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U02a1: Evaluation of Test Purpose, Population, and Training for Three Tests
U02a1: Evaluation of Test Purpose, Population, and Training for Three Tests
Introduction
Intelligence/cognitive abilities are one's capacity to process, comprehend, interpret,
encode and manipulate information for appropriate use. Cognitive ability implies the ability of an
individual to grasp a concept, interpret its implied meaning, and reason inductively/deductively
to reach a relevant conclusion (Martin et al., 2020). Those that learn, retain memory and apply
certain concepts within a relatively short duration are considered to have high
intelligence/aptitude. This paper evaluates the purpose, population, and training of Wechsler
Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) tests, the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of
Cognitive Abilities - Fourth Edition (WJIV: COG), and the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal
Intelligence - Second Edition (CTONI-2) as applied in Industrial/Organizational psychology
(Martin et al., 2020).
I-O Psychology and Cognitive Ability Tests
Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology entails the scientific study of workplace
behavior focused on knowledge generation (Research) and knowledge application in
organizations to improve the wellbeing of employers and employees and for optimum
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organizational performance. Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology is particularly focused on
two integrated disciplines; social psychology and workplace differences (Stanek & Ones 2018).
Social psychology studies people's perceptions, attitudes, and behavior in the industrial
workplace as a social setting (Stanek & Ones 2018). On the other hand, Individual differences
imply people's differentiated skills and abilities and the impact on the industrial workplace. The
hiring and placement of people in various roles in an organization necessitate tests measuring
their different abilities and social psychology (Stanek & Ones 2018). Recruitments always aim to
create the best available match of people to available jobs, hiring the best talents, skills, abilities,
and attitudes among the available applicants, and creating the best teams with complementary
skills. The intelligence/cognitive ability tests offer an official tool to I-O psychologists for
measuring mental performance, logical reasoning, learning abilities, memory, sensory perception,
and application of knowledge by people in the industrial work setting (Stanek & Ones 2018).
The cognitive abilities tests also measure the individuals' abilities in evaluating the situation,
problem-identification, perceptual skills, and application of learning in problem-solving in an
industrial organization setting (Scharfen et al., 2018). More importantly, the
intelligence/cognitive ability tests inform I-O psychists of the gaps in the organization's
resources, technology, communication, and the overall working environment based on the needs
of its people. The I-O psychology thus utilizes the cognitive ability tests to study both social
psychology and workplace differences.
CTONI-2 And I-O Psychology
CTONI-2 is a non-verbal intelligence test that measures individuals' reasoning and
problem-solving abilities. The tests establish intelligence scores of children and adults devoid of
the influence of language; in most cases, the instructions of the tests are given orally to reduce
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the influence of language on the intelligence score (Shanock et al., 2021). The tests establish
individuals' cognitive abilities, including sequential reasoning, categorical formulation, and
analogical thinking (Shanock et al., 2021). The tests are administered to persons without visual
impairment but those whose performance may be affected by language. I-O psychologists
conduct scientific research in institutions, including in education, healthcare, manufacturing,
banking organizations, and even unions. I-O psychology research focuses on evaluating the
wellbeing of employees, students, patients, and unionists, to the testing of job applicants, student
assessment, and diversity of workplace environment. Therefore, I-O psychologists can use
CTONI-2 tests to measure the non-verbal intelligence of students at the point of school
admission and their learning progress as continuing students (Shanock et al., 2021). This is
particularly necessary. I-O psychologists may use CTONI-2 to assess the non-verbal intelligence
of students with non-verbal autism, post-stroke syndrome, aphasia, deafness, traumatic brain
injury, and other language processing problems that impair performance in standard IQ tests
(Shanock et al., 2021). Such assessment is necessary to inform the educational planning
technical-support need and establish learners' needs in schools (Shanock et al., 2021). Hiring job
applicants with language impairment in different organizations also need the application of
CTONI-2 tests to verify the match between their non-verbal cognitive abilities and the demands
of the particular job placement (Shanock et al., 2021). I-O psychologists must always use both
standard IQ tests with CTONI-2 tests when evaluating the intelligence of employees, employers,
managers, professionals, and even educators to report objective research findings in their studies.
