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Critical Review 1
Heading: Critical Review
Your name:
Course name:
Professors’ name:
Date
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Critical Review 2
Introduction
The article’s context is in companies situated in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The article entitled Impact
of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance, Evidence from
Pakistan was authored by Javeria Ashfaq Qureshi; Khansa Hayat; Mehwish Ali; and Nowheen
Sarwat, who are all MS (Human Resource Management) scholars at Riphah International
University, Islamabad in Pakistan. The article’s topic is beneficial as it explores the effect of
work fulfillment and organizational dedication on worker’s performance. Here, the study
attempts to illuminate on some of the factors that decrease or increase the organizational
dedicational and how these factors impact on worker performance. It also illuminates on the
connection between two variables organizational dedication and job satisfaction. Hence, the
article is convenient in that it addressed serious matters related to the country’s economy. This is
because employee’s job satisfaction determines their productivity, which in turn, affects the
country’s economic status. Besides, the article uses suitable research design, methodology, and
procedures in order to achieve the target results.
Summary
According to Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654), job satisfaction entails a
positive feeling on the work. This implies that the most satisfied employees are those that are
happy with their jobs. The authors further argue that there are several factors that affect
employees’ job satisfaction, and these variables have an effect on the work fulfillment pay,
benefits, promotions, working conditions, coworkers, safety, supervisors, growth opportunities,
and organizational culture. The authors say that the factors described above are vital in the
determination of the employees’ satisfaction. In addition, they mention employee attitude as a
determinant factors for employees’ work fulfillment. With reference to Judge and Sari (2004, pp.
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Critical Review 3
376-407), authors demonstrate that worker attitude is highly significant for the organization’s
effectiveness. Here, they explain that there are extrinsic and intrinsic factors influencing
employee attitude. Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) say that dissatisfied
employees are unlikely to perform well in their workplaces as compared to the satisfied ones.
In addition, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) defined organizational
commitment as a feeling of accountability, which a worker has on the organization’s mission.
Furthermore, they also say that organization commitment entails emotional attachment to the
firm’s on how workers are devoted to the company. The authors indicate that there are numerous
factors that influence organizational devotion by employees, and that organizational commitment
affects the employees’ effectiveness in the business (Yaqueeb & Abbas 2009, pp. 269-292).
In terms of the employee performance, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654)
explain it as an achievement of a particular duty measured against predetermined principles of
cost, accuracy, completeness, and speed. Some of the job satisfaction indicators include high
socioeconomic status; use of advanced technology for workplace communication; younger
employees; permanent and full-time workers; workers in bigger firms; and workers in foreign-
owned businesses. Moreover, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) demonstrate
that labor force flexibility with worker performance and claims that flexible labor force systems
are associated with job satisfaction globally. According to the authors, performance involves the
capability to perform efficiently in one’s job, and needs one to possess and comprehend a full
and updated work description for the position. This also requires a complete understanding of
work performance conditions and standards that one is required to have. Situational
(environmental) factors and personal (demographics) factors are some of the factors that
influence worker performance and job satisfaction. Additionally, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat
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Critical Review 4
(2011, pp. 642-654) note that the link between the employee performance and leadership, and
that emotional intelligence vital for worker employee. Notably, workers only perform effectively
and accomplish the desired outcomes when they fully understand their roles and responsibilities
in their jobs.
In terms of literature review, the authors assert that job commitment possesses positive impact
when there is an increased job satisfaction, worker devotion, and job performance. Explicitly,
more employee commitment brings about job satisfaction. Besides, teamwork also influences
employees’ job satisfaction. With reference to and Valle and Witt (2001, pp. 379-388), the
article’s authors show that high degree of teamwork and low degree of teamwork affect job
performance in some ways. First, low teamwork level is disadvantageous to firm and it makes
workers’ job fulfillment, whereas high teamwork level leads to high performance and employee
work satisfaction. Additionally, the association between job satisfaction and worker
performance lies on the management’s ability to provide appropriate facilities to be used by
workers. Additionally, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) also argue that job
insecurity is a negative factor to job satisfaction because employees are in a state of uncertainty.
