dangerous when we are not aware
of them and we act on them
Reflect on how they may be influencing your own actions
Ethics
Underlying principle
o TWO BIG THINGS THAT GUIDE THE ETHICAL CODE
DO NO HARM
ADVOCATE FOR CHILDREN
Specific ethical considerations in terms of:
o Consent
Anytime you are working with a child under the age of 14 you need
consent from the parents
Informed consentmake it very clear to them so they know
exactly what is going on
Over the age of 14assentchilds agreement to the services
o Confidentiality
three times to break
child is expressing harm to themselves
child is expressing harm to someone else
child is expressing that someone is harming them
must also abide by school policies and procedures so sometimes
you must break confidentially to a certain extent
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some teachers don’t know about the ethical guidelines and think
they are entitled to know what is going on
protecting the interests and maintaining trust of the client
detail the limits of your confidentiality to the person that you
are working with immediately
don’t use terms that are developmentally inappropriate
o Multiple Relationships
Inevitable in school settingsthat is okay
They are not okay when they impact your ability to conduct your
professional responsibilities
The Child Clinical Interview and Attachment Theory
Developmental considerations when interviewing children
o Languagedevelopmentally appropriate language
o Playusing games or movements so the children are more able to talk and
engage in a counseling setting
o Types of questions useduse closed questionsyes or noones that are not so
overwhelming with young kidsmore open ended with older kids and adults
Attachment theory
o How it is used to conceptualize student behavior or adult-student interactions
Understanding how a student with a disorganized attachment style might
be acting compared to the norm
Help teachers understand why a child might be acting that way and the
impact that the teacher can have on that child in order to reform their
mode of attention
Models of Intervention
School-based counselingDIRECT SERVICE DELIVERY
o Advantages and disadvantages
Advantagesaccess to the student, access to the teacher and the student
for in vivo coping, access to a lot of people (teacher to use same type of
language or strategy), free
Unintended consequences of free counseling like misuse, lack of
commitment, over labeling
Disadvantagestime during the school day, finding places to do
counseling that is safe and appropriate, maintaining confidentiality
because everyone feels that they are entitled to know
ConsultationINDIRECT SERVICE DELIVERY (working with teachers,
administrators, parents) (other examples: workshops on anxiety/prevention program
indirect things)
o Model of consultation (consultant, consultee, client) the client is not always the
child
Triangular model
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Consultantschool psychologist
Consulteeteacher
Clientchild
o Not always the client in that model
o Sometimes you might have to consult with a teacher about
another teacher
o Benefits of consultation
Way easier to affect a larger group of people through consultation
Building capacity for a teacher and therefore affecting every child
in that class and every student that they have after that
Direct versus indirect service delivery
Multi-Tier Systems of Support
Differentiate between the different Tiers of intervention and assessment
o Another triangular model
Tier 1: universal intervention strategies or prevention programs
Every child is exposed to this
Tier 2: more targeted interventions
Specific groups are receiving this
Tier 3: most intensive interventions
What percentages of students are expected to respond in each Tier?
Social-Emotional Learning
o How it is important
o Why we need it
o Why it is important in schoolsin PowerPoint
Crisis Procedures and Trauma
Know the general outline of best-practice crisis procedures and the importance of having
school policies
o Involved in developing protocols and procedures to follow in the event of a crisis
Understand the distinction between an adverse event and a traumatic event
o Adverse:
o Traumatic: overwhelming our usual coping abilities

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