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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
Prior to the mid-1800s, most legal systems implicitly accepted wife beating as a valid exercise of
a husband's authority over his wife. Exception, however, was the 1641 Body of Liberties of the
Massachusetts Bay colonists, which declared that a married woman should be "free from bodily
correction or stripes by her husband."
Political agitation during the 19th century led to changes in both popular opinion and legislation
regarding domestic violence within the United Kingdom and the United States. In 1850,
Tennessee became the first state in the United States to explicitly outlaw wife beating. Other
states soon followed suit.
In 1878, the Matrimonial Causes Act made it possible for women in the UK to seek separations
from abusive husbands. By the end of the 1870s, most courts in the United States were uniformly
opposed to the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives. By the early 20th century, it
was common for the police to intervene in cases of domestic violence in the United States, but
arrests remained rare. Wife beating was made illegal in all states of the United States by 1920.
Modern attention to domestic violence began in the women's movement of the 1970s,
particularly within feminism and women's rights, as concern about wives being beaten by their
husbands gained attention. The first known use of the expression "domestic violence" in a
modern context, meaning "spouse abuse, violence in the home" was in 1973. With the rise of the
men's movement of the 1990s, the problem of domestic violence against men has also gained
significant attention.
The population of a nation is a great asset to her economic and political development. Female
population accounted for more than half of the Nigerian population [NPC, 2006].To maximize
economic and political development in Nigeria, there is need to actively involve women to
contribute their quota. They need to been courage and liberated from various social injustices
perpetrated against them. One of these social injustices is domestic violence against women,
which had not only put them insubordinate position but had prevented them from exploring their
potential as regards contribution to Nigerian economic and political development. Domestic
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violence is a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or
maintain power and control over another intimate partner. The definition adds that domestic
violence can happen to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender”,
and can take many forms, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional, economic and
psychological abuse (Office of Violence Against Women, 2007).
Domestic violence is also known as domestic abuse, spousal above, battering, family violence
and intimate partner violence. It is a pattern of abusive behaviors by one partner against another
in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family or cohabitation. Domestic violence,
so defined, has many forms, including physical aggression or assault (hitting, kicking, biting,
shoving, restraining, slapping, throwing objects), or threats thereof; sexual abuse; emotional
abuse; controlling or domineering; intimidation; stalking; passive/covert abuse otherwise known
as neglect; and economic deprivation (Seimeniuk, Krentz, Gish & Gill, 2010).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Domestic violence is a common problem in the world, Hamm (2000) finds that like in other parts
of the world, women in Africa suffer domestic violence irrespective of age, class, religion, or
social status. Globally, at least one out of three women is beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise
abused during her life time, and most often, the abuser is a member of her own family. This is
because it is socially acceptable for men to discipline their spouse, especially in patriarchal
societies and where it is condemned; women are often blamed for provoking men to engage in it.
Domestic violence has become a global social problem facing women and girls across different
socio-demographics and culture. Often times a greater attention is paid to the experiences of
urban women and girls to the detriment of their counter parts in rural areas who constituted
major victims.
In Nigeria, domestic violence is a serious problem that transcends social, geographical, and
ethnic divide as significant proportions of women are physically and sexually abused and this
really endangers their health and well-being.
In the course of this research, the researcher looked into the causes and consequences of
domestic violence against women as a reflection of the societal problem and its impact on the
victim. The difference between this research work and other is the method of questionnaire
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administration, many people have worked on domestic violence but none has made use of the
teachers as the population sample, and also none has carried out a research about domestic
violence in Obada. The researchers being the first make use of primary and secondary school
teachers. Many researchers have conducted their investigation on domestic violence using only
female respondents but the researcher used both male and female respondents. Also the
researcher investigated the perception of the public towards domestic violence, the psychological
effect of domestic violence, the physical health issues of domestic violence in women and also to
discover whether there is a relationship between poverty, cultural beliefs and domestic violence
against women.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of the researcher is to examine the prevalence and effect of domestic violence
against women in Obada, Ewekoro Local government and to evaluate the extent of damages it
does to the victim and the Nigeria society at large.
1. To examine the public perception on domestic violence against women in Obada.
1. To determine whether depression is an effect of domestic violence.
2. To determine whether domestic violence affects the health of women
3. To determine whether poverty and cultural beliefs influences domestic violence in
Obada.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the public perception towards domestic violence against women in Obada
2. Does domestic violence influences psychological problems on women?
3. Does domestic violence influences women physical health issues?
4. Does cultural beliefs and poverty influences domestic violence?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Hypotheses are assumptions made by the researcher in order to test the theoretical framework of
the research through empirical analysis of data collection to enable the researcher to arrive at a
reasonable conclusion as whether or not the hypotheses are valid or not.
Hypotheses that were tested in this research work are stated as follows null form:
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H0
1
: There is no significant different in the perception of the male and female respondents to
domestic violence against women.
H0
2
: There is no significance difference in the Age of respondents and perception of
psychological effect on victims of domestic violence.