Stress is another negative effect on job fulfillment in organizations. Compared to private sectors,
public sector employees are more fulfilled with their jobs as they effectively satisfy their needs
and requirements (Yahaya, Arshad, Ismail, Jaalam, Zakariya, 2009, pp. 390-397). Here, the
authors also say that since the working environment is less compatible, employees’ turnover is
low. What is more, they hold that leadership style and organizational culture affect employees’
performance. Here, they assert that if the leadership and company’s culture do not offer
appropriate opportunities for workers, then they opt for better places. In addition to conflict, both
external and internal, is also a determining factor to employees’ performance, and that firms
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Critical Review 5
should strive to eradicate it (Medina, Munduate, Dorado, Martinez & Guerra 2005, pp.
219-230). Once again, the firm manager assigns responsibilities to workers who in turn work
towards the achievement of objectives. The authors also stress on the significance of the workers
to have skills and knowledge about their work.
With respect to organizational commitment, the article’s literature review demonstrates that both
extrinsic and intrinsic factors influence employees’ commitment to their organizations. The
authors maintain that there is a connection between work fulfillment and organization devotion
in that the more employees’ devotion to the firm, the more their work satisfaction. Besides,
Shahu and Gole (2008, pp. 237-246) note that organization support is one of the factors that
enhance job satisfaction among workers. In addition to organization support, job insecurity is
another determining factor that influences workers’ firm’s commitment. This implies that
employees who do not feel secured in their jobs are likely to have low organizational
commitment levels (Chatzoglou, Vraimaki, Komsou, Polychrou & Diamantidis, pp. 130-143).
Furthermore, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) demonstrate, through other
studies, that there is a negative correlation between company commitment and stress. Here, it is
explicit that stress is a negative factor, for it reduces employees’ organizational commitment.
What is more, team empowerment, job satisfaction, and participative management are highly
indispensable in the enhancement of worker firm devotion. Employees’ participation to work
fulfillment is influential in the organization’s progress. More so, the association between
supervisor and workers is significant when determining organizational commitment. Notably,
there is a distinction between firms as some are task-oriented, whereas others are relationship-
oriented.
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Critical Review 6
The Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) also explain employee’s performance
as how best workers perform tasks assigned. They hold that workers’ performance is based on
the leader’s attitude, for their performance improves with a free leader that handles special
matters arising among employees. Satisfied and valued employees are those that are appreciated,
rewarded, and given timely feedback by their leaders. Sequentially, workers that feel valued are
the best performing, satisfied, creative, and devoted workers. Worker performance also largely
relies on human resource management practices, and leadership skills. There is a strong
correlation between worker performance and leadership; organizational performance and
company behavior; positive environment and worker performance. Additionally, Qureshi, Hayat,
Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) argue that employee commitment and performance are
strongly related. Positive communication and motivation also play a crucial role in the
performance of employees.
Still on employee performance, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) assert that
employees’ perception on their managers strongly affects their performance in the organization.
They also argue that managers and human resource practices have a positive effect on employee
performance. Additionally, the authors maintain that employee performance depends on the kind
of leadership in their workplaces. Therefore, there is a need for all managers to attain essential
and relevant leadership skills in order to perform well and satisfy performance standards. This
further shows a strong connection between employee performance and leadership.
Furthermore, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) point out that positive
organizational conduct increases workers’ performance. This is because employees’ commitment
and satisfaction increases in an environment with a favorable organizational conduct. This not
only improves their satisfaction, but also enhances the creation of better organizations. Lack of
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Critical Review 7
commitment among employers leads to poor performance; hence job dissatisfaction. The authors
also advocate that leaders should give employees a chance to air their views and opinions
regarding organizational affairs. This is because; giving importance to their views greatly boosts
their satisfaction, and thus improves their job satisfaction.
Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) also say that giving employees a chance to
present their views enables them to acquire experiences and skills from their fellow workers;
hence, improved commitment. Additionally, it is important for managers to promote
communication in the organization, especially between the staff and the management. This is
because effective communication improves employee performance. Besides, communication is
the foundation of employee mind-set, as well as teamwork, which greatly improve workers’
performance.
In terms of terms of the theoretical framework, the authors demonstrate the correlation between
job satisfaction and worker’s performance, as well as the relationship between organizational
commitment and worker’s performance. In methodology, the article’s writers used a
questionnaire in the collection of data. The questionnaire’s independent variable is job
satisfaction, while the dependent variable is employee’s performance. The tool was also tested
on validity and reliability scales. Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) used
workers in various sectors of Rawalpindi organization in Pakistan as participants. 180
questionnaires were distributed, but only 150 of them were returned (83% response), and an
adequate sample size was chosen for results’ analysis, as the research was limited. The procedure
entailed data collection by personally administered questionnaire.
Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) also employed correlation matrix to
determine the existence of a correlation between dependent variable (worker’s performance) and
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Critical Review 8
independent variables (organizational commitment and job satisfaction). Moreover, they used a
demographic frequency table to demonstrate the distinctions among the participants’ responses.
Most of the respondents were female aged between 35 and 45 years. Most of them were also
married, and there were unmarried. Majority of them that performed their responsibilities
efficiently belonged to the master’s category and had between 18 and 25 years job experience.
Besides, most of the participant spoke Urdu language. In terms of the results of the study, the
correlation matrix demonstrates that work satisfaction is strongly correlated to the worker’s
performance. Likewise, job satisfaction is strongly and substantially related to organization
commitment. The regression analysis of the study also showed a strong significance.
In their discussion of the results, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) indicate
that employee performance and job satisfaction influence organization’s performance.
Additionally, job fulfillment and organizational devotion strongly influence worker’s
performance. In the study, employees from various sectors in the organization were highly
fulfilled because they worked in suitable environment. Beside, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat
(2011, pp. 642-654) say that the study confirm that present labor force experiences job
dissatisfaction and stress. Employees in all work levels feel unconfident, anxious, undervalued
and misunderstood in their places of work. Moreover, the authors hold that worker face stress;
hence get angry and fatigued, as a result of overworking. Discrimination against national,
gender, and race, is also a determining factor of job dissatisfaction.
More so, the results indicate that work overload causes stress, which in turn, leads to job
dissatisfaction among employees. The authors also maintain most of the workers displayed low
motivation to work because of stress, and different organizational culture. They, therefore,
suggest that the organization’s responsibility to positively motivate its employees by use
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Critical Review 9
incentives, bonuses and rewards based on performance evaluation. Notably, successful
performance is essential for the economic development (Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat 2011,
pp. 642-654).
What is more, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) emphasize that worker’s
performance has its own results like organizational commitment and job satisfaction and other
variables that could have been determined in the study but for limited time.
Evaluation
Strengths
The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between work satisfaction,
organizational commitment, and employee’s performance. The strength of the articles lies on the
arguments, methodology and questionnaire as a method of collecting data. The authors also used
an appropriate sample for effective analysis of the participants’ responses. Moreover, the article
has employed suitable research procedures that enabled it achieve the desired goals and
objectives. In the analysis of the research findings, the authors have used correlation matrix to
facilitate easy understanding by the reader. Additionally, the literature review is extensive
enough for the reader to compare and contrast different studies by various authors. Apart from
the literature review, the authors broadly introduced the topic of study for the reader to
effectively understand the issues at hand before the study itself. There is also a clear problem
statement that gives a reader focus and direction of the study. Besides, the study is tested for
validity and reliability.
