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ETHICS (ETIC211)
PRELIM REVIEWER
ETHICS
It is one of the branches in the field of Philosophy that involves
systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right
and wrong conduct.
It comes from the Greek word ETHOS meaning “custom, habit,
character or disposition”
A moral principles that govern a person's behavior or the
conducting of an activity.
It seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining
concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and
vice, justice and crime.
Ethics Philosophy of Morality, involves systematizing,
defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong
behavior and moral judgements on what is good and evil. At its
simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles.
MORALITY Beliefs concerning right and wrong, good and bad.
Beliefs that include judgements, values, rules, principles and
theories that justify actions as good or bad.
(1) Moral standards with regard to behavior: A moral standard
refers to the norms which we have about the types of actions which
we believe to be morally acceptable and morally unacceptable.
Specifically, moral standards deal with matters which can either
seriously harm or seriously benefit human beings.
(2) Moral responsibility referring to our conscience; and being a
moral agent who encounters the concept of blame or praise,
ascriptions of judgement and evaluation.
(3) Moral Identity one who is capable of right and wrong ation. It
is a cognitive representation of the moral self that reflects the
degree to which moral traits like honesty, integrity, etc.: are central
to one’s self-concept.
AESTHETICS (or esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that deals
with the nature of art, beauty and taste and with the creation
or appreciation of beauty.
VALUE denotes the degree of importance of some thing or
action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do
or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the
significance of different actions.
AXIOLOGY is the philosophical study of value. It is either the
collective term for ethics and aesthetics.
Philia LOVE. It is often translated "brotherly love", ancient Greek
words for love, and is usually translated as "friendship" or affection.
Sophia WISDOM. There are two different kinds of wisdom:
phronesis, or practical wisdom, and sophia, or ‘transcendental
wisdom’.
Philosophy is, literally defined, “the love of wisdom”. More broadly
understood, it is the study of the most basic and the most profound
matters of human existence.
The THREE MAIN DIVISIONS OF ETHICS PROPER are:
1. NORMATIVE ETHICS. It is the study of the moral norms that
guide our actions and judgments.
2. METAETHICS is the study of the meaning and logical structure
of moral beliefs.
3. APPLIED ETHICS is the application of moral norms to specific
moral issues or cases.
Descriptive of Ethics is a branch of ethics that describes people's
ethical behavior, language, and experiences without making
normative judgements about it.
Instrumentally (Extrinsically) Valuable Valuable as a means
to something else.
Intrinsically Valuable Valuable in itself, for its own sake.
Ethics involves a distinctive set of elements. These include the pre-
eminence of reason, the universal perspective, the principle of
impartiality, and the dominance of moral norms.
Distinct elements of Ethics:
Pre-eminence of Reason is also known as the importance of
reason. In ethics, pre-eminence of reason allows any person to
use reason while evaluating moral issues.
Universal Perspective is the opposite of a closed belief
system, which promotes its way of dealing with problems as the
only way regardless of the results.
Principle of Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that
decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on
the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one
person over another for improper reasons.
Dominance of Moral Norms is an assumption that ethicists
make; it says that moral norms supersede other norms.
WILL faculty of the mind that manifest desire, motivation, kind of
causality belonging to living beings so far as they are rational.
FREEDOM the ability to do or to act without any form of restraints.
GOOD that which is beneficial to man, that which gives pleasure or
happiness, that which to conforms to the moral ideal. It is
fundamental normative concept.
Problem of Evil
EVIL that which gives suffering and pain to man or any negative
outcome, usually due to abuse, misuse and over use of Freedom.
Man is the source of Morality since man is capable of reasoning and
exercise Freedom hence evil, as a phenomena occurs not in other
living entities, neither in diseases nor in nature but in the exercise of
freedom.
Moral Judgments can be viewed either on Intention and Action of a
Phenomenon.
Cognitive Morality/Judgement by Reason Understanding Morality
as an Absolute Obligation of man aided by rationality.
Non-Cognitive Morality/Judgement by Emotion Moral Decision
based on feelings, affect and human emotions.
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Moral Realism states that morality is exclusively true or false and
is presented as facts.
Moral Objectivism Asserts that morality is universal, eternal
and fixed, it believes that morality is given within a spirit like
realm and an all-powerful God wills it.
Moral Relativism morality can never be absolute since it
alters itself based on cultural and socio political structures, has
two forms:
Individual Relativism asserts that morality varies
from person to person.
Cultural Relativism believes that morality is culture
based on standards created by the community.
Moral Anti Realism states that morality is based on impression
and feelings and that morality is neither true nor false in context
with objectivity.
Moral Emotivism like subjectivism, it teaches that there are no
objective moral facts, that moral statements are mere expressions
that arouse emotional responses.
Expressing the feelings about a moral issue, moral statement may
influence another person’s thoughts and conduct, it is a theory that
claims that moral language or judgments: 1) are neither true or
false; 20 express our emotions; 3) try to influence others to agree
with us.
Moral Nihilism holds that ethical claims are generally
false.
Moral Skepticism which holds that no one has any oral
knowledge (or the stronger claim that no one can have any
moral knowledge).
Acts of Man acts shared in common by man and other animals.
Human Acts an act that is performed only by a human being, and
thus is proper to man.
