Showing Page:
1/9
LESSON NO. 3 : Circulatory System
The Circulatory System
Functions:
Responsible for transporting throughout the body oxygenated blood from the heart and lungs
via the
arteries.
Oxygen depleted blood is returned via the
veins
Delivers oxygen and nutrients to all cells
in the human body
Transports carbon dioxide and other
wastes to the other organs of the body and
away from cells
Helps in coagulation process, regulates
body temperature, and assists the body in
fighting diseases
The Circulatory System
Two main components
Cardiovascular System
heart, blood vessels, and blood
Lymphatic System lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels
Layers of the Heart
EPICARDIUM
Thin, watery membrane on the outer layer
of the heart
Function: covers the heart and is attached
to the pericardium
MYOCARDIUM
Thick layer of cardiac muscles on the
middle layer of the heart
Function: Pumps blood into the arteries
by contracting
ENDOCARDIUM
Thin layer of epithelial cells in the inner
layer of the heart
Function: Lines the valves and interior
chambers
Showing Page:
2/9
Chambers of the Heart
Right Atrium
upper right chamber Function: receives deoxygenated blood
from the body
Right Ventricle
Lower right chamber Function: receives the blood from the
right atrium and pumps it into the
pulmonary artery
Left Atrium
upper left chamber Function: receives oxygenated blood from
the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle
Left Ventricle
Lower left chamber Function: receives the blood from the left
atrium and pumps it into the aorta
Valves of the Heart
Right AV valves
Tricuspid valve
Function: closes as the right ventricle
contracts preventing blood from flowing
back to the right atrium
Left AV valves
Bicuspid or mitral valve Function: closes as the left ventricle
contracts preventing the blood from flowing
back to the left atrium
Right semilunar valve
Pulmonary or pulmonic valve (entrance of
pulmonary artery)
Function: closes when the right ventricle
relaxes preventing blood from flowing back
to the right ventricle
Left semilunar valve
Aortic valve (entrance of aorta) Function: closes when the left ventricle
relaxes preventing blood from flowing back
to the left ventricle
Showing Page:
3/9
Septa
Interatrial Septum
Partition that separates the right from the left atria
Interventricular Septum
Partition that separates the right and left ventricles
Coronary Circulation
Left and Right Coronary Arteries
Provides blood supply to the heart
Coronary Veins
Returns oxygen-depleted blood from the heart muscle back to the heart
Functions of the Heart
Description
Cardiac Cycle
Systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation)
which lasts about 0.8 sec.
Electrical Conduction System)
Send electrical impulses throughout the
myocardium which is initiated by the sinoatrial
(SA) node (pacemaker
Electrocardiogra m (ECG)
Provides the graphical representation of the
cardiac cycle’s activity
Origin of the
Heart Sounds
“Lubb”
“Dupp”
Heart rate and Cardiac Output
Average heart rate: 72 beats per minute (BPM)
Cardiac output: volume of blood pumped per
minute
Pulse
Rhythmic throbbing resulting from the
alternating expansion and contraction of the
artery
Blood Pressure
The force exerted by the blood on the walls of
the blood vessels measured by the
sphygmomanometer; the difference between
the systolic (pressure during contraction) and
diastolic (pressure during relaxation)
Showing Page:
4/9
Disorders and Diagnostic Tests
Disorders
Angina Pectoris
Aortic Stenosis
Bacterial Endocarditis
Congestive Heart Failure
Myocardial Infarction
Pericarditis
Diagnostic Tests
Arterial blood gas
AST or SGOT
Cholesterol, Triglycerides
Creatine kinase
Creatine kinase-MB
Digoxin
Electrocardiogram (ECG
or EKG)
LDH isoenzymes
Microbial Cultures
Myoglobin, Troponin T
Potassium
Two main Divisions and Functions of the Vascular System
Pulmonary Circulation Systemic Circulation
Structures of the Vascular System
Arteries
Thick-walled blood vessels; Carries
oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the
tissues of the body
Arterioles
Small-diameter blood vessels; Branch out
from the arteries and lead to the capillaries
Veins
Tubes w/ thin walls, carries deoxygenated
blood from tissues to the heart
Venules
Very small veins that collect blood from
capillaries
Capillaries
Fine hair-like blood vessels that connect
arterioles and veins
Types, Structures, and Functions of Blood Vessels
Blood Vessel Structure
Layers
Showing Page:
5/9
▪ Tunica adventitia
Tunica media
▪ Tunica intima
Lumen
Valves found in the veins
