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Heading: System Case Study
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Executive summary
In the US, the National Airspace System consists of 6,500 public use airports linked by an
arrangement of air routes explained by navigational supports. Aircrafts running along the routes
and in terminal locations adjacent are watched and controlled by a system of ground-based
communication and surveillance equipment. This report provides an analysis of an engineering
system in the transport sector, airport traffic control (ATC) system. This system consists of
various elements including communication equipment, communication procedures,
communication facilities, ATC In-flight Weather Avoidance Assistance, approach control
advances, as well as control sequence. Nevertheless, the report analyses communication
equipment, and communication facilities.
In terms of the communication equipment, the report examines its components that include
navigation/communication (NAV/COM) equipment, radar and transponders, and Mode
C/Altitude Reporting. Regarding communication facilities, the report addresses Airport Traffic
Control Tower (ATCT), AFSS, Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC), and Terminal Radar
Approach Control (TRACON).
In order to fulfill significant societal functions, it is crucial to develop certain engineering
systems that feature high level of social intricacy, technical complexity, and detailed processes.
The understanding and proper use of these systems ensures safety and efficiency in the societal
operations. This report intends to analyze the Airport Traffic Control (ATC) system in terms of
its elements, as well as the context of operation of each element. In a National Airspace System
(NAS), the ATC consists of certain elements involved include communication equipment,
communication procedures, communication facilities, ATC In-flight Weather Avoidance
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Assistance, approach control advances, as well as control sequence. The report aims at analyzing
the ATC in relation to the communication equipment and the communication facilities.
Communication equipment
1. Navigation/communication (NAV/COM) equipment
According to Gibbons (1-147), resident pilots correspond with ATC on frequencies within the
Very High Frequency that ranges from 118.000 to136.975 MHz. To enhance the effectiveness of
the ATC, it is necessary to have use radios with a spacing of 25 kHz. If ATC allocates a
frequency that cannot be chosen, it is critical to ask for a substitute frequency. This also involves
an ordinary radio panel installation, on which navigational receiver is on the right, while
communication transreceiver is on the left. Several radios enable the pilot to have at least one
frequency kept in memory, as well as one frequency active for the transmission and reception,
also known as simplex operation. Through the transmission on 122.1MHz, communication with
certain Automated Flight Service Stations (AFSS) is possible. Moreover, this also allows
reception on VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) frequency, also called duplex operation.
In addition, the panel enables a pilot to change the volume the chosen receivers, and chose the
needed transmitter. This panel consists of two slots meant for the receiver cabin amplifier,
receiver selection, as well as headset. Using the cabin speaker and hand-held microphone
introduces the interruption of using microphone. An earpiece that contains a microphone is vital
for comprehensible communications. When using a microphone, it is crucial to placed next to the
user’s lips to minimize the chance of flight deck noise that may distract communications directed
to the controller (Gibbons 1-147).
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