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Outline
Introduction
Rape is among the most horrendous events that women and women may experience in the UK.
As per the British rime Survey, more women than men are victims of the crime in the country.
These crime and rape provoked a serious discussion among researchers and commentators in the
past two decades. Feminist critics argue that the formal crime statistics and generic crime studies
tend to underrate the true degree of rape. On contrast, people accuse other feminist scholars of
over-exaggerating the intensity of rape in the country. There is an intense debate regarding the
correlation between the marital rape and the imbalanced use of rape legislation between women
and men.
Rape against women in UK
Violence against women is still the main factor undermining women’s ability to engage as equal
and full citizens in the UK. Human rights violation by acts of domestic violence, rape, stalking,
sexual harassment, and female genital mutilation among others keep circumscribe women and
girls’ lives, and demoralize their involvement in every societal level. Explicitly, the UK
government prioritizes matters of women violence. Since the previous UK CEDAW report, the
government conducts, sponsors, or encourages a variety of initiatives on women violence. There
is an incoherence and fragmentation in the government’s efforts on women violence proved by
absence of action plan. Work occurs in an engendered structure and the NGO campaigns
forcefully for Gender Equality Duty application in addressing violence against women.
Furthermore, there is oversight agency like an Observatory or a Commission on Violence against
Women. The society also lacks clarity on how women violence is critical to the Equality and
Human Rights Commission’s work.
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Moreover, there is an inability to handle violence as a human rights matter, and affects women’s
lives. The Equal Opportunities Commission and the Government Equalities Office is weak on
policy discussions relating to women violence for which NGOs and Women’s National
Commission advocate. The government also encourages the promotion of voluntary division,
causing NGOs to compete with each other and with private and statutory sector firms. This
makes the specialist women violence segment increasingly insecure and unstable now when
women’s readiness to expose violence imposes higher demands on it.
Rape cases in the country often affect women from various aspects of life. For instance, women
immigrants are among the most rape-affected individuals in the country. Asylum seekers and
refugees are also common victims of violence against women in the country. In addition,
violence against women also affects women living in rural parts of the country. To address the
government intends to employ various strategies and initiatives. For example, local authorities in
the country promote domestic violence education. Nevertheless, these authorities provide
insufficient information and education on child abuse and domestic violence, which would help
them enhance their safety. The government also attempts to address the issue of violence against
women by engaging the community, fundamentalisms, and faith. It also sponsors professional
training, research, and strategic infrastructure.
Rape against men in UK
Studies indicate that rape cases against men in the UK. These studies further demonstrate that
nearly 3% of men report forced or non-consensual sexual incident as adults and more than 5% of
them report sexual assault as children. This information, however, does not consider any
possibilities of underreporting or lack of disclosure. There is a historical limitation of recognition
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of male rape and male in the country’s law. The earliest victorious prosecution for sexual
harassment men in the country never took place until 1995.
Moreover, research shows that females cause some of the male rape cases in the country. Many
people do not consider the possibility of a male rape by females, as they view male erectile
reaction as voluntary, when is actually involuntary. Anger, fear non-arousal, and anxiety are
some of the factors that supposedly hinder male erection. Thus, male rape victims by females
always face political, social, and legal double principles. Even though studies imply otherwise,
the courts commonly view female rapists as less guilty than male ones because of these
misconstructions. Those who fail to comprehend the law in several jurisdictions do not believe
that the forceful penetration of a man by a foreign digit or object also implies a similar crime.
Because people believe sexual assault by females is a male-female rape, male rape victims
always get inadequate help from support services. Because of these rationales, and the relative
infrequency of male rape cases by women as compared to other types of rape, there is a
possibility of under reporting. Notably, women may commit rape with deception or force to
cause a teenage male to indulge in a coerced penetrative sexual experience. This can engage own
children, also known as incest. There are many widespread cases of male rape cases by female in
the US, especially among teachers on young male students without their consent.