Weaknesses
To begin with, the article is poorly written because the authors did not pay attention to the
language; the authors did not follow grammatical rules in their article. Secondly, the article lacks
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Critical Review 10
cohesion and coherence, as the authors failed to arrange their ideas properly. This makes it hard
for the reader to read and fully comprehend the arguments in the article. Despite the fact the
authors have strong arguments concerning the relationship between work satisfaction and
organizational commitment, and worker’s performance; they are hard to understand because of
poor language used.
Thirdly, the article lacks a conclusion, which is a very vital section in a research article, for it
shows the researchers’ standpoint based on the literature review and study findings. In spite of a
suitable design, methodology, theoretical framework and analysis, the authors failed to draw a
conclusion of their arguments on the topic under study. Besides, the article lacks a clear outline
of the hypothesis, as they authors have incorporated in the introduction and the literature review,
which makes it difficult for the reader to notice and understand. In addition to the absence of
conclusion and hypotheses, the article is devoid of the recommendations for future studies on the
same topic.
Conclusion
The article’s major purpose is to investigate on the effects of work satisfaction and
organizational commitment on worker’s performance. In the literature review, the authors have
identified numerous ideas by different authors that commonly held that the employees’ job
fulfillment and organizational commitment greatly affect their job performance. Despite the
appropriate research design, and suitable place of study, the authors failed in their language,
coherence, and cohesion of the study. Moreover, the study lacks clear hypotheses, conclusion,
and recommendations for future studies on the same topic. Therefore, the authors ought to use
appropriate language, an explicit outline of hypotheses, conclusion, and recommendations for
future researchers. There is also a need to use a number of data collection methods to ensure
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Critical Review 11
successful comparison of results. They should also conduct the study in different countries so as
to ensure investigation of the issue and appropriate conclusions.
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Critical Review 12
References
Chatzoglou, PD, Vraimaki, E, Komsou, E, Polychrou, E & Diamantidis, A 2011, Factors
Affecting Accountants’ Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions: A Structural Equation Model.
8
th
International Conference on Enterprise Systems, Accounting and Logistics (8
th
ICESAL
2011), Thassos Island, Greece. Pp.130-143.
http://www.icesal.org/2011%20PROCEEDINGS/docs/P7.pdf
Judge, TA, Thoresen, CJ, Bono, JE, Patton, G K 2001, The Job Satisfaction-Job Performance
Relationship: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review’, American Psychological Association Inc,
vol.127, no. 3, pp. 376-407.
http://fagbokforlaget.no/boker/downloadpsykorg/KAP8/artikler/Jobbtilfredshet.pdf
Medina, FJ, Munduate, L, Dorado, MA, Martinez, I & Guerra, JM 2005, ‘Types of
intragroup conflict and affective reactions’, Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol.20, no.3/4,
pp. 219-230. http://personal.us.es/munduate/p219.pdf
Qureshi, JA, Hayat, K, Ali, M & Sarwat, N 2011, ‘Impact of Job Satisfaction and Organizational
Commitment on Employee Performance, Evidence from Pakistan’, Interdisciplinary Journal of
Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 3, no.4, pp. 642-654.
Shahu, R & Gole, SV 2008, Effect of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Performance’,
AIMS International Journal 238 of Management, 2(3), 237-246.
http://www.slideshare.net/ridhsi/effect-of-job-stress-and-job-satisfaction-on-performance-an-
empirical-study
Valle, M, Witt, L, A 2001, The moderating effect of teamwork perceptions on the
Organizational’, Journal of Social Psychology, vol.141, no. 3, pp. 379-388.
http://www.unc.edu/~bwilder/inls585/131rdg21mar.pdf
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Yahaya, A, Noordin Y, Arshad, K, Ismail, J, Jaalam, S, Zakariya, Z 2009, Occupational Stress
and its Effects towards the Organization Management’, Journal of Social Sciences, vol.5, no. 4,
pp. 390-397.
