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What are some of the most critical health concerns we face in the 21st
century and why?
Introduction
The Covid-19 pandemic has had serious consequences on the health of the world
population. This is a worldwide health problem where it is believed that this virus has
spread to almost every community in the globe and killed more than 1 million people, this
has led to an increase in the number of infected cases.
The infection of this disease is carried by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which consists of two
proteins (spike protein) that are known to be internal proteins that bind together tightly to
form a membrane to carry out the movement of genetic information, the structure and
operation of cells and the transport of molecules and fluids to the cell membrane. The
physical barrier allows a large number of viruses to invade the body, making it a challenge
to identify all the potential viruses that may lead to infection. This makes it very
challenging for health care workers to control the spread of this virus (Barrick & Baker
2017).
Many countries across the globe have confirmed that there are over 100 thousand
confirmed cases of corona virus infection with the United States and China recording more
than 50 000 cases each. There was also reported deaths due to complications related to the
disease in addition to the death of many patients in the long term, while others were left
with severe illness and have been put into long-term care facilities. Research has been
carried out globally to identify new ways to prevent this disease and some of the most
effective methods used include vaccination, containment of affected areas, testing and
isolation of those that are infected (Dwyer 2014).
This report is aimed at analyzing how the World Health Organization (WHO) can
implement effective measures, protocols and policies against the spread of Covid-19. To
accomplish this task, the study will look at what are the most critical health concerns that
we face in the 21st century and why they are being addressed in terms of prevention,
treatment, and research. It will highlight the main problems facing humanity in general and
healthcare professionals, as well as what should be done to address them in order to
reduce their severity, improve health outcomes and save lives.
Background Information
Healthcare systems and public health are always complex issues and this is especially so in
our modern times where technology is advancing everyday, making it easier for us to find,
prevent, and treat problems that once caused great concern for communities. These
problems have now become manageable and can usually be solved or prevented before it
really gets worse. However, health practitioners have seen these challenges as
opportunities to learn (Caldwell & Harris 2016).
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In the past, human beings faced other health threats and we were not prepared to deal with
them, as we did not know much about this disease or the way it works, hence the reason
we did not want to pay attention to it. However, when we started to realize that the global
economy depended on healthcare services, governments began to act against such diseases
(Diana 2013). Governments developed policies to discourage and protect their populations
from infectious diseases. Some of the most common policies that governments developed
meant developing quarantine facilities, improving access to quality healthcare and creating
public health infrastructure (Hanson et al. 2020). New technologies have made it possible
for people across the world to get reliable healthcare through telehealth systems.
Telehealth also reduces costs and improves convenience to patients.
In addition to reducing travel time and cost, researchers have come up with innovative
techniques in diagnosing and preventing infections in certain areas, through use of rapid
tests and imaging devices (Kremer & Kainulainen 2019). With advances in science,
different drugs have been discovered to combat the spread of this disease through the use
of antivirals and antibody drugs. Scientists are currently working hard to discover cures for
this disease and are currently focusing on therapeutics that may slow down the growth and
spread of the virus and are more effective against other forms of diseases and not only for
coronavirus (Shi et al. 2020). Many companies have started searching for cures for the
disease, either through clinical trials or through preclinical studies; however, there is still
no cure for the virus yet.
Research has shown that the early stage and most dangerous phase of the disease is when
it enters the respiratory system of a person and spread to other organs (Hsu et al. 2011). As
a result, health care providers now focus in screening patients and using appropriate
interventions prior and after diagnosis. This means that screening and monitoring of
patients is important and requires specific attention because it becomes easier if the same
measures can be implemented without too much effort to detect and prevent other
infections. Some of the most common screenings that healthcare workers use to detect the
presence of the virus are body temperature checks (BMC), nasal swab and throat swabs
and a combination of both. If any one of these tests suggests the presence of the virus, the
individual should immediately isolate themselves (Tallqvist 2010).
Many healthcare professionals around the world are taking precautions such as wearing
masks, personal protective equipment (PPE), washing hands, sanitizing facilities and
restricting unnecessary visits to patients during this current period of the pandemic. All
these are measures that are geared towards reducing the spread of this disease (Liu et al.
2019).
However, there are several questions regarding whether the pandemic is truly under
control. Based on reports on the country’s Department of Health statistics, there are
approximately 11 million people that are suffering from this disease. While some countries
have recorded relatively fewer cases, others have reported hundreds of thousands and
some of the hardest hit country in the world, India will be able to manage its case numbers
if it implements effective strategies for the future (Bharuchaar & Bikrrajan 2014).
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Based on the available data, more than 65% of the world’s population is likely to be
infected by this virus and millions of deaths are expected to occur. A good news is that
there are currently few vaccines available; however, it is estimated that the vaccine could
be available within the next four years. Healthcare managers and public health officials
have the biggest responsibility in fighting COVID-19 and this is because the disease is
spread via close contact and the spread is quite common in our planet. For example, studies
have shown that in a given day only around 2.5% of people are likely to get infected while
on the other hand, in the next 24 hours, more than 70% of the world’s population will be
infected and about 15-25 % of these will lead to hospitalization. This is why it is crucial to
tackle the spread of the disease. It is therefore vital to ensure that everyone is protected
while protecting vulnerable groups and avoiding spread of the disease (Rozman et al.