The WJ-IV COG and I-O psychology
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The WJ-IV COG is a non-referenced test organized into 18 different tests that measure
individuals intellectual abilities, professional/academic specific competencies, domain-specific
aptitude, and related applications in professional settings (Dombrowski et al., 2018). I-O
psychologists use WJ-IV COG tests in research intended to set the desired qualification criteria
for professional placement in jobs requiring a high level of academic competency, specialization,
memory, information processing speed, attention to detail, and quantitative reasoning
(Lockwood & Farmer, 2020). The WJ-IV COG
tests can be used to test the intellectual abilities of healthcare professionals, accountants, auditors,
actuarial, architectural designers, and other professionals who need to have fluid reasoning,
attention to detail, and academic-domain specific abilities (Beaujean & Benson, 2019). I-O
psychologists hold academic research leading responsibilities in universities and colleges; I-O
psychologists researchers may use WJ-IV COG tests to design professors' assessment criteria for
the hiring and retention decisions (Lockwood & Farmer, 2020). I-O psychologists may also work
as coaches, and assessors where they can use WJ-IV COG tests to measure fluid reasoning,
cognitive and motor coordination abilities, Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc), and general
intellectual abilities (Dombrowski et al., 2018). I-O psychologists working in a clinical setting
use the WJ-IV COG to test to measure the patient's visual processing (GV), Long-Term Retrieval
(Glr), narrow ability, cognitive processing speed (GS), memory recovery, and auditorial
processing (Beaujean & Benson, 2019). I-O psychology researchers in clinical settings use WJ-
IV COG to determine the recovery indications in the abilities mentioned in the preceding
sentence (Beaujean & Benson, 2019).
WAIS-IV Tests and I-O Psychology
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WAIS-IV tests are used in measuring the intellectual functioning, perceptual reasoning,
memory, and information processing speed in individuals. The tests may be used to identify the
special needs of special education populations (Young et al., 2021). When working in education
settings, I-O psychologists use WAIS-IV tests in studies aimed at informing educational
planning and placement with older adolescents and adults (Schmank et al., 2021). I-O
psychologists also use the test to plan for the facilitation and placement of special needs students,
particularly those with mild mental disabilities (Young et al., 2021). The WAIS-IV tests inform
the I-O psychologists about the learning styles, strengths, and needs. When working in an
organizational setting, I-O psychologists use WAIS-IV to test particularly individualized
assessments to identify the specially gifted, special talents, and exemplary employees/performers
(Young et al., 2021). The WAIS-IV also shows the learning needs for new development and
industrial dynamics that necessitate continuous development of employees. When working in the
human resource department, like in the healthcare sector, I-O psychists use WAIS-IV to study
the patient’s needs and gaps in skills to inform the planning of nursing education and all the
healthcare specializations (Young et al., 2021).
The Relationship of WAIS-IV, WJ-IV COG, and CTONI-2 Tests to Furthering Education
The WJ-IV COG tests are important in measuring an individual's general intellectual
abilities to determine the academic-domain specific needs, thus guiding the furthering of I-O
psychology education. Specialists in I-O psychology and related professions use WJ-IV COG to
choose their areas of strength and plan their furthering of education in areas they have
professional needs. They use the WJ-IV COG to determine the prerequisite areas and the priority
order of their educational needs. Similarly, both CTONI-2 and WAIS-IV tests are to study the
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learning needs, learning styles, giftedness, and special abilities in a learning setting. CTONI-2
tests are administered with students with language impairment (but without visual impairment),
such as non-verbal autism, post-stroke syndrome, aphasia, deafness, traumatic brain injury, and
other language processing problems. The WAIS-IV is administered to students to identify those
with special needs, identify and classify their learning styles, challenges, needs, and abilities
(Young et al., 2021). Therefore, the CTONI-2 and WAIS-IV tests are necessary for education
planning and placement of students in I-O psychology and other related professions. Students in
I-O psychology use CTONI-2 to measure their non-verbal intelligence, particularly if they have
any form of language impairment, to determine the areas of needs in furthering their professional
knowledge. While in continuing practice, I-O psychologists plan their further education by
taking the WAIS-IV test; the test helps them identify their areas of strength, special abilities, and
giftedness for specialization.
The purpose for Testing and Content, Skills, and/or Constructs Assessed
The main purpose of the CTONI-2 test was to measure an individual's reasoning as well as
problem solving abilities. This test mostly measures the non-verbal intelligence to treat aphasia,
non verbal autism, deafness. Similarly, the purpose of the WJ-IV test was to measure intellectual
abilities focusing on skills such as intelligence, quantitative reasoning. This test helps to cure a
patient's visual processing, memory recovery. Finally, the WAIS-IV test is used in measuring the
processing speed of information in individuals. This test helps in measuring if someone has
special needs or if someone has difficulties in learning styles.