H0
3
: There is no significant difference in the Educational Status of the respondents to physical
health issues of domestic violence women
H0
4
: There is no significant relationship between cultural beliefs, poverty and domestic violence.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This project work represents a timely contribution to knowledge and developments in combating
domestic violence in Nigeria particularly the women, who are the major victims of domestic
violence. It focuses on causes, types, stakeholders, Rights institutions and the judiciary in
tackling the rising cases of domestic violence. This project work also provides an insight into
which further research work on this topic could be successfully carried out by both students of
Humanities and Social Sciences.
To the Nigeria public and security agencies, this work provides an assessment handbook on the
problem: Domestic violence in Nigeria- and its negative effect on social and economy life of the
victim and the country. To this end some crucial hypothesis were raised to find solution to the
menace. Domestic violence can either be sexual or non-sexual. Sexual violence can either be
rape or molestation. While, non-sexual violence includes assault and batteries.
1.7 Delimitations of the Study
This research work based on the investigation into the perception of domestic violence against
women in Obada, Ewekoro local government, Abeokuta, Ogun state.
The institutional scope of this study is Obada Primary and Secondary schools Teachers, while
the geographical scope is Ogun state, Nigeria.
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1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
In this research work some terms are define to give the reader good understanding of the research
work, the terms that defined are;
Domestic violence, Violence against Women, Violence, IPV, Perception,
Domestic violence: domestic violence can be defined as physical abuse, sexual abuse,
emotional and verbal abuse between people who have at sometimes had an intimate or family
relationship.
Violence against women: The definition connotes that violence against women is a form of
social injustice by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared to men.
Domestic violence is a form of violence that occurs in a situation of intimate or family
relationship. Females usually are often victims of this form of violence.
Violence: Action which causes destruction, pain, or suffering. Violence is the intentional use
of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or group or
community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death,
psychological harm, map-development, or deprivation.
IPV: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or
partner in an intimate relationship. IPV can take a number of forms, including physical, verbal,
emotional, economic and sexual abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines IPV as
any behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm
to other in the relationship, including acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, and
psychological abuse and controlling behaviors. IPV is sometimes referred to simply as battery, or
as spouse or partner abuse.
Perception: intuitive understanding and insight. The way in which something is regarded,
understood, or interpreted. Awareness of something through senses.
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CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
This chapter focuses on the types, causes of domestic violence, the effects and psychological
effects on the victim and the people around them; such as young children. This research work
also look at various theories on domestic violence.
2.2 Conceptual Review
This section focuses s on the causes of domestic violence and review many scholar works on it.
Intimate partner violence, otherwise known as domestic violence, has been perceived as a global
public health challenge (Reif (kay), Jaffe, Dawson, & Lee-Straatman, 2020; Yoo-Mi and Scott,
2019). Although some researchers and international organizations (Ajayi &Airewele, 2018,
UNICEF, 2000) have tried to offer detailed definitions of the term ‘domestic violence’, the
different forms and socio-cultural interpretations of domestic violence could be one of the
reasons for the varying definitions of this global phenomenon (Aziz & El-Gazzar, 2019). Despite
the varying definitions of domestic violence, the prevalence and incidence of domestic violence
has continued to increase to the extent that it has become a global health concern. In a bid to
offer an acceptable operationalization of the concept of domestic violence, UNICEF (2000)
conceptualizes domestic violence as involving acts of: “physical abuse such as beating, slapping,
arm twisting, strangling, stabbing, burning, kicking, choking, murder, and threats with a weapon
or object. It also includes traditional practices harmful to women, such as female genital
mutilation and wife inheritance” (the practice of passing a widow and her property to her dead
husband’s brother (Ajayi &Airewele, 2018).
According to Boyes and Fan (2020), about 94% of facial injuries result from incidences of
domestic abuse. Some women have also been reported to have paid the ultimate price of death as
a result of domestic violence (Yoo-Mi & Scott, 2019). According to Nittis, Hughes, Gray,
Ashton (2013), one in every four women who was presented in the emergency department in
Australia has experienced domestic violence in her life. Hence, domestic abuse is a major health
challenge that must be given serious attention globally. In doing this, therefore, the need to
determine the remote causes and implications of domestic violence cannot be overemphasized.
More attention also needs to be given to rural areas where a lot of domestic violence go
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unnoticed or unreported due to the strong impact of patriarchal dominance and other cultural
interpretations of the role of a man in disciplining members of his household (Adomako Ampofo,
&Prah, 2009).
2.2.1 Types of Domestic Violence Against women
Domestic violence, also called domestic abuse or intimate partner violence, is any pattern of
behavior that is used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner.
It encompasses all physical, sexual, emotional, economic and psychological actions or threats of
actions that influence another person. This is one of the most common forms of violence
experienced by women globally. Domestic violence can include the following.
1. Economic violence
Economic violence involves making or attempting to make a person financially dependent by
maintaining total control over financial resources, withholding access