Vascular system
Disorders
Aneurysm
Arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Embolism
Embolus
Hemorrhoids
Phlebitis
Thrombophlebitis
Thrombus
Varicose Veins
Diagnostic Tests
D-dimer
Fibrin degradation
products (FDP)
Lipoproteins
Prothrombin time (PT)
Partial Thromboplastin
time (PTT/APTT)
Triglycerides
Blood
Two types
1. Arterial blood oxygen and nutrients are carried to the tissues
2. Venous blood carbon dioxide and other metabolic by-products are carried to the lungs and
kidneys for removal from the body
Blood Type inherited and determined by the antigens on the surface of the red blood cells
ABO Blood Group System
Classification of human blood type based on the presence of antigens A and B
RH (Rhesus) Blood Group System
Showing Page:
6/9
Has a primary importance in obstetrics
because of the hemolytic
disease of the newborn (HDN)
Based on the “D” antigen or the Rh factor
Rh positive (Rh+) red blood cells have
the D antigen
Rh negative (Rh-) red blood cells does
not have the D antigen
Cross-matching is necessary before
transfusion
Whole Blood, Serum and Plasma
These are collected for testing purpose
SERUM
Fluid part left after clotting It does not have fibrinogen
PLASMA
Fluid portion that is separated by
centrifugation from the formed
elements of the blood
Has fibrinogen
Collected in anticoagulated tube
WHOLE BLOOD
Same as the blood in the bloodstream
It should neither clot nor separate
Collected in anticoagulated tube and
mixed well prior to testing
Blood
Disorders
Anemia
Leukemia
Urinary Tract Infection
Leukocytosis
Leukopenia
Polycythemia
Thrombocytosis
Thrombocytopenia
Diagnostic Tests
ABO and RH type
Bone marrow
examination
Complete blood count
Cross-matching
Differential count
Eosinophil count
Erythrocyte
sedimentation rate
Ferritin
Hematocrit
Showing Page:
7/9
Others
Lymphatic System: Structure & Functions
Lymphatic System
network of tissues and organs responsible for the removal of toxins and waste in the human
body
Primary function: transport the WBC to and from the lymph nodes throughout the body
Composition:
lymph (similar to plasma
but is composed of 95%
water)
Lymph nodes masses
of lymph tissue
Lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic ducts
Transports the tissue fluid back into the
bloodstream
Removes impurities
Processed lymphocytes
Transports the fat absorbed from the small
intestine into the blood stream
Lympathic system
Disorders
Lymphangitis
Lymphadenitis
Lymphadenopathy
Splenomegaly
Hodgkin’s disease
Lymphosarcoma
Lymphoma
Diagnostic Tests
Bone marrow biopsy
Complete blood count
Culture and sensitivity
Lymph node biopsy
Mononucleosis test
Hemostasis
Stoppage of bleeding as a response to
injury
Requires the coordination of: endothelial
cells, platelets, other blood cells and plasma
proteins
4 interrelated responses:
Vasoconstriction Formation of primary platelet plug
Showing Page:
8/9
Progression to the stable blood clot Fibrinolysis or dissolving of clot
Coagulation Factors and Pathways
Coagulation/Clotting blood changes from a liquid state into a gel that forms the blood clot
Coagulation factors proteins needed in the coagulation
Enzyme precursors Cofactors Substrates
Clotting cascade Extrinsic pathway and Intrinsic pathway
Role of thrombin
Enzyme
Produced at the site of injury from
prothrombin
Amplifies coagulation and converts
fibrinogen into soluble fibrin
Which supports the platelet plug
formation by activating factor XIII to cross-
link fibrin and to control
the formation and coagulation process by
activating protein C
Role of the Liver in Hemostasis
Synthesizes coagulation factors such as V,
VIII, prothrombin and fibrinogen
Produces bile salts needed to help break
down fats, aid digestion, absorb important
vitamins, and
eliminate toxin, for vitamin K absorption
Major Arm and Leg Veins in Venipuncture
Antecubital fossa/ Elbow pit
First choice for routine venipuncture
Presence of several arm veins called antecubital veins close to the surface which makes them
easy to locate and penetrate
H-shaped antecubital veins (Image A)
▪ Median Cubital Vein
▪ Cephalic Vein
Basilic Vein
M-shaped antecubital veins (Image B)
Showing Page:
9/9
▪ Median Vein
▪ Median Cephalic Vein
▪ Median Basilic Vein
Major Arm and Leg Veins in Venipuncture
Other arm and hand veins used only when the antecubital veins are not accessible
Leg, ankle, and foot veins
Arteries not for routine blood collection

Unformatted Attachment Preview

