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General Philosophies:
Studying philosophy helps us deal with our own personal systems of
Beliefs and values, i.e., the way we perceive the world around us and
how we define what is important to us. As philosophical issues have
always influenced society and institutions of learning, a study of the
philosophy of education in terms of curriculum development is essential.
In essence, a philosophy of education influences, and to a large extent
determines, our educational decisions and alternatives.
Here we shall look into the following four major philosophical
Positions:
1. Idealism
2. Realism
3. Pragmatism
4. Existentialism.
Existentialism:
Existentialism is primarily, a reaction to and a voice of protest against all
the rationalistic and speculative philosophies, particularly the Hegelian
philosophy of pure thought, which consider this world of Nature as the
immanence of God and pure thought and man as a helpless character in
the great drama of continual revelation and self-conceptualization of
God. "Existentialism begins as a voice raised in protest against the
absurdity of pure thought, a logic which is not the logic of thinking but
the immanent movements of Being" (Blackham, 1952, p.2). Against the
pure thought existentialism emphasizes man's own conditioned thinking
as an existing individual seeking to know how to live and to live the life
he knows.
In simpler terms, existentialism is a philosophy concerned with finding
self and the meaning of life through free will, choice and personal
responsibility.
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Theistic and Atheistic Existentialism:
Common observations made about existentialism revealed that it can
assume both a theistic form and a radical atheism.
Theistic Existentialism:
Theistic existentialists consider God to be 'the source of one's being', 'the
ground of all being', or 'one's ultimate concern'. This is not a personal
God, but is the meaning that arises out of the deepest concern of anguish
of a person's life. Theistic existentialism has marked theology since the
first war. "Its emphasis on the negative qualities of man, on human
estrangement and the tragedy of human existence, have supported the
resurgence of the dogma of original sin and the entire structure of
eschatological theology" ( Fuller, 1955, p.603-604).
Atheistic Existentialism:
The secular or atheistic existentialists are concerned with the same
themes as the religious existentialists, but their presuppositions and
belief systems preclude any supernatural or any idea of God. The
atheistic existentialism has been popularized since the Second World
War. Atheistic existentialists include Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin
Heidegger, Simone de Beauvoir and Albert Camus.
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF
EXISTENTIALISM:
Education in its technical sense, with all its tools and techniques is the
means to achieve some objectives. Its various aspects deal with the
methodology of education which refers to a set of methods, principles
and rules for regulating an educational system. Methodology of
education is revised according to the age and the means at the disposal
of a nation. But the aims and objectives that a nation set before are
deeply rooted in the philosophy of life it holds and can hardly be
changed.
Aims and objectives of education in general comprise the following:
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Intellectual development which includes development of divergent
thinking, creativity, reasoning and the ability to make judgments
and to analyze and solve problems, ability to take initiative,
persistence, attentiveness and capacity for observation and
imagination, the ability to memorize, understand, apply, analyze
integrate and evaluate knowledge and the skills for innovation and
be able to adapt to changes.
Physical development that includes awakening consciousness of
maintaining health and physical fitness.
Moral development which includes developing the ability to face
moral challenges and dilemmas in an informed, authentic manner
that is in harmony with ethical values that are developed freely
and voluntarily.
Spiritual development that makes able to search meaning and
purpose in life.
Aesthetic development which involves cultivation of children's
interest in aesthetic expression, cultivation of abilities to enjoy life
and to appreciate various forms of beauty, art and culture and the
ability to optimize their leisure and enrich their cultural life.
Cultural development which involves inculcating cultural values in
children.
Social development which involves social qualities in children to
make them fit for society.
Harmonious development which involves developing
harmoniously and simultaneously all the powers and capacities
inherited by the child.
Character formation of individuals to make them men with virtues
and brotherly love who prize truth, justice, wisdom, benevolence
and self-control as the worthy acquisitions of a successful life.
Education for vocation to prepare the child for some future
profession or vocation or trade so that they are able to earn their
livelihood.
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11. Education for citizenship that enables children to perform
multifarious civic duties and responsibilities.
12. Education for self-realization which means fulfillment by
oneself of the possibilities of one's character or personality. From
the religious point of view, it refers to a profound spiritual
awakening where there is an awakening from an illusory self-
identity image (ego), to the true, divine, perfect condition that the
individual is.