Marital rape
Many scholars argue that rape is rape, be it stranger rape, intimate rape, marital rape, or force-
only rape. This implies rape is rape without regard to the connection between the victim and the
rapist. Rape is an extremely intimate and personal experience. People’s experiences of and
responses to rape can differ broadly. Even though there are numerous similarities in how rape
victims feel, regardless of association between them and the rapists, there are distinctions
Showing Page:
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between intimate and stranger rape. Marital rape takes between two partners in marriage,
whereas stranger rape involves two unacquainted people. There are a number of types of rape in
the society, and the problem lies on how to distinguish them. Some of the suggested forms of
rape include violent rape, sadistic rape, and force-only rape. There is a serious difficulty in the
defining differences among rape types, as rape may entail any of the aforementioned, or a blend
of them. For example, a rapist can use force tactics and sufficient coercion to manage the victim
at first, but then employ more violence if the victim resists. Several preys of marital rape feel
responsible for their failure to struggle more. Others believe that their failure to fight the rapist
and sustain injuries in the process dismisses the act as an actual rape. Moreover, the fact that
some victims live with their abusers indicates that it is hard for them to struggle, but develop
coping mechanisms. Besides, they fear resistance, as they think the abusers might harm them by
acting violently.
Furthermore, women might not fight the men rapists back in order to avoid disturbing children in
sleeping in the house, as well as keeping them from witnessing the incident. In fact, confusion or
shock paralyses women from raising alarm, and her concern for the rapist prevents her from
struggling. More research suggests that in a situation of an abusive relationship, the individuals
mostly subjected to rape are women particularly when the relationship is nearing the end. Other
female rape victims report that their men sexually abused them when they left the relationships,
or at the start of the relationships. This is a reminiscence of the old way in which men would rape
women to make them their wives. Explicitly, in a relationship, rape starts when a rapist feels that
other control strategies like emotional abuse or isolation are insufficient to maintain his hold and
power over his woman, or to act as her punishment for attempting or desiring to leave him.
Showing Page:
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Most of the female, marital rape victims find it hard to define it as such. There, still, exist the
traditional believes that it is hard for men to ape their wives, and that women abdicate any
opinion on their sexuality and bodies, deny them the right to refuse sex. In most instances,
female rape victims question their justification to accuse their husbands for rape. This explains
why many women still conceal their marital rape experiences, and continue to suffer in silence.
As a result, they lose trust and confidence in their husbands, as they feel humiliated and hurt by
them.
Rape trials and gender trials
Since law holds a privileged status in the society, people tend to take all its discourses as plain
truth. Nevertheless, law is a risky discussion, displaying itself as independent when, hegemonic
masculinity is the major way of formulating, enforcing, and interpreting it. The constitution
discredits women’s sexuality through appealing to common sense principles and patriarchy
under-currents. According to feminist theorists like Carol Smart, law is a specifically strong
discussion due to its assertion about truth, which consequently allows it to make feminists and
women silent. The constitutional form by which women’s rape accounts damaging happens
comprises of an extremely precise ineligibility of women and their sexuality.
In law, especially on rape trials, law has authority to construct women in compliance with
hegemonic masculinity. It makes women consumable, and enforces its script on them, thus
debarring their sexuality and making them invalid. Law creates women it meets to fit in its
systems, constructing a woman of lawful discourse. It also disallows women their group in the
telling of their disturbing incidents, and at the trial’s end, it creates a truth completely distinct
from the survivors’ truth. Furthermore, law does not just pertain to formerly gendered subjects,
but really creates gendered positions and identities or subjectivities, to which a person is
Showing Page:
6/9
associated or tied. Therefore, the society should consider law as a gendering approach that has
authority to judge women through men’s standard, as well as to analyze them against other kinds
of women. Further, a woman symbolizes dualism and being on one part of early binary division.
In legal conversation, the society sees prostitutes as bad people, whilst it symbolizes woman’s
difference with man, just like a typical woman. This is because she characterizes licentiousness
and deviousness from her bodily shape.
The rule of law is a dreadful one as it enables its fact to supersede the fact about women’s own
identity and truth. It also casts doubt on women’s sexuality, not only by their biological
difference that they are weak as compared to men, but also through putting them under the class
of bad women, since the failed to perform the their approved gender. These symbolic
connections are vital in the rape trial’s judgment, and the manner in which a woman expresses
herself in a court of law may be the determining factor of her truth’s acceptance or
disqualification. Thus, gender perfomativity is supreme in law.
