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Anatomy of Endocrine system
Second messenger system of the body
∙ Uses chemical messages (hormones) that are released into the blood
Hormones control several major Processes
Reproduction
Growth and development
Mobilization of body defenses
Maintenance of much of homeostasis
Regulation of metabolism
Hormones overview
Hormones are produced by specialized Cells
Cells secrete hormones into Extracellular fluids
Blood transfers hormones to target sites
These hormones regulate the activity of other cells
Effects Caused by Hormones
Changes in plasma membrane permeability or electrical state
Synthesis of proteins, such as enzymes
Activation or inactivation of enzymes
Stimulation of mitosis
Steroid Hormone Action
∙ Diffuse through the plasma membrane of target cells
Enter the nucleus
Bind to a specific protein within the nucleus
Bind to specific sites on the cell’s DNA
Activate genes that result in synthesis of new proteins
Nonsteroid Hormone Action
Hormone binds to a membrane receptor
Hormone does not enter the cell
Sets off a series of reactions that activates an enzyme
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Catalyzes a reaction that produces a second messenger molecule
Oversees additional intracellular changes to promote a specific response
Pituitary Gland
Size of a grape
Hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus
Protected by the sphenoid bone
Has two functional lobes
Anterior pituitary glandular tissue
Posterior pituitary nervous tissue
Growth Hormone (GH)
General metabolic hormone
Major effects are directed to growth of skeletal muscles and long bones
Causes amino acids to be built into proteins
Causes fats to be broken down for a source of energy
Thyroid Gland
Found at the base of the throat
Consists of two lobes and a connecting isthmus
Produces two hormones
Thyroid hormone
Calcitonin
Calcitonin
Decreases blood calcium levels by causing its deposition on bone
Antagonistic to parathyroid hormone
Produced by C (parafollicular) cells
Parathyroid Glands
Tiny masses on the posterior of the thyroid
Secrete parathyroid hormone
Stimulate osterclasts to remove calcium from bone
Stimulate the kidneys and intestine to absorb more calcium
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Raise calcium levels in the blood
Adrenal Glands
Two glands
Cortex outer glandular region in three layers
Medulla inner neural tissue region
Sits on top of the kidneys∙ Two glands
Pancreatic Islets
The pancreas is a mixed gland
The islets of the pancreas produce hormones
Insulin allows glucose to cross plasma membranes into cells from beta cells
Glucagon allows glucose to enter the blood from alpha cells
These hormones are antagonists that maintain blood sugar homeostasis
Pineal Gland
Found on the third ventricle of the brain
Secretes melatonin
∙Helps establish the body’s wake and sleep cycles
May have other as-yet-unsubstantiated functions
Thymus
Located posterior to the sternum
Largest in infants and children
Produces thymosin
Matures some types of white blood cells
Important in developing the immune system
Hormones of the Ovaries
Estrogens
Produced by Graafian follicles or the placenta
Stimulates the development of secondary female characteristics
Matures female reproductive organs
Helps prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg
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Helps maintain pregnancy
Prepares the breasts to produce milk
Progesterone
Produced by the corpus luteum
Acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle
Helps in the implantation of an embryo in the uterus
Hormones of the Testes
Interstitial cells of testes are hormone-producing
Produce several androgens
Testosterone is the most important androgen
Responsible for adult male secondary sex characteristics
Promotes growth and maturation of male reproductive system
Required for sperm cell production

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Anatomy of Endocrine system ∙ Second messenger system of the body ∙ Uses chemical messages (hormones) that are released into the blood ∙ Hormones control several major Processes ∙Reproduction ∙Growth and development ∙Mobilization of body defenses ∙Maintenance of much of homeostasis ∙Regulation of metabolism Hormones overview ∙ Hormones are produced by specialized Cells ∙ Cells secrete hormones into Extracellular fluids ∙ Blood transfers hormones to target sites ∙ These hormones regulate the activity of other cells Effects Caused by Hormones ∙ Changes in plasma membrane permeability or electrical state ∙ Synthesis of proteins, such as enzymes ∙ Activation or inactivation of enzymes ∙ Stimulation of mitosis Steroid Hormone Action ∙ Diffuse through the plasma membrane of target cells ∙ Enter the nucleus ∙ Bind to a specific protein within the nucleus ∙ Bind to specific sites on the cell’s DNA ∙ Activate genes that result in synthesis of new proteins Nonsteroid Hormone Action ∙ Hormone binds to a membrane receptor ∙ Hormone does not enter the cell ∙ Sets off a series of reactions that activates an enzyme ∙ Catalyzes a reaction that produces a second messenger molecule ∙ Oversees additional intracellular changes to promote a specific response Pituitary Gland Size of a grape ∙ Hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus ∙ Protected by the sphenoid bone ∙ Has two functional lobes ∙Anterior pituitary – glandular tissue ∙Posterior pituitary – nervous tissue Growth Hormone (GH) ∙ General metabolic hormone ∙ Major effects are directed to growth of skeletal muscles and long bones ∙ Causes amino acids to be built into proteins ∙ Causes fats to be broken down for a source of energy Thyroid Gland ∙ Found at the base of the throat ∙ Consists of two lobes and a connecting isthmus ∙ Produces two hormones ∙Thyroid hormone ∙Calcitonin Calcitonin ∙ Decreases blood calcium levels by causing its deposition on bone ∙ Antagonistic to parathyroid hormone ∙ Produced by C (parafollicular) cells Parathyroid Glands ∙ Tiny masses on the posterior of the thyroid ∙ Secrete parathyroid hormone ∙Stimulate osterclasts to remove calcium from bone ∙Stimulate the kidneys and intestine to absorb more calcium ∙Raise calcium levels in the blood Adrenal Glands ∙ Two glands ∙Cortex – outer glandular region in three layers ∙Medulla – inner neural tissue region ∙ Sits on top of the kidneys∙ Two glands Pancreatic Islets ∙ The pancreas is a mixed gland ∙ The islets of the pancreas produce hormones ∙Insulin – allows glucose to cross plasma membranes into cells from beta cells ∙Glucagon – allows glucose to enter the blood from alpha cells ∙These hormones are antagonists that maintain blood sugar homeostasis Pineal Gland ∙ Found on the third ventricle of the brain ∙ Secretes melatonin ∙Helps establish the body’s wake and sleep cycles ∙May have other as-yet-unsubstantiated functions Thymus ∙ Located posterior to the sternum ∙ Largest in infants and children ∙ Produces thymosin ∙Matures some types of white blood cells ∙Important in developing the immune system Hormones of the Ovaries ∙ Estrogens ∙Produced by Graafian follicles or the placenta ∙Stimulates the development of secondary female characteristics ∙Matures female reproductive organs ∙Helps prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg ∙Helps maintain pregnancy ∙Prepares the breasts to produce milk ∙ Progesterone ∙Produced by the corpus luteum ∙Acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle ∙Helps in the implantation of an embryo in the uterus Hormones of the Testes ∙ Interstitial cells of testes are hormone-producing ∙ Produce several androgens ∙ Testosterone is the most important androgen ∙Responsible for adult male secondary sex characteristics ∙Promotes growth and maturation of male reproductive system ∙Required for sperm cell production Name: Description: ...
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