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General Philosophies: Studying philosophy helps us deal with our own personal systems of Beliefs and values, i.e., the way we perceive the world around us and how we define what is important to us. As philosophical issues have always influenced society and institutions of learning, a study of the philosophy of education in terms of curriculum development is essential. In essence, a philosophy of education influences, and to a large extent determines, our educational decisions and alternatives. Here we shall look into the following four major philosophical Positions: 1. Idealism 2. Realism 3. Pragmatism 4. Existentialism. Existentialism: Existentialism is primarily, a reaction to and a voice of protest against all the rationalistic and speculative philosophies, particularly the Hegelian philosophy of pure thought, which consider this world of Nature as the immanence of God and pure thought and man as a helpless character in the great drama of continual revelation and self-conceptualization of God. "Existentialism begins as a voice raised in protest against the absurdity of pure thought, a logic which is not the logic of thinking but the immanent movements of Being" (Blackham, 1952, p.2). Against the pure thought existentialism emphasizes man's own conditioned thinking as an existing individual seeking to know how to live and to live the life he knows. In simpler terms, existentialism is a philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of life through free will, choice and personal responsibility. Theistic and Atheistic Existentialism: Common observations made about existentialism revealed that it can assume both a theistic form and a radical atheism. Theistic Existentialism: Theistic existentialists consider God to be 'the source of one's being', 'the ground of all being', or 'one's ultimate concern'. This is not a personal God, but is the meaning that arises out of the deepest concern of anguish of a person's life. Theistic existentialism has marked theology since the first war. "Its emphasis on the negative qualities of man, on human estrangement and the tragedy of human existence, have supported the resurgence of the dogma of original sin and the entire structure of eschatological theology" ( Fuller, 1955, p.603-604). Atheistic Existentialism: The secular or atheistic existentialists are concerned with the same themes as the religious existentialists, but their presuppositions and belief systems preclude any supernatural or any idea of God. The atheistic existentialism has been popularized since the Second World War. Atheistic existentialists include Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, Simone de Beauvoir and Albert Camus. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF EXISTENTIALISM: Education in its technical sense, with all its tools and techniques is the means to achieve some objectives. Its various aspects deal with the methodology of education which refers to a set of methods, principles and rules for regulating an educational system. Methodology of education is revised according to the age and the means at the disposal of a nation. But the aims and objectives that a nation set before are deeply rooted in the philosophy of life it holds and can hardly be changed. Aims and objectives of education in general comprise the following: • Intellectual development which includes development of divergent thinking, creativity, reasoning and the ability to make judgments and to analyze and solve problems, ability to take initiative, persistence, attentiveness and capacity for observation and imagination, the ability to memorize, understand, apply, analyze integrate and evaluate knowledge and the skills for innovation and be able to adapt to changes. • Physical development that includes awakening consciousness of maintaining health and physical fitness. • Moral development which includes developing the ability to face moral challenges and dilemmas in an informed, authentic manner that is in harmony with ethical values that are developed freely and voluntarily. • Spiritual development that makes able to search meaning and purpose in life. • Aesthetic development which involves cultivation of children's interest in aesthetic expression, cultivation of abilities to enjoy life and to appreciate various forms of beauty, art and culture and the ability to optimize their leisure and enrich their cultural life. • Cultural development which involves inculcating cultural values in children. • Social development which involves social qualities in children to make them fit for society. • Harmonious development which involves developing harmoniously and simultaneously all the powers and capacities inherited by the child. • Character formation of individuals to make them men with virtues and brotherly love who prize truth, justice, wisdom, benevolence and self-control as the worthy acquisitions of a successful life. • Education for vocation to prepare the child for some future profession or vocation or trade so that they are able to earn their livelihood. • 11. Education for citizenship that enables children to perform multifarious civic duties and responsibilities. • 12. Education for self-realization which means fulfillment by oneself of the possibilities of one's character or personality. From the religious point of view, it refers to a profound spiritual awakening where there is an awakening from an illusory selfidentity image (ego), to the true, divine, perfect condition that the individual is. Name: Description: ...
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