LESSON NO. 3 : Circulatory System The Circulatory System ➢Functions: ✓ Responsible for transporting throughout the body oxygenated blood from the heart and lungs via the arteries. ✓ Oxygen depleted blood is returned via the veins ✓ Delivers oxygen and nutrients to all cells in the human body ✓ Transports carbon dioxide and other wastes to the other organs of the body and away from cells ✓ Helps in coagulation process, regulates body temperature, and assists the body in fighting diseases The Circulatory System ➢Two main components ✓ Cardiovascular System – heart, blood vessels, and blood ✓ Lymphatic System – lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels Layers of the Heart ➢EPICARDIUM ✓ Thin, watery membrane on the outer layer of the heart ✓ Function: covers the heart and is attached to the pericardium ➢MYOCARDIUM ✓ Thick layer of cardiac muscles on the middle layer of the heart ✓ Function: Pumps blood into the arteries by contracting ➢ENDOCARDIUM ✓ Thin layer of epithelial cells in the inner layer of the heart ✓ Function: Lines the valves and interior chambers Chambers of the Heart ➢Right Atrium ✓ upper right chamber ✓ Function: receives deoxygenated blood from the body ➢Right Ventricle ✓ Lower right chamber ✓ Function: receives the blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery ➢Left Atrium ✓ upper left chamber ✓ Function: receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle ➢Left Ventricle ✓ Lower left chamber ✓ Function: receives the blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta Valves of the Heart ➢Right AV valves ✓ Tricuspid valve ✓ Function: closes as the right ventricle contracts preventing blood from flowing back to the right atrium ➢Left AV valves ✓ Bicuspid or mitral valve ✓ Function: closes as the left ventricle contracts preventing the blood from flowing back to the left atrium ➢Right semilunar valve ✓ Pulmonary or pulmonic valve (entrance of pulmonary artery) ✓ Function: closes when the right ventricle relaxes preventing blood from flowing back to the right ventricle ➢Left semilunar valve ✓ Aortic valve (entrance of aorta) ✓ Function: closes when the left ventricle relaxes preventing blood from flowing back to the left ventricle Septa ➢Interatrial Septum ✓ Partition that separates the right from the left atria ➢Interventricular Septum ✓ Partition that separates the right and left ventricles Coronary Circulation ➢Left and Right Coronary Arteries ✓ Provides blood supply to the heart ➢Coronary Veins ✓ Returns oxygen-depleted blood from the heart muscle back to the heart Functions of the Heart Description Cardiac Cycle Systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) which lasts about 0.8 sec. Electrical Conduction System) Send electrical impulses throughout the myocardium which is initiated by the sinoatrial (SA) node (pacemaker Provides the graphical representation of the cardiac cycle’s activity Electrocardiogra m (ECG) Origin of the Heart Sounds “Lubb” “Dupp” Heart rate and Cardiac Output Average heart rate: 72 beats per minute (BPM) Cardiac output: volume of blood pumped per minute Rhythmic throbbing resulting from the alternating expansion and contraction of the artery The force exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels measured by the sphygmomanometer; the difference between the systolic (pressure during contraction) and diastolic (pressure during relaxation) Pulse Blood Pressure Disorders and Diagnostic Tests ➢Disorders ✓ Angina Pectoris ✓ Congestive Heart Failure ✓ Aortic Stenosis ✓ Myocardial Infarction ✓ Bacterial Endocarditis ✓ Pericarditis ➢ Diagnostic Tests ✓ Arterial blood gas ✓ Electrocardiogram (ECG ✓ AST or SGOT or EKG) ✓ Cholesterol, Triglycerides ✓ LDH isoenzymes ✓ Creatine kinase ✓ Microbial Cultures ✓ Creatine kinase-MB ✓ Myoglobin, Troponin T ✓ Digoxin ✓ Potassium Two main Divisions and Functions of the Vascular System ✓ Pulmonary Circulation ✓ Systemic Circulation Structures of the Vascular System ➢Arteries ✓ Thick-walled blood vessels; Carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the body ➢Arterioles ✓ Small-diameter blood vessels; Branch out from the arteries and lead to the capillaries ➢Veins Types, Structures, and Functions of Blood Vessels ➢Blood Vessel Structure ✓ Layers ✓ Tubes w/ thin walls, carries deoxygenated blood from tissues to the heart ➢Venules ✓ Very small veins that collect blood from capillaries ➢ Capillaries ✓ Fine hair-like blood vessels that connect arterioles and veins ▪ Tunica adventitia ▪ Tunica intima ▪ Tunica media ✓ Lumen ✓ Valves – found in the veins Vascular system ➢Disorders ✓ Aneurysm ➢ Diagnostic Tests ✓ Arteriosclerosis ✓ D-dimer ✓ Atherosclerosis ✓ Fibrin degradation ✓ Embolism products (FDP) ✓ Embolus ✓ Lipoproteins ✓ Hemorrhoids ✓ Prothrombin time (PT) ✓ Phlebitis ✓ Partial Thromboplastin ✓ Thrombophlebitis time (PTT/APTT) ✓ Thrombus ✓ Triglycerides ✓ Varicose Veins Blood ➢Two types 1. Arterial blood – oxygen and nutrients are carried to the tissues 2. Venous blood – carbon dioxide and other metabolic by-products are carried to the lungs and kidneys for removal from the body Blood Type – inherited and determined by the antigens on the surface of the red blood cells ➢ABO Blood Group System ✓ Classification of human blood type based on the presence of antigens A and B ➢RH (Rhesus) Blood Group System ✓ Has a primary importance in obstetrics because of the hemolytic ✓ Rh negative (Rh-) – red blood cells does not have the D antigen disease of the newborn (HDN) ✓ Cross-matching is necessary before transfusion ✓ Based on the “D” antigen or the Rh factor ✓ Rh positive (Rh+) – red blood cells have the D antigen Whole Blood, Serum and Plasma ➢These are collected for testing purpose ➢SERUM ✓ Fluid part left after clotting ✓ It does not have fibrinogen ➢PLASMA ✓ Fluid portion that is separated by centrifugation from the formed ✓ Has fibrinogen ✓ Collected in anticoagulated tube elements of the blood ➢WHOLE BLOOD ✓ Same as the blood in the bloodstream ✓ It should neither clot nor separate ✓ Collected in anticoagulated tube and mixed well prior to testing Blood ➢Disorders ✓ Anemia ✓ Leukocytosis ✓ Thrombocytosis ✓ Leukemia ✓ Leukopenia ✓ Thrombocytopenia ✓ Urinary Tract Infection ✓ Polycythemia ➢ Diagnostic Tests ✓ ABO and RH type ✓ Cross-matching ✓ Erythrocyte ✓ Bone marrow examination ✓ Differential count sedimentation rate ✓ Eosinophil count ✓ Ferritin ✓ Complete blood count ✓ Hematocrit ✓ Others Lymphatic System: Structure & Functions Lymphatic System ➢network of tissues and organs responsible for the removal of toxins and waste in the human body ➢Primary function: transport the WBC to and from the lymph nodes throughout the body ➢Composition: ✓ lymph (similar to plasma but is composed of 95% water) ✓ Lymph nodes – masses of lymph tissue ✓ Lymphatic ducts ✓ Lymphatic vessels ➢Transports the tissue fluid back into the bloodstream ➢Removes impurities ➢Processed lymphocytes ➢Transports the fat absorbed from the small intestine into the blood stream Lympathic system ➢Disorders ✓ Lymphangitis ✓ Splenomegaly ✓ Lymphoma ✓ Lymphadenitis ✓ Hodgkin’s disease ✓ Lymphadenopathy ✓ Lymphosarcoma ➢ Diagnostic Tests ✓ Bone marrow biopsy ✓ Culture and sensitivity ✓ Complete blood count ✓ Lymph node biopsy ✓ Mononucleosis test ➢Hemostasis ✓ Stoppage of bleeding as a response to injury ✓ Requires the coordination of: endothelial cells, platelets, other blood cells and plasma proteins ✓ 4 interrelated responses: ▪ Vasoconstriction ▪ Formation of primary platelet plug ▪ Progression to the stable blood clot ▪ Fibrinolysis or dissolving of clot ➢Coagulation Factors and Pathways ✓ Coagulation/Clotting – blood changes from a liquid state into a gel that forms the blood clot ✓ Coagulation factors – proteins needed in the coagulation ▪ Enzyme precursors ▪ Cofactors ▪ Substrates ✓ Clotting cascade – Extrinsic pathway and Intrinsic pathway ➢Role of thrombin ✓ Enzyme ✓ Produced at the site of injury from prothrombin ✓ Amplifies coagulation and converts fibrinogen into soluble fibrin ✓ Which supports the platelet plug formation by activating factor XIII to crosslink fibrin and to control the formation and coagulation process by activating protein C ➢Role of the Liver in Hemostasis ✓ Synthesizes coagulation factors such as V, VIII, prothrombin and fibrinogen ✓ Produces bile salts – needed to help break down fats, aid digestion, absorb important vitamins, and eliminate toxin, for vitamin K absorption Major Arm and Leg Veins in Venipuncture ➢Antecubital fossa/ Elbow pit ✓ First choice for routine venipuncture ✓ Presence of several arm veins called antecubital veins – close to the surface which makes them easy to locate and penetrate ➢ H-shaped antecubital veins (Image A) ▪ Median Cubital Vein ▪ Cephalic Vein ▪ Basilic Vein ➢ M-shaped antecubital veins (Image B) ▪ Median Vein ▪ Median Cephalic Vein ▪ Median Basilic Vein Major Arm and Leg Veins in Venipuncture ➢ Other arm and hand veins – used only when the antecubital veins are not accessible ➢ Leg, ankle, and foot veins ➢ Arteries – not for routine blood collection Name: Description: ...
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.
Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4