Justice giving what is due to man, the concept of equated action
on the grounds that such acts would be given proper compensation.
The “just” person as one who typically “does what is morally right”
and is disposed to “giving everyone his or her due”.
JA

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ETHICS (ETIC211) PRELIM REVIEWER ETHICS ✓ It is one of the branches in the field of Philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. ✓ It comes from the Greek word ETHOS meaning “custom, habit, character or disposition” ✓ A moral principles that govern a person's behavior or the conducting of an activity. ✓ It seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. ✓ Ethics – Philosophy of Morality, involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior and moral judgements on what is good and evil. At its simplest, ethics is a system of moral principles. MORALITY – Beliefs concerning right and wrong, good and bad. Beliefs that include judgements, values, rules, principles and theories that justify actions as good or bad. (1) Moral standards – with regard to behavior: A moral standard refers to the norms which we have about the types of actions which we believe to be morally acceptable and morally unacceptable. Specifically, moral standards deal with matters which can either seriously harm or seriously benefit human beings. (2) Moral responsibility – referring to our conscience; and being a moral agent who encounters the concept of blame or praise, ascriptions of judgement and evaluation. (3) Moral Identity – one who is capable of right and wrong ation. It is a cognitive representation of the moral self that reflects the degree to which moral traits like honesty, integrity, etc.: are central to one’s self-concept. • • • AESTHETICS (or esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, beauty and taste and with the creation or appreciation of beauty. VALUE denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions. AXIOLOGY is the philosophical study of value. It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics. Philia – LOVE. It is often translated "brotherly love", ancient Greek words for love, and is usually translated as "friendship" or affection. Sophia – WISDOM. There are two different kinds of wisdom: phronesis, or ‘practical wisdom’, and sophia, or ‘transcendental wisdom’. Philosophy is, literally defined, “the love of wisdom”. More broadly understood, it is the study of the most basic and the most profound matters of human existence. The THREE MAIN DIVISIONS OF ETHICS PROPER are: 1. NORMATIVE ETHICS. It is the study of the moral norms that guide our actions and judgments. 2. METAETHICS is the study of the meaning and logical structure of moral beliefs. 3. APPLIED ETHICS is the application of moral norms to specific moral issues or cases. Descriptive of Ethics – is a branch of ethics that describes people's ethical behavior, language, and experiences without making normative judgements about it. • • Instrumentally (Extrinsically) Valuable – Valuable as a means to something else. Intrinsically Valuable – Valuable in itself, for its own sake. Ethics involves a distinctive set of elements. These include the preeminence of reason, the universal perspective, the principle of impartiality, and the dominance of moral norms. Distinct elements of Ethics: • Pre-eminence of Reason – is also known as the importance of reason. In ethics, pre-eminence of reason allows any person to use reason while evaluating moral issues. • Universal Perspective – is the opposite of a closed belief system, which promotes its way of dealing with problems as the only way regardless of the results. • Principle of Impartiality – is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. • Dominance of Moral Norms – is an assumption that ethicists make; it says that moral norms supersede other norms. WILL – faculty of the mind that manifest desire, motivation, kind of causality belonging to living beings so far as they are rational. FREEDOM – the ability to do or to act without any form of restraints. GOOD – that which is beneficial to man, that which gives pleasure or happiness, that which to conforms to the moral ideal. It is fundamental normative concept. Problem of Evil EVIL – that which gives suffering and pain to man or any negative outcome, usually due to abuse, misuse and over use of Freedom. Man is the source of Morality since man is capable of reasoning and exercise Freedom hence evil, as a phenomena occurs not in other living entities, neither in diseases nor in nature but in the exercise of freedom. Moral Judgments can be viewed either on Intention and Action of a Phenomenon. Cognitive Morality/Judgement by Reason – Understanding Morality as an Absolute Obligation of man aided by rationality. Non-Cognitive Morality/Judgement by Emotion – Moral Decision based on feelings, affect and human emotions. Moral Realism – states that morality is exclusively true or false and is presented as facts. • Moral Objectivism – Asserts that morality is universal, eternal and fixed, it believes that morality is given within a spirit like realm and an all-powerful God wills it. • Moral Relativism – morality can never be absolute since it alters itself based on cultural and socio political structures, has two forms: ✓ Individual Relativism – asserts that morality varies from person to person. ✓ Cultural Relativism – believes that morality is culture based on standards created by the community. Moral Anti Realism – states that morality is based on impression and feelings and that morality is neither true nor false in context with objectivity. Moral Emotivism – like subjectivism, it teaches that there are no objective moral facts, that moral statements are mere expressions that arouse emotional responses. Expressing the feelings about a moral issue, moral statement may influence another person’s thoughts and conduct, it is a theory that claims that moral language or judgments: 1) are neither true or false; 20 express our emotions; 3) try to influence others to agree with us. ✓ Moral Nihilism – holds that ethical claims are generally false. ✓ Moral Skepticism – which holds that no one has any oral knowledge (or the stronger claim that no one can have any moral knowledge). Acts of Man – acts shared in common by man and other animals. Human Acts – an act that is performed only by a human being, and thus is proper to man. Justice – giving what is due to man, the concept of equated action on the grounds that such acts would be given proper compensation. The “just” person as one who typically “does what is morally right” and is disposed to “giving everyone his or her due”. JA Name: Description: ...
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