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Unit 1 intro to research methods
Science
- System of thought
- Rational explanation of how things work in the world and a process of getting closer
to truths and further from myths.
- Characteristics of science
i. Falsifiability: there must be some empirical test that allow researchers to
show that a particular idea is either true or false
ii. Replicability: reproducing a set of findings
iii. Systematic: it tends to approach problems in a methodical way
iv. Objectivity: a reliance on evidence that at least two observers can
independently verify operational definitions
v. Self-correction: science correct any errors or faulty conclusions that emerged
from previous research.
Pseudoscience
- Claims presented so that they appear scientific even though they lack supporting
evidence and plausibility.
- Scientific appearance: “psychobabble”
- Absence of peer review and e rigorous testing
- Anecdotal evidence
- Supernatural explanations
- Tolerating inconsistencies
- Appeals to authority
- Grandiose claims
- Stagnation
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Scientific attitude
- Curiosity: always asking new questions
- Skepticism: not accepting a fact as true without challenging it, seeing it facts can
withstand attempts to disapprove them, it generates questions like curiosity.
- Humility: seeking the truth rather than trying to be right , need to be able to accept
being wrong
Scientific Method
- Scientific research does not prove theories true
- Scientific method is the process of testing our ideas about the world by setting up
situation that test our ideas, making careful organized observations, analyzing
whether the data fits with our ideas, if the data doesn’t match our ideas we modify
our ideas, and test again
- Empirical method: through experience + hypothetico-deductive method, includes
gathering data through experience with no preconceptions and induction of patterns
and relationships within the data.
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Laws
- A law is a general principle apply to all situations, there are a few universally
accepted laws within behavioral sciences
Theory
- A theory, in the language of science, is a set of principles, built on observations and
other verifiable facts, that explains some phenomenon and predicts its future
behavior.
Hypothesis
- A testable prediction consistent with our theory, it is stated in a way that we could
make observations to find out if it is true
Hypothetic-deductive method
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Scientific Research
Main features of a psychological investigation
- Planning research: research question
- Variables: the things that alter, and whose changes we can measure
- Samples: the people we are going to study or work with, participants, taken from the
population
- Design: overall structure and strategy of the research study
- Analysis: design and measurement will have a direct effect on the analysis
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