2016).
Based on this, it is vital to understand that there are three phases needed for combating or
managing the spread of a disease detection, preparation and response (Dalley-Brown
2018). Detection is when you first learn that your community or society is exposed to the
disease, then you need to go ahead and search for the source and then take necessary
precautions. Preparedness is a similar thing but on a higher level; your community is
established so that all people are aware of their surroundings and their status quo.
Response is when people learn what kind of action will help to reduce or eliminate the
spread of the disease.
The WHO Framework: An Overview
In its framework, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has presented a simple formula
and is based on five domains comprising healthcare, policy, law, education, and governance
(World Health Organisation [WHO], 2021). The five domains are subdivided into five
categories; the “health sector”, the “public sectors”, the “public health services”, the “health
workforce”, and the private sectors (WHO 2021). Policy is considered one of the most
important areas of the overall health system and policy is often referred to as the
foundation of healthy healthcare (WHO 2021). On the flip side, however, the world is falling
apart with conflicts between nations. Although a significant chunk of both developed and
third-world countries is engaged in the UN Peacekeeping Programme, there are still
billions of people who suffer from war-related humanitarian crises in the world (WHO
2020). One area which would require intervention is the management of the health
inequalities. In this regard, the government needs to take steps in ensuring that all patients
get equal access to quality healthcare regardless of their socio-economic backgrounds or
political affiliation (National Institute on Drug Abuse n.d.).
While there is increased awareness about the impact of the health burden of chronic
diseases on people particularly in low and middle income countries, many people do not
realize how difficult it will be to cope with the added load of healthcare. People will
continue to die from HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis by 2030 and it is estimated that
approximately 75% of the global population will live below the poverty line of $1,200 per
year, and over 80% of the global population is expected to live below that amount as
compared to just 60% a decade ago. The effects of climate change will affect most of these
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vulnerable people and these can only be managed by engaging them in decision making
and providing them with viable solutions to the issue (Walsh et al. 2014).
On another note, while many researchers and clinicians are actively involved in treating the
disease itself, there is very little research done to understand how the virus behaves. Thus,
when this disease begins spread to the rest of the world, it may only take a few months for
it to reach the rest of the world and the entire world. As a result, there are many people
that will die of an infection that took less than a month to appear in the medical systems,
which has proven extremely difficult, and even impossible, for healthcare professionals and
stakeholders (Dilson & Johnson 2012).
Health disparities have been observed and many studies show that

Unformatted Attachment Preview

What are some of the most critical health concerns we face in the 21st century and why? Introduction The Covid-19 pandemic has had serious consequences on the health of the world population. This is a worldwide health problem where it is believed that this virus has spread to almost every community in the globe and killed more than 1 million people, this has led to an increase in the number of infected cases. The infection of this disease is carried by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which consists of two proteins (spike protein) that are known to be internal proteins that bind together tightly to form a membrane to carry out the movement of genetic information, the structure and operation of cells and the transport of molecules and fluids to the cell membrane. The physical barrier allows a large number of viruses to invade the body, making it a challenge to identify all the potential viruses that may lead to infection. This makes it very challenging for health care workers to control the spread of this virus (Barrick & Baker 2017). Many countries across the globe have confirmed that there are over 100 thousand confirmed cases of corona virus infection with the United States and China recording more than 50 000 cases each. There was also reported deaths due to complications related to the disease in addition to the death of many patients in the long term, while others were left with severe illness and have been put into long-term care facilities. Research has been carried out globally to identify new ways to prevent this disease and some of the most effective methods used include vaccination, containment of affected areas, testing and isolation of those that are infected (Dwyer 2014). This report is aimed at analyzing how the World Health Organization (WHO) can implement effective measures, protocols and policies against the spread of Covid-19. To accomplish this task, the study will look at what are the most critical health concerns that we face in the 21st century and why they are being addressed in terms of prevention, treatment, and research. It will highlight the main problems facing humanity in general and healthcare professionals, as well as what should be done to address them in order to reduce their severity, improve health outcomes and save lives. Background Information Healthcare systems and public health are always complex issues and this is especially so in our modern times where technology is advancing everyday, making it easier for us to find, prevent, and treat problems that once caused great concern for communities. These problems have now become manageable and can usually be solved or prevented before it really gets worse. However, health practitioners have seen these challenges as opportunities to learn (Caldwell & Harris 2016). In the past, human beings faced other health threats and we were not prepared to deal with them, as we did not know much about this disease or the way it works, hence the reason we did not want to pay attention to it. However, when we started to realize that the global economy depended on healthcare services, governments began to act against such diseases (Diana 2013). Governments developed policies to discourage and protect their populations from infectious diseases. Some of the most common policies that governments developed meant developing quarantine facilities, improving access to quality healthcare and creating public health infrastructure (Hanson et al. 2020). New technologies have made it possible for people across the world to get reliable healthcare through telehealth systems. Telehealth