http://eprints.utm.my/9719/1/jss54390-397.pdf
Yaqueeb, S & Abbas, Q 2009, Effects of leadership development on employees performance in
Pakistan’, Pakistan economic and social review, vol. 47, no.2, pp. 269-292.
http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/pesr/PDFFILES/8%20ABBAS%20Effect%20of%20Leadership
%20Development.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Critical Review 1 Heading: Critical Review Your name: Course name: Professors’ name: Date Critical Review 2 Introduction The article’s context is in companies situated in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The article entitled Impact of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance, Evidence from Pakistan was authored by Javeria Ashfaq Qureshi; Khansa Hayat; Mehwish Ali; and Nowheen Sarwat, who are all MS (Human Resource Management) scholars at Riphah International University, Islamabad in Pakistan. The article’s topic is beneficial as it explores the effect of work fulfillment and organizational dedication on worker’s performance. Here, the study attempts to illuminate on some of the factors that decrease or increase the organizational dedicational and how these factors impact on worker performance. It also illuminates on the connection between two variables organizational dedication and job satisfaction. Hence, the article is convenient in that it addressed serious matters related to the country’s economy. This is because employee’s job satisfaction determines their productivity, which in turn, affects the country’s economic status. Besides, the article uses suitable research design, methodology, and procedures in order to achieve the target results. Summary According to Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654), job satisfaction entails a positive feeling on the work. This implies that the most satisfied employees are those that are happy with their jobs. The authors further argue that there are several factors that affect employees’ job satisfaction, and these variables have an effect on the work fulfillment pay, benefits, promotions, working conditions, coworkers, safety, supervisors, growth opportunities, and organizational culture. The authors say that the factors described above are vital in the determination of the employees’ satisfaction. In addition, they mention employee attitude as a determinant factors for employees’ work fulfillment. With reference to Judge and Sari (2004, pp. Critical Review 3 376-407), authors demonstrate that worker attitude is highly significant for the organization’s effectiveness. Here, they explain that there are extrinsic and intrinsic factors influencing employee attitude. Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) say that dissatisfied employees are unlikely to perform well in their workplaces as compared to the satisfied ones. In addition, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) defined organizational commitment as a feeling of accountability, which a worker has on the organization’s mission. Furthermore, they also say that organization commitment entails emotional attachment to the firm’s on how workers are devoted to the company. The authors indicate that there are numerous factors that influence organizational devotion by employees, and that organizational commitment affects the employees’ effectiveness in the business (Yaqueeb & Abbas 2009, pp. 269-292). In terms of the employee performance, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) explain it as an achievement of a particular duty measured against predetermined principles of cost, accuracy, completeness, and speed. Some of the job satisfaction indicators include high socioeconomic status; use of advanced technology for workplace communication; younger employees; permanent and full-time workers; workers in bigger firms; and workers in foreignowned businesses. Moreover, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) demonstrate that labor force flexibility with worker performance and claims that flexible labor force systems are associated with job satisfaction globally. According to the authors, performance involves the capability to perform efficiently in one’s job, and needs one to possess and comprehend a full and updated work description for the position. This also requires a complete understanding of work performance conditions and standards that one is required to have. Situational (environmental) factors and personal (demographics) factors are some of the factors that influence worker performance and job satisfaction. Additionally, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat Critical Review 4 (2011, pp. 642-654) note that the link between the employee performance and leadership, and that emotional intelligence vital for worker employee. Notably, workers only perform effectively and accomplish the desired outcomes when they fully understand their roles and responsibilities in their jobs. In terms of literature review, the authors assert that job commitment possesses positive impact when there is an increased job satisfaction, worker devotion, and job performance. Explicitly, more employee commitment brings about job satisfaction. Besides, teamwork also influences employees’ job satisfaction. With