Some feminist theorists like Carol Smart argue that the entire rape trial is a process of celebrating
phallocentrism and disqualifying women. They further assert that rape trial is a celebration of
deep ideas of typical male sexual desire and female sexual unpredictability. Moreover, they
accept that the court does not disqualify all women, and that it punishes and convicts some men.
Nevertheless, they claim that these examples do not challenge the primary ritual that reiterates
the phallocentric opinion on sex.
Law is capable of turning the rape victim into a prime suspect through questioning what the
woman did in provoking the man’s natural desire. This implies that the law really questions the
woman’s circumstances leading to rape, for instance, through the kind of clothing, manner, and
behavior. Law determines whatever the answer is, as it has a great legal discourse. Therefore,
Showing Page:
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there is a diffusion of sex in the woman’s body during a rape trial. Sexualizing women’s bodies
during a rape trial discourages several women from reporting a rape incident to authorities, and
this is an enhanced infringement of her dignity. The penalty of a woman’s body happens by a
rape act, followed by more punishment of examination that she should endure during trial.
Feminist theorists claim that women’s account of rape ordeals in court gives the audience the
same pleasure experienced in pornography. Moreover, rape trials tend to sexualize women’s
bodies, while normalizing men’s violent behavior, considering it natural and instinctual. This, in
turn, shifts the court’s gaze on the woman, victim, and the unreasonable and rapeable woman.
Conclusion
Rape is one of the most horrible experiences that people face in the society, particularly in the
UK. This incident affects both men and women depending on various factors. In the UK, there
are many cases of male rap by females than the society might think. Moreover, studies show that
there are many rape cases against women in the country. Although there are many forms of rape
reported in the society, there is a great challenge regarding the criteria used in distinguishing
them. The rape trials conducted in the country demonstrates gender construction issues in the
society. Rape trials tend to shift blame on the victim, woman, while justifying the accused, the
man’s actions. This implies that law sexualizes women’s bodies and justifies men’s actions, as
natural and motivated by women’s irrational behaviors.
Showing Page:
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References
Bamfield, A 2010, The formative power of law in rape cases, University of Central Lancashire.
Retrieved in June 5, 2012 from
http://www.uclan.ac.uk/information/services/ldu/research/bamfield.php
Flaschka, MJ 2009, Race, Rape and Gender in Nazi-Occupied Territories. Pp. 1-270.
http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Flaschka%20Monika%20J.pdf?kent1258726022
Auburn, T & Lea, S 2001, ‘The Social Construction of Rape in the Talk of a Convicted Rapist’,
Feminism & Psychology, vol. 11, no.1, pp. 1133.
http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/jhamlin/3925/Readings/ConvictedRapist.pdf
Myhill, A & Allen, J 2002, Rape and sexual assault of women: the extent and nature of the
problem, Home Office Research Study 237. Findings from the British Crime Survey.
http://help.northwest.nhs.uk/storage/library/Rape_and_sexual_assault_of_women_-
_crime_survey.pdf
Krieg, SH 2007, Culture, Violence, and Rape Adjudication: Reflections on the Zuma Rape Trial
and Judgment. Pp. 1-22. http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Krieg%20-
%20Culture,%20Violence%20and%20Rape%20Adjudication.pdf
Hidden Hurt 2012, Marital Rape, Domestic Abuse Information. Retrieved in June 5, 2012 from
http://www.hiddenhurt.co.uk/marital_rape.html
Drift, C Empowering Men Affected by domestic Abuse. Male Rape, Information Leaflet
Metropolitan Police 2007, The attrition of rape allegations in London: A review. Pp. 1-34.