Absolutely, these tests can be used in my specialization . For example, I can use the CTONI-2
test to determine the intelligence of employees, managers. Similarly, I can use the WJ-IV test to
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design an assessment that helps in the hiring and retention process and lastly, the WAIS-IV test
to study employee’s needs and use that information to plan all the necessary education, training
that are required to fulfill those needs.
References
Beaujean, A. A., & Benson, N. F. (2019). Theoretically-consistent cognitive ability test
development and score interpretation. Contemporary School Psychology, 23(2), 126-137.
Dombrowski, S. C., McGill, R. J., & Canivez, G. L. (2018). An alternative conceptualization of
the theoretical structure of the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities at school age:
A confirmatory factor analytic investigation. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(1), 1.
Lockwood, A. B., & Farmer, R. L. (2020). The cognitive assessment course: Two decades
later. Psychology in the Schools, 57(2), 265-283.
Martin, N., Capman, J., Boyce, A., Morgan, K., Gonzalez, M. F., & Adler, S. (2020). New
frontiers in cognitive ability testing: Working memory. Journal of Managerial Psychology.
Scharfen, J., Peters, J. M., & Holling, H. (2018). Retest effects in cognitive ability tests: A meta-
analysis. Intelligence, 67, 44-66.
Schmank, C. J., Goring, S. A., Kovacs, K., & Conway, A. R. (2021). Investigating the Structure
of Intelligence Using Latent Variable and Psychometric Network Modeling: A Commentary and
Reanalysis. Journal of Intelligence, 9(1), 8.
Shanock, A., Flanagan, D. P., Alfonso, V. C., & McHale-Small, M. (2021). Helping School
Psychologists and Districts Estimate the Cost of Adopting the Dual Discrepancy/Consistency
PSW Method for SLD Identification. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 1-34.
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Stanek, K. C., & Ones, D. S. (2018). Taxonomies and compendia of cognitive ability and
personality constructs and measures relevant to industrial, work, and organizational psychology.
Young, S. R., Maddocks, D. L., & Carrigan, J. E. (2021). The International Cognitive Ability
Resource: A Free Cognitive Measure with Utility for Postsecondary Giftedness Research. Gifted
Child Quarterly, 00169862211023775.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

U02a1: Evaluation of Test Purpose, Population, and Training for Three Tests U02a1: Evaluation of Test Purpose, Population, and Training for Three Tests Introduction Intelligence/cognitive abilities are one's capacity to process, comprehend, interpret, encode and manipulate information for appropriate use. Cognitive ability implies the ability of an individual to grasp a concept, interpret its implied meaning, and reason inductively/deductively to reach a relevant conclusion (Martin et al., 2020). Those that learn, retain memory and apply certain concepts within a relatively short duration are considered to have high intelligence/aptitude. This paper evaluates the purpose, population, and training of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) tests, the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities - Fourth Edition (WJIV: COG), and the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence - Second Edition (CTONI-2) as applied in Industrial/Organizational psychology (Martin et al., 2020). I-O Psychology and Cognitive Ability Tests Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology entails the scientific study of workplace behavior focused on knowledge generation (Research) and knowledge application in organizations to improve the wellbeing of employers and employees and for optimum organizational performance. Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology is particularly focused on two integrated disciplines; social psychology and workplace differences (Stanek & Ones 2018). Social psychology studies people's perceptions, attitudes, and behavior in the industrial workplace as a social setting (Stanek & Ones 2018). On the other hand, Individual differences imply people's differentiated skills and abilities and the impact on the industrial workplace. The hiring and placement of people in various roles in an organization necessitate tests measuring their different abilities and social psychology (Stanek & Ones 2018). Recruitments always aim to create the best available match of people to available jobs, hiring the best talents, skills, abilities, and attitudes among the available applicants, and creating the best teams with complementary skills. The intelligence/cognitive ability tests offer an official tool to I-O psychologists for measuring mental performance, logical reasoning, learning abilities, memory, sensory perception, and application of knowledge by people in the industrial work setting (Stanek & Ones 2018). The cognitive abilities tests also measure the individuals' abilities in evaluating the situation, problem-identification, perceptual skills, and application of learning in problem-solving in an industrial organization setting (Scharfen et al., 2018). More importantly, the intelligence/cognitive ability tests inform I-O