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To determine the stomata regulation in plant leaves
Draw stomata open and closed
Apparatus and Materials Required: Sample leaves, forceps, needles, watch glasses, glass slides,
a dropper, coverslips, a brush, blotting paper, safranin, glycerine, and a compound microscope.
1. Remove a healthy leaf from the potted plant.
2. Remove a part of the peel from the lower surface of the leaf. You can do this by folding the leaf
over and gently pulling the peel apart using forceps. Keeps the peel in a watch glass containing
3. Put a few drops of safranin stain in a watch glass.
4. After 2-3 minutes take out the peel and place it on a clean glass slide.
5. Put a drop of glycerin over the peel and place a clean coverslip gently over it with the help of a
6. Remove the excess stain and glycerin with the help of blotting paper.
7. Observe the slide under the low-power and high-power magnifications of the compound
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C3 Pathway
These temperate or cool-season plants flourish at an optimum temperature of 65-75,
soil temperature 40-45
Less efficient at higher temperatures
Primary product is 3-phosphoglyceric acid or 3-carbon acid
It takes place in three steps carboxylation, reduction and regeneration
C4 Pathway
Plants in the tropical region are observed following this pathway
Two-step process where Oxaloacetic acid is a 4-carbon compound that is produced
Takes place in bundle sheath and mesophyll cells found in the chloroplast
These can either be annual or perennial and ideal temperature for their growth is 90-
Examples are Indiana grass, big bluestem, Bermudagrass,
CAM Plants
In this type of photosynthesis, entities absorb energy during daytime from sunlight
using this energy at the night aby gathering carbon dioxide
This adaptation is observed during the time of drought, allowing gaseous exchange
during the night when the temperature of the air is cooler along with loss of water
Examples are plants such as euphorbias and Cactus.
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