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Ecosystem and its Types:
Introduction of ecosystem-
Term ecosystem was given by Tansley in 1935 and defined as:
Ecosystem is a major ecological unit which has both structure and function.
Term ecosystem is made up of two Greek words OIKOS and SYSTEM.
OIKOS Habitat/Dewling
SYSTEM Unit or Interactions.
It means, ”ecosystem is a interaction between living and non- living organism.”
“The organism and the physical feature of the habitat from an ecological complex which is
known as ecosystem.”
Odum defined as “ ecosystem is a basic functional unit of organisation and their own
component.”
Actually ecosystem is a functional unit of ecology.
Account of Carl Mobious, “ecosystem is a biocoenosis ( of living or non-living).
Component of ecosystem :
1. Biotic Components : all living organism present in the environment system and divided
into three basic categories:
Producer - green plants which convert radiant energy into the usable chemical.
Green plants produced O2 which are utilised by living organism during
respiration.
Consumer : these are heterotrophic component. These are non green plants and
all animals. So we can say those living members of ecosystem which consume
the food synthesized by producers are called consumers.
Types of consumers :
1. Macro Consumer: These are the organism which injust food and digest it inside
bodies are called macro - consumer also called phagotrophs can be divided into
different groups:
Primary consumer - feeds green plant or plant product. Ex : goat , cow ,
rabbit.
Secondary consumer - carnivorous and omnivorous totally depend on
primary consumer. Ex: frog, snake, and dogs
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Tertiary consumer - it also called top carnivorous. Ex: lion tiger and
vulture.
2. Micro consumer: these are the organism which secrete digestive enzyme to break down
food into simpler subs and then observe the digest food.
Ex: parasitic and sapraphytic bacteria.
Decomposer: these are also called micro consumers,. Since they absorb
only a fraction of the decomposed organic matter. They bring about the
decomposition of dead organic matter of both producers as well as
macro consumers two simple forms. Decomposers help in returning of
mineral element again to the medium of the pond and in running
biogeochemical cycle. Decomposers of pond ecosystem include chiefly
bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. Among fungi, species of aspergillus,
cephalosporium, cladosporium, pythium, rhizopus, penicillium, alternaria,
trichoderms, fusarium, etc. are most common decomposers in water and
mud off the pond.
2. Abiotic Components:
non living environment of an ecosystem constitutes a biotic components of ecosystem.
Climatic: Light, air, wind, humidity, temperature.
Edaphic : Soil
Topographic: Slope, altitude.
Types of ecosystem
1. Natural Ecosystem
2. Artificial Ecosystem
Natural Ecosystem : which operates under natural condition without
any measure interference by man.
Artificial Ecosystem: which operates under artificial means where it
is not naturally balanced.
Odum classified ecosystem on the basis of P/R ratio
P = photosynthesis
R = respiration
a) Stabilized ecosystem, P = R
b) Autotrophic ecosystem, P > R
c) Heterotrophic ecosystem., P< R
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Ecosystem and its Types: Introduction of ecosystemTerm ecosystem was given by Tansley in 1935 and defined as: “Ecosystem is a major ecological unit which has both structure and function.” Term ecosystem is made up of two Greek words OIKOS and SYSTEM. OIKOS – Habitat/Dewling SYSTEM – Unit or Interactions. It means, ”ecosystem is a interaction between living and non- living organism.” “The organism and the physical feature of the habitat from an ecological complex which is known as ecosystem.” Odum defined as “ ecosystem is a basic functional unit of organisation and their own component.” Actually ecosystem is a functional unit of ecology. Account of Carl Mobious, “ecosystem is a biocoenosis ( of living or non-living).” Component of ecosystem : 1. Biotic Components : all living organism present in the environment system and divided into three basic categories: • Producer - green plants which convert radiant energy into the usable chemical. Green plants produced O2 which are utilised by living organism during respiration. • Consumer : these are heterotrophic component. These are non green plants and all animals. So we can say those living members of ecosystem which consume the food synthesized by producers are called consumers. Types of consumers : 1. Macro Consumer: These are the organism which injust food and digest it inside bodies are called macro - consumer also called phagotrophs can be divided into different groups: • Primary consumer - feeds green plant or plant product. Ex : goat , cow , rabbit. • Secondary consumer - carnivorous and omnivorous totally depend on primary consumer. Ex: frog, snake, and dogs • Tertiary consumer - it also called top carnivorous. Ex: lion tiger and vulture. 2. Micro consumer: these are the organism which secrete digestive enzyme to break down food into simpler subs and then observe the digest food. Ex: parasitic and sapraphytic bacteria. • Decomposer: these are also called micro consumers,. Since they absorb only a fraction of the decomposed organic matter. They bring about the decomposition of dead organic matter of both producers as well as macro – consumers two simple forms. Decomposers help in returning of mineral element again to the medium of the pond and in running biogeochemical cycle. Decomposers of pond ecosystem include chiefly bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. Among fungi, species of aspergillus, cephalosporium, cladosporium, pythium, rhizopus, penicillium, alternaria, trichoderms, fusarium, etc. are most common decomposers in water and mud off the pond. 2. Abiotic Components: non living environment of an ecosystem constitutes a biotic components of ecosystem. • Climatic: Light, air, wind, humidity, temperature. • Edaphic : Soil • Topographic: Slope, altitude. Types of ecosystem 1. Natural Ecosystem 2. Artificial Ecosystem Natural Ecosystem : which operates under natural condition without any measure interference by man. Artificial Ecosystem: which operates under artificial means where it is not naturally balanced. Odum classified ecosystem on the basis of P/R ratio P = photosynthesis R = respiration a) Stabilized ecosystem, P = R b) Autotrophic ecosystem, P > R c) Heterotrophic ecosystem., P< R Name: Description: ...
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