http://www.met.police.uk/sapphire/documents/084796_rr2_final_rape_allegations_london.pdf
Showing Page:
9/9
http://www.esteemmen.co.uk/images/Male%20Rape.pdf
http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Krieg%20-
%20Culture,%20Violence%20and%20Rape%20Adjudication.pdf
http://www.cps.gov.uk/publications/docs/prosecuting_rape.pdf
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-17781842
http://www.met.police.uk/sapphire/documents/084796_rr2_final_rape_allegations_london.pdf
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN THE UK

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Outline Introduction Rape is among the most horrendous events that women and women may experience in the UK. As per the British rime Survey, more women than men are victims of the crime in the country. These crime and rape provoked a serious discussion among researchers and commentators in the past two decades. Feminist critics argue that the formal crime statistics and generic crime studies tend to underrate the true degree of rape. On contrast, people accuse other feminist scholars of over-exaggerating the intensity of rape in the country. There is an intense debate regarding the correlation between the marital rape and the imbalanced use of rape legislation between women and men. Rape against women in UK Violence against women is still the main factor undermining women’s ability to engage as equal and full citizens in the UK. Human rights violation by acts of domestic violence, rape, stalking, sexual harassment, and female genital mutilation among others keep circumscribe women and girls’ lives, and demoralize their involvement in every societal level. Explicitly, the UK government prioritizes matters of women violence. Since the previous UK CEDAW report, the government conducts, sponsors, or encourages a variety of initiatives on women violence. There is an incoherence and fragmentation in the government’s efforts on women violence proved by absence of action plan. Work occurs in an engendered structure and the NGO campaigns forcefully for Gender Equality Duty application in addressing violence against women. Furthermore, there is oversight agency like an Observatory or a Commission on Violence against Women. The society also lacks clarity on how women violence is critical to the Equality and Human Rights Commission’s work. Moreover, there is an inability to handle violence as a human rights matter, and affects women’s lives. The Equal Opportunities Commission and the Government Equalities Office is weak on policy discussions relating to women violence for which NGOs and Women’s National Commission advocate. The government also encourages the promotion of voluntary division, causing NGOs to compete with each other and with private and statutory sector firms. This makes the specialist women violence segment increasingly insecure and unstable now when women’s readiness to expose violence imposes higher demands on it. Rape cases in the country often affect women from various aspects of life. For instance, women immigrants are among the most rape-affected individuals in the country. Asylum seekers and refugees are also common victims of violence against women in the country. In addition, violence against women also affects women living in rural parts of the country. To address the government intends to employ various strategies and initiatives. For example, local authorities in the country promote domestic violence education. Nevertheless, these authorities provide insufficient information and education on child abuse and domestic violence, which would help them enhance their safety. The government also attempts to address the issue of violence against women by engaging the community, fundamentalisms, and faith. It also sponsors professional training, research, and strategic infrastructure. Rape against men in UK Studies indicate that rape cases against men in the UK. These studies further demonstrate that nearly 3% of men report forced or non-consensual sexual incident as adults and more than 5% of them report sexual assault as children. This information, however, does not consider any possibilities of underreporting or lack of disclosure. There is a historical limitation of recognition of male rape and male in the country’s law. The earliest victorious prosecution for sexual harassment men in the country never took place until 1995. Moreover, research shows that females cause some of the male rape cases in the country. Many people do not consider the possibility of a male rape by females, as they view male erectile reaction as voluntary, when is actually involuntary. Anger, fear non-arousal, and anxiety are some of the factors that supposedly hinder male erection. Thus, male rape victims by females always face political, social, and legal double principles. Even though studies imply otherwise, the courts commonly view female rapists as less guilty than male ones because of these misconstructions. Those who fail to comprehend the law in several jurisdictions do not believe that the forceful penetration of a man by a foreign digit or object also implies a similar crime. Because people believe sexual assault by females is a male-female rape, male rape victims always get inadequate help from support services. Because of these rationales, and