psychists of the gaps in the organization's resources, technology, communication, and the overall working environment based on the needs of its people. The I-O psychology thus utilizes the cognitive ability tests to study both social psychology and workplace differences. CTONI-2 And I-O Psychology CTONI-2 is a non-verbal intelligence test that measures individuals' reasoning and problem-solving abilities. The tests establish intelligence scores of children and adults devoid of the influence of language; in most cases, the instructions of the tests are given orally to reduce the influence of language on the intelligence score (Shanock et al., 2021). The tests establish individuals' cognitive abilities, including sequential reasoning, categorical formulation, and analogical thinking (Shanock et al., 2021). The tests are administered to persons without visual impairment but those whose performance may be affected by language. I-O psychologists conduct scientific research in institutions, including in education, healthcare, manufacturing, banking organizations, and even unions. I-O psychology research focuses on evaluating the wellbeing of employees, students, patients, and unionists, to the testing of job applicants, student assessment, and diversity of workplace environment. Therefore, I-O psychologists can use CTONI-2 tests to measure the non-verbal intelligence of students at the point of school admission and their learning progress as continuing students (Shanock et al., 2021). This is particularly necessary. I-O psychologists may use CTONI-2 to assess the non-verbal intelligence of students with non-verbal autism, post-stroke syndrome, aphasia, deafness, traumatic brain injury, and other language processing problems that impair performance in standard IQ tests (Shanock et al., 2021). Such assessment is necessary to inform the educational planning technical-support need and establish learners' needs in schools (Shanock et al., 2021). Hiring job applicants with language impairment in different organizations also need the application of CTONI-2 tests to verify the match between their non-verbal cognitive abilities and the demands of the particular job placement (Shanock et al., 2021). I-O psychologists must always use both standard IQ tests with CTONI-2 tests when evaluating the intelligence of employees, employers, managers, professionals, and even educators to report objective research findings in their studies. The WJ-IV COG and I-O psychology The WJ-IV COG is a non-referenced test organized into 18 different tests that measure individuals intellectual abilities, professional/academic specific competencies, domain-specific aptitude, and related applications in professional settings (Dombrowski et al., 2018). I-O psychologists use WJ-IV COG tests in research intended to set the desired qualification criteria for professional placement in jobs requiring a high level of academic competency, specialization, memory, information processing speed, attention to detail, and quantitative reasoning (Lockwood & Farmer, 2020). The WJ-IV COG tests can be used to test the intellectual abilities of healthcare professionals, accountants, auditors, actuarial, architectural designers, and other professionals who need to have fluid reasoning, attention to detail, and academic-domain specific abilities (Beaujean & Benson, 2019). I-O psychologists hold academic research leading responsibilities in universities and colleges; I-O psychologists researchers may use WJ-IV COG tests to design professors' assessment criteria for the hiring and retention decisions (Lockwood & Farmer, 2020). I-O psychologists may also work as coaches, and assessors where they can use WJ-IV COG tests to measure fluid reasoning, cognitive and motor coordination abilities, Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc), and general intellectual abilities (Dombrowski et al., 2018). I-O psychologists working in a clinical setting use the WJ-IV COG to test to measure the patient's visual processing (GV), Long-Term Retrieval (Glr), narrow ability, cognitive processing speed (GS), memory recovery, and auditorial processing (Beaujean & Benson, 2019). I-O psychology researchers in clinical settings use WJIV COG to determine the recovery indications in the abilities mentioned in the preceding sentence (Beaujean & Benson, 2019). WAIS-IV Tests and I-O Psychology WAIS-IV tests are used in measuring the intellectual functioning, perceptual reasoning, memory, and information processing speed in individuals. The tests may be used to identify the special needs of special education populations (Young et al., 2021). When working in education settings, I-O psychologists use WAIS-IV tests in studies aimed at informing educational planning and placement with older adolescents and adults (Schmank et al., 2021). I-O psychologists also use the test to plan for the facilitation and placement of special needs students, particularly those with mild mental disabilities (Young et al., 2021). The WAIS-IV tests inform the I-O psychologists about the learning styles, strengths, and needs. When working in an organizational setting, I-O psychologists use WAIS-IV to test particularly individualized assessments to identify the specially