reference to and Valle and Witt (2001, pp. 379-388), the article’s authors show that high degree of teamwork and low degree of teamwork affect job performance in some ways. First, low teamwork level is disadvantageous to firm and it makes workers’ job fulfillment, whereas high teamwork level leads to high performance and employee work satisfaction. Additionally, the association between job satisfaction and worker performance lies on the management’s ability to provide appropriate facilities to be used by workers. Additionally, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) also argue that job insecurity is a negative factor to job satisfaction because employees are in a state of uncertainty. Stress is another negative effect on job fulfillment in organizations. Compared to private sectors, public sector employees are more fulfilled with their jobs as they effectively satisfy their needs and requirements (Yahaya, Arshad, Ismail, Jaalam, Zakariya, 2009, pp. 390-397). Here, the authors also say that since the working environment is less compatible, employees’ turnover is low. What is more, they hold that leadership style and organizational culture affect employees’ performance. Here, they assert that if the leadership and company’s culture do not offer appropriate opportunities for workers, then they opt for better places. In addition to conflict, both external and internal, is also a determining factor to employees’ performance, and that firms Critical Review 5 should strive to eradicate it (Medina, Munduate, Dorado, Martinez & Guerra 2005, pp. 219-230). Once again, the firm manager assigns responsibilities to workers who in turn work towards the achievement of objectives. The authors also stress on the significance of the workers to have skills and knowledge about their work. With respect to organizational commitment, the article’s literature review demonstrates that both extrinsic and intrinsic factors influence employees’ commitment to their organizations. The authors maintain that there is a connection between work fulfillment and organization devotion in that the more employees’ devotion to the firm, the more their work satisfaction. Besides, Shahu and Gole (2008, pp. 237-246) note that organization support is one of the factors that enhance job satisfaction among workers. In addition to organization support, job insecurity is another determining factor that influences workers’ firm’s commitment. This implies that employees who do not feel secured in their jobs are likely to have low organizational commitment levels (Chatzoglou, Vraimaki, Komsou, Polychrou & Diamantidis, pp. 130-143). Furthermore, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) demonstrate, through other studies, that there is a negative correlation between company commitment and stress. Here, it is explicit that stress is a negative factor, for it reduces employees’ organizational commitment. What is more, team empowerment, job satisfaction, and participative management are highly indispensable in the enhancement of worker firm devotion. Employees’ participation to work fulfillment is influential in the organization’s progress. More so, the association between supervisor and workers is significant when determining organizational commitment. Notably, there is a distinction between firms as some are task-oriented, whereas others are relationshiporiented. Critical Review 6 The Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) also explain employee’s performance as how best workers perform tasks assigned. They hold that workers’ performance is based on the leader’s attitude, for their performance improves with a free leader that handles special matters arising among employees. Satisfied and valued employees are those that are appreciated, rewarded, and given timely feedback by their leaders. Sequentially, workers that feel valued are the best performing, satisfied, creative, and devoted workers. Worker performance also largely relies on human resource management practices, and leadership skills. There is a strong correlation between worker performance and leadership; organizational performance and company behavior; positive environment and worker performance. Additionally, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) argue that employee commitment and performance are strongly related. Positive communication and motivation also play a crucial role in the performance of employees. Still on employee performance, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) assert that employees’ perception on their managers strongly affects their performance in the organization. They also argue that managers and human resource practices have a positive effect on employee performance. Additionally, the authors maintain that employee performance depends on the kind of leadership in their workplaces. Therefore, there is a need for all managers to attain essential and relevant leadership skills in order to perform well and satisfy performance standards. This further shows a strong connection between employee performance and leadership. Furthermore, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) point out that positive organizational conduct increases workers’ performance. This is because employees’ commitment and satisfaction increases in an environment with a favorable organizational conduct. This not only improves their satisfaction, but also enhances the creation of better organizations. Lack of Critical Review 7 commitment among employers leads to poor performance; hence job dissatisfaction. The authors also advocate that leaders should give employees a chance to air their views and opinions regarding organizational affairs. This is because; giving importance to their views greatly boosts their satisfaction, and thus improves their job satisfaction. Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) also say that giving employees a chance to present their views enables them to acquire experiences and skills from their fellow workers; hence, improved commitment. Additionally, it is important for managers to promote communication in the organization, especially between the staff and the management. This is because effective communication improves employee performance. Besides, communication is the foundation of employee mind-set, as well as teamwork, which greatly improve workers’ performance. In terms of terms of the theoretical framework, the authors demonstrate the correlation between job satisfaction and worker’s performance, as well as the relationship between organizational commitment and worker’s performance. In methodology, the article’s writers used a questionnaire in the collection of data. The questionnaire’s independent variable is job satisfaction, while the dependent variable is employee’s performance. The tool was also tested on validity and reliability scales. Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) used workers in various sectors of Rawalpindi organization in Pakistan as participants. 180 questionnaires were distributed, but only 150 of them were returned (83% response), and an adequate sample size was chosen for results’ analysis, as the research was limited. The procedure entailed data collection by personally administered questionnaire. Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) also employed correlation matrix to determine the existence of a correlation between dependent variable (worker’s performance) and Critical Review 8 independent variables (organizational commitment and job satisfaction). Moreover, they used a demographic frequency table to demonstrate the distinctions among the participants’ responses. Most of the respondents were female aged between 35 and 45 years. Most of them were also married, and there were unmarried. Majority of them that performed their responsibilities efficiently belonged to the master’s category and had between 18 and 25 years job experience. Besides, most of the participant spoke Urdu language. In terms of the results of the study, the correlation matrix demonstrates that work satisfaction is strongly correlated to the worker’s performance. Likewise, job satisfaction is strongly and substantially related to organization commitment. The regression analysis of the study also showed a strong significance. In their discussion of the results, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) indicate that employee performance and job satisfaction influence organization’s performance. Additionally, job fulfillment and organizational devotion strongly influence worker’s performance. In the study, employees from various sectors in the organization were highly fulfilled because they worked in suitable environment. Beside, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) say that the study confirm that present labor force experiences job dissatisfaction and stress. Employees in all work levels feel unconfident, anxious, undervalued and misunderstood in their places of work. Moreover, the authors hold that worker face stress; hence get angry and fatigued, as a result of overworking. Discrimination against national, gender, and race, is also a determining factor of job dissatisfaction. More so, the results indicate that work overload causes stress, which in turn, leads to job dissatisfaction among employees. The authors also maintain most of the workers displayed low motivation to work because of stress, and different organizational culture. They, therefore, suggest that the organization’s responsibility to positively motivate its employees by use Critical Review 9 incentives, bonuses and rewards based on performance evaluation. Notably, successful performance is essential for the economic development (Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat 2011, pp. 642-654). What is more, Qureshi, Hayat, Ali, and Sarwat (2011, pp. 642-654) emphasize that worker’s performance has its own results like organizational commitment and job satisfaction and other variables that could have been determined in the study but for limited time. Evaluation Strengths The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between work satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee’s performance. The strength of the articles lies on the arguments, methodology and questionnaire as a method of collecting data. The authors also used an appropriate sample for effective analysis of the participants’ responses. Moreover, the article has employed suitable research procedures that enabled it