the relative infrequency of male rape cases by women as compared to other types of rape, there is a possibility of under reporting. Notably, women may commit rape with deception or force to cause a teenage male to indulge in a coerced penetrative sexual experience. This can engage own children, also known as incest. There are many widespread cases of male rape cases by female in the US, especially among teachers on young male students without their consent. Marital rape Many scholars argue that rape is rape, be it stranger rape, intimate rape, marital rape, or forceonly rape. This implies rape is rape without regard to the connection between the victim and the rapist. Rape is an extremely intimate and personal experience. People’s experiences of and responses to rape can differ broadly. Even though there are numerous similarities in how rape victims feel, regardless of association between them and the rapists, there are distinctions between intimate and stranger rape. Marital rape takes between two partners in marriage, whereas stranger rape involves two unacquainted people. There are a number of types of rape in the society, and the problem lies on how to distinguish them. Some of the suggested forms of rape include violent rape, sadistic rape, and force-only rape. There is a serious difficulty in the defining differences among rape types, as rape may entail any of the aforementioned, or a blend of them. For example, a rapist can use force tactics and sufficient coercion to manage the victim at first, but then employ more violence if the victim resists. Several preys of marital rape feel responsible for their failure to struggle more. Others believe that their failure to fight the rapist and sustain injuries in the process dismisses the act as an actual rape. Moreover, the fact that some victims live with their abusers indicates that it is hard for them to struggle, but develop coping mechanisms. Besides, they fear resistance, as they think the abusers might harm them by acting violently. Furthermore, women might not fight the men rapists back in order to avoid disturbing children in sleeping in the house, as well as keeping them from witnessing the incident. In fact, confusion or shock paralyses women from raising alarm, and her concern for the rapist prevents her from struggling. More research suggests that in a situation of an abusive relationship, the individuals mostly subjected to rape are women particularly when the relationship is nearing the end. Other female rape victims report that their men sexually abused them when they left the relationships, or at the start of the relationships. This is a reminiscence of the old way in which men would rape women to make them their wives. Explicitly, in a relationship, rape starts when a rapist feels that other control strategies like emotional abuse or isolation are insufficient to maintain his hold and power over his woman, or to act as her punishment for attempting or desiring to leave him. Most of the female, marital rape victims find it hard to define it as such. There, still, exist the traditional believes that it is hard for men to ape their wives, and that women abdicate any opinion on their sexuality and bodies, deny them the right to refuse sex. In most instances, female rape victims question their justification to accuse their husbands for rape. This explains why many women still conceal their marital rape experiences, and continue to suffer in silence. As a result, they lose trust and confidence in their husbands, as they feel humiliated and hurt by them. Rape trials and gender trials Since law holds a privileged status in the society, people tend to take all its discourses as plain truth. Nevertheless, law is a risky discussion, displaying itself as independent when, hegemonic masculinity is the major way of formulating, enforcing, and interpreting it. The constitution discredits women’s sexuality through appealing to common sense principles and patriarchy under-currents. According to feminist theorists like Carol Smart, law is a specifically strong discussion due to its assertion about truth, which consequently allows it to make feminists and women silent. The constitutional form by which women’s rape accounts damaging happens comprises of an extremely precise ineligibility of women and their sexuality. In law, especially on rape trials, law has authority to construct women in compliance with hegemonic masculinity. It makes women consumable, and enforces its script on them, thus debarring their sexuality and making them invalid. Law creates women it meets to fit in its systems, constructing a woman of lawful discourse. It also disallows women their group in the telling of their disturbing incidents, and at the trial’s end, it creates a truth completely distinct from the survivors’ truth. Furthermore, law does not just pertain to formerly gendered subjects, but really creates gendered positions and identities or subjectivities, to which a person is associated or tied. Therefore, the society should consider law as a gendering approach that has authority to judge women through men’s standard, as well as to analyze them against other kinds of women. Further, a woman symbolizes dualism and being on one part of early binary division. In legal conversation, the society sees