gifted, special talents, and exemplary employees/performers (Young et al., 2021). The WAIS-IV also shows the learning needs for new development and industrial dynamics that necessitate continuous development of employees. When working in the human resource department, like in the healthcare sector, I-O psychists use WAIS-IV to study the patient’s needs and gaps in skills to inform the planning of nursing education and all the healthcare specializations (Young et al., 2021). The Relationship of WAIS-IV, WJ-IV COG, and CTONI-2 Tests to Furthering Education The WJ-IV COG tests are important in measuring an individual's general intellectual abilities to determine the academic-domain specific needs, thus guiding the furthering of I-O psychology education. Specialists in I-O psychology and related professions use WJ-IV COG to choose their areas of strength and plan their furthering of education in areas they have professional needs. They use the WJ-IV COG to determine the prerequisite areas and the priority order of their educational needs. Similarly, both CTONI-2 and WAIS-IV tests are to study the learning needs, learning styles, giftedness, and special abilities in a learning setting. CTONI-2 tests are administered with students with language impairment (but without visual impairment), such as non-verbal autism, post-stroke syndrome, aphasia, deafness, traumatic brain injury, and other language processing problems. The WAIS-IV is administered to students to identify those with special needs, identify and classify their learning styles, challenges, needs, and abilities (Young et al., 2021). Therefore, the CTONI-2 and WAIS-IV tests are necessary for education planning and placement of students in I-O psychology and other related professions. Students in I-O psychology use CTONI-2 to measure their non-verbal intelligence, particularly if they have any form of language impairment, to determine the areas of needs in furthering their professional knowledge. While in continuing practice, I-O psychologists plan their further education by taking the WAIS-IV test; the test helps them identify their areas of strength, special abilities, and giftedness for specialization. The purpose for Testing and Content, Skills, and/or Constructs Assessed The main purpose of the CTONI-2 test was to measure an individual's reasoning as well as problem solving abilities. This test mostly measures the non-verbal intelligence to treat aphasia, non verbal autism, deafness. Similarly, the purpose of the WJ-IV test was to measure intellectual abilities focusing on skills such as intelligence, quantitative reasoning. This test helps to cure a patient's visual processing, memory recovery. Finally, the WAIS-IV test is used in measuring the processing speed of information in individuals. This test helps in measuring if someone has special needs or if someone has difficulties in learning styles. Absolutely, these tests can be used in my specialization . For example, I can use the CTONI-2 test to determine the intelligence of employees, managers. Similarly, I can use the WJ-IV test to design an assessment that helps in the hiring and retention process and lastly, the WAIS-IV test to study employee’s needs and use that information to plan all the necessary education, training that are required to fulfill those needs. References Beaujean, A. A., & Benson, N. F. (2019). Theoretically-consistent cognitive ability test development and score interpretation. Contemporary School Psychology, 23(2), 126-137. Dombrowski, S. C., McGill, R. J., & Canivez, G. L. (2018). An alternative conceptualization of the theoretical structure of the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities at school age: A confirmatory factor analytic investigation. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(1), 1. Lockwood, A. B., & Farmer, R. L. (2020). The cognitive assessment course: Two decades later. Psychology in the Schools, 57(2), 265-283. Martin, N., Capman, J., Boyce, A., Morgan, K., Gonzalez, M. F., & Adler, S. (2020). New frontiers in cognitive ability testing: Working memory. Journal of Managerial Psychology. Scharfen, J., Peters, J. M., & Holling, H. (2018). Retest effects in cognitive ability tests: A metaanalysis. Intelligence, 67, 44-66. Schmank, C. J., Goring, S. A., Kovacs, K., & Conway, A. R. (2021). Investigating the Structure of Intelligence Using Latent Variable and Psychometric Network Modeling: A Commentary and Reanalysis. Journal of Intelligence, 9(1), 8. Shanock, A., Flanagan, D. P., Alfonso, V. C., & McHale-Small, M. (2021). Helping School Psychologists and Districts Estimate the Cost of Adopting the Dual Discrepancy/Consistency PSW Method for SLD Identification. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 1-34. Stanek, K. C., & Ones, D. S. (2018). Taxonomies and compendia of cognitive ability and personality constructs and measures relevant to industrial, work, and organizational psychology. Young, S. R., Maddocks, D. L., & Carrigan, J. E. (2021). The International Cognitive Ability Resource: A Free Cognitive Measure with Utility for Postsecondary Giftedness Research. Gifted Child Quarterly, 00169862211023775. Name: Description: ...
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