achieve the desired goals and objectives. In the analysis of the research findings, the authors have used correlation matrix to facilitate easy understanding by the reader. Additionally, the literature review is extensive enough for the reader to compare and contrast different studies by various authors. Apart from the literature review, the authors broadly introduced the topic of study for the reader to effectively understand the issues at hand before the study itself. There is also a clear problem statement that gives a reader focus and direction of the study. Besides, the study is tested for validity and reliability. Weaknesses To begin with, the article is poorly written because the authors did not pay attention to the language; the authors did not follow grammatical rules in their article. Secondly, the article lacks Critical Review 10 cohesion and coherence, as the authors failed to arrange their ideas properly. This makes it hard for the reader to read and fully comprehend the arguments in the article. Despite the fact the authors have strong arguments concerning the relationship between work satisfaction and organizational commitment, and worker’s performance; they are hard to understand because of poor language used. Thirdly, the article lacks a conclusion, which is a very vital section in a research article, for it shows the researchers’ standpoint based on the literature review and study findings. In spite of a suitable design, methodology, theoretical framework and analysis, the authors failed to draw a conclusion of their arguments on the topic under study. Besides, the article lacks a clear outline of the hypothesis, as they authors have incorporated in the introduction and the literature review, which makes it difficult for the reader to notice and understand. In addition to the absence of conclusion and hypotheses, the article is devoid of the recommendations for future studies on the same topic. Conclusion The article’s major purpose is to investigate on the effects of work satisfaction and organizational commitment on worker’s performance. In the literature review, the authors have identified numerous ideas by different authors that commonly held that the employees’ job fulfillment and organizational commitment greatly affect their job performance. Despite the appropriate research design, and suitable place of study, the authors failed in their language, coherence, and cohesion of the study. Moreover, the study lacks clear hypotheses, conclusion, and recommendations for future studies on the same topic. Therefore, the authors ought to use appropriate language, an explicit outline of hypotheses, conclusion, and recommendations for future researchers. There is also a need to use a number of data collection methods to ensure Critical Review 11 successful comparison of results. They should also conduct the study in different countries so as to ensure investigation of the issue and appropriate conclusions. Critical Review 12 References Chatzoglou, PD, Vraimaki, E, Komsou, E, Polychrou, E & Diamantidis, A 2011, Factors Affecting Accountants’ Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions: A Structural Equation Model. 8th International Conference on Enterprise Systems, Accounting and Logistics (8th ICESAL 2011), Thassos Island, Greece. Pp.130-143. http://www.icesal.org/2011%20PROCEEDINGS/docs/P7.pdf Judge, TA, Thoresen, CJ, Bono, JE, Patton, G K 2001, ‘The Job Satisfaction-Job Performance Relationship: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review’, American Psychological Association Inc, vol.127, no. 3, pp. 376-407. http://fagbokforlaget.no/boker/downloadpsykorg/KAP8/artikler/Jobbtilfredshet.pdf Medina, FJ, Munduate, L, Dorado, MA, Martinez, I & Guerra, JM 2005, ‘Types of intragroup conflict and affective reactions’, Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol.20, no.3/4, pp. 219-230. http://personal.us.es/munduate/p219.pdf Qureshi, JA, Hayat, K, Ali, M & Sarwat, N 2011, ‘Impact of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance, Evidence from Pakistan’, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 3, no.4, pp. 642-654. Shahu, R & Gole, SV 2008, ‘Effect of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Performance’, AIMS International Journal 238 of Management, 2(3), 237-246. http://www.slideshare.net/ridhsi/effect-of-job-stress-and-job-satisfaction-on-performance-anempirical-study Valle, M, Witt, L, A 2001, ‘The moderating effect of teamwork perceptions on the Organizational’, Journal of Social Psychology, vol.141, no. 3, pp. 379-388. http://www.unc.edu/~bwilder/inls585/131rdg21mar.pdf Critical Review 13 Yahaya, A, Noordin Y, Arshad, K, Ismail, J, Jaalam, S, Zakariya, Z 2009, ‘Occupational Stress and its Effects towards the Organization Management’, Journal of Social Sciences, vol.5, no. 4, pp. 390-397. http://eprints.utm.my/9719/1/jss54390-397.pdf Yaqueeb, S & Abbas, Q 2009, ‘Effects of leadership development on employees performance in Pakistan’, Pakistan economic and social review, vol. 47, no.2, pp. 269-292. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/pesr/PDFFILES/8%20ABBAS%20Effect%20of%20Leadership %20Development.pdf Name: Description: ...
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