prostitutes as bad people, whilst it symbolizes woman’s difference with man, just like a typical woman. This is because she characterizes licentiousness and deviousness from her bodily shape. The rule of law is a dreadful one as it enables its fact to supersede the fact about women’s own identity and truth. It also casts doubt on women’s sexuality, not only by their biological difference that they are weak as compared to men, but also through putting them under the class of bad women, since the failed to perform the their approved gender. These symbolic connections are vital in the rape trial’s judgment, and the manner in which a woman expresses herself in a court of law may be the determining factor of her truth’s acceptance or disqualification. Thus, gender perfomativity is supreme in law. Some feminist theorists like Carol Smart argue that the entire rape trial is a process of celebrating phallocentrism and disqualifying women. They further assert that rape trial is a celebration of deep ideas of typical male sexual desire and female sexual unpredictability. Moreover, they accept that the court does not disqualify all women, and that it punishes and convicts some men. Nevertheless, they claim that these examples do not challenge the primary ritual that reiterates the phallocentric opinion on sex. Law is capable of turning the rape victim into a prime suspect through questioning what the woman did in provoking the man’s natural desire. This implies that the law really questions the woman’s circumstances leading to rape, for instance, through the kind of clothing, manner, and behavior. Law determines whatever the answer is, as it has a great legal discourse. Therefore, there is a diffusion of sex in the woman’s body during a rape trial. Sexualizing women’s bodies during a rape trial discourages several women from reporting a rape incident to authorities, and this is an enhanced infringement of her dignity. The penalty of a woman’s body happens by a rape act, followed by more punishment of examination that she should endure during trial. Feminist theorists claim that women’s account of rape ordeals in court gives the audience the same pleasure experienced in pornography. Moreover, rape trials tend to sexualize women’s bodies, while normalizing men’s violent behavior, considering it natural and instinctual. This, in turn, shifts the court’s gaze on the woman, victim, and the unreasonable and rapeable woman. Conclusion Rape is one of the most horrible experiences that people face in the society, particularly in the UK. This incident affects both men and women depending on various factors. In the UK, there are many cases of male rap by females than the society might think. Moreover, studies show that there are many rape cases against women in the country. Although there are many forms of rape reported in the society, there is a great challenge regarding the criteria used in distinguishing them. The rape trials conducted in the country demonstrates gender construction issues in the society. Rape trials tend to shift blame on the victim, woman, while justifying the accused, the man’s actions. This implies that law sexualizes women’s bodies and justifies men’s actions, as natural and motivated by women’s irrational behaviors. References Bamfield, A 2010, The formative power of law in rape cases, University of Central Lancashire. Retrieved in June 5, 2012 from http://www.uclan.ac.uk/information/services/ldu/research/bamfield.php Flaschka, MJ 2009, Race, Rape and Gender in Nazi-Occupied Territories. Pp. 1-270. http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Flaschka%20Monika%20J.pdf?kent1258726022 Auburn, T & Lea, S 2001, ‘The Social Construction of Rape in the Talk of a Convicted Rapist’, Feminism & Psychology, vol. 11, no.1, pp. 11–33. http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/jhamlin/3925/Readings/ConvictedRapist.pdf Myhill, A & Allen, J 2002, Rape and sexual assault of women: the extent and nature of the problem, Home Office Research Study 237. Findings from the British Crime Survey. http://help.northwest.nhs.uk/storage/library/Rape_and_sexual_assault_of_women__crime_survey.pdf Krieg, SH 2007, Culture, Violence, and Rape Adjudication: Reflections on the Zuma Rape Trial and Judgment. Pp. 1-22. http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Krieg%20%20Culture,%20Violence%20and%20Rape%20Adjudication.pdf Hidden Hurt 2012, Marital Rape, Domestic Abuse Information. Retrieved in June 5, 2012 from http://www.hiddenhurt.co.uk/marital_rape.html Drift, C Empowering Men Affected by domestic Abuse. Male Rape, Information Leaflet Metropolitan Police 2007, The attrition of rape allegations in London: A review. Pp. 1-34. http://www.met.police.uk/sapphire/documents/084796_rr2_final_rape_allegations_london.pdf http://www.esteemmen.co.uk/images/Male%20Rape.pdf http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Krieg%20%20Culture,%20Violence%20and%20Rape%20Adjudication.pdf http://www.cps.gov.uk/publications/docs/prosecuting_rape.pdf http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-17781842 http://www.met.police.uk/sapphire/documents/084796_rr2_final_rape_allegations_london.pdf VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN THE UK Name: Description: ...
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