also reduces costs and improves convenience to patients. In addition to reducing travel time and cost, researchers have come up with innovative techniques in diagnosing and preventing infections in certain areas, through use of rapid tests and imaging devices (Kremer & Kainulainen 2019). With advances in science, different drugs have been discovered to combat the spread of this disease through the use of antivirals and antibody drugs. Scientists are currently working hard to discover cures for this disease and are currently focusing on therapeutics that may slow down the growth and spread of the virus and are more effective against other forms of diseases and not only for coronavirus (Shi et al. 2020). Many companies have started searching for cures for the disease, either through clinical trials or through preclinical studies; however, there is still no cure for the virus yet. Research has shown that the early stage and most dangerous phase of the disease is when it enters the respiratory system of a person and spread to other organs (Hsu et al. 2011). As a result, health care providers now focus in screening patients and using appropriate interventions prior and after diagnosis. This means that screening and monitoring of patients is important and requires specific attention because it becomes easier if the same measures can be implemented without too much effort to detect and prevent other infections. Some of the most common screenings that healthcare workers use to detect the presence of the virus are body temperature checks (BMC), nasal swab and throat swabs and a combination of both. If any one of these tests suggests the presence of the virus, the individual should immediately isolate themselves (Tallqvist 2010). Many healthcare professionals around the world are taking precautions such as wearing masks, personal protective equipment (PPE), washing hands, sanitizing facilities and restricting unnecessary visits to patients during this current period of the pandemic. All these are measures that are geared towards reducing the spread of this disease (Liu et al. 2019). However, there are several questions regarding whether the pandemic is truly under control. Based on reports on the country’s Department of Health statistics, there are approximately 11 million people that are suffering from this disease. While some countries have recorded relatively fewer cases, others have reported hundreds of thousands and some of the hardest hit country in the world, India will be able to manage its case numbers if it implements effective strategies for the future (Bharuchaar & Bikrrajan 2014). Based on the available data, more than 65% of the world’s population is likely to be infected by this virus and millions of deaths are expected to occur. A good news is that there are currently few vaccines available; however, it is estimated that the vaccine could be available within the next four years. Healthcare managers and public health officials have the biggest responsibility in fighting COVID-19 and this is because the disease is spread via close contact and the spread is quite common in our planet. For example, studies have shown that in a given day only around 2.5% of people are likely to get infected while on the other hand, in the next 24 hours, more than 70% of the world’s population will be infected and about 15-25 % of these will lead to hospitalization. This is why it is crucial to tackle the spread of the disease. It is therefore vital to ensure that everyone is protected while protecting vulnerable groups and avoiding spread of the disease (Rozman et al. 2016). Based on this, it is vital to understand that there are three phases needed for combating or managing the spread of a disease – detection, preparation and response (Dalley-Brown 2018). Detection is when you first learn that your community or society is exposed to the disease, then you need to go ahead and search for the source and then take necessary precautions. Preparedness is a similar thing but on a higher level; your community is established so that all people are aware of their surroundings and their status quo. Response is when people learn what kind of action will help to reduce or eliminate the spread of the disease. The WHO Framework: An Overview In its framework, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has presented a simple formula and is based on five domains comprising healthcare, policy, law, education, and governance (World Health Organisation [WHO], 2021). The five domains are subdivided into five categories; the “health sector”, the “public sectors”, the “public health services”, the “health workforce”, and the private sectors (WHO 2021). Policy is considered one of the most important areas of the overall health system and policy is often referred to as the foundation of healthy healthcare (WHO 2021). On the flip side, however, the world is falling apart with conflicts between nations. Although a significant chunk of both developed and third-world countries is engaged in the UN Peacekeeping Programme, there are still billions of people who suffer from war-related humanitarian crises in the world (WHO 2020). One area which would require intervention is the management of the health inequalities. In this regard, the government needs to take steps in ensuring that all patients get equal access to quality healthcare regardless of their socio-economic backgrounds or political affiliation (National Institute on Drug Abuse n.d.). While there is increased awareness about the impact of the health burden of chronic diseases on people particularly in low and middle income countries, many people do not realize how difficult it will be to cope with the added load of healthcare. People will continue to die from HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis by 2030 and it is estimated that approximately 75% of the global population will live below the poverty line of $1,200 per year, and over 80% of the global population is expected to live below that amount as compared to just 60% a decade ago. The effects of climate change will affect most of these vulnerable people and these can only be managed by engaging them in decision making and providing them with viable solutions to the issue (Walsh et al. 2014). On another note, while many researchers and clinicians are actively involved in treating the disease itself, there is very little research done to understand how the virus behaves. Thus, when this disease begins spread to the rest of the world, it may only take a few months for it to reach the rest of the world and the entire world. As a result, there are many people that will die of an infection that took less than a month to appear in the medical systems, which has proven extremely difficult, and even impossible, for healthcare professionals and stakeholders (Dilson & Johnson 2012). Health disparities have been observed and many studies show that Name: Description: ...
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