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Short question and answers.
1. Define Science from ancient and today’s aspect.
In ancient times, science meant knowledge or learning. Today we define science as the study in
which observations are made, experiments are done, and logical conclusions are drawn to
understand the principles of nature. Scientific knowledge is classified into different branches
like, biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics etc.
2. Define Biology and enlist its divisions
The word biology consists of two Greek words bios meaning life and logos meaning thought,
reasoning and study. Biology is the study of living organisms. The study of living organisms also
provides information and remedies to human problems regarding health, food, environment etc.
Biology has three main divisions which study the different aspects of the lives of the major
groups of organisms i.e., Botany, Zoology and Microbiology.
3. Define Histology and Cell Biology.
The microscopic study of tissues of organisms is called histology. Whereas The study of the
structure and functions of cell is called cell biology. This branch also deals with the study of
cell division.
4. What are Fossils and their role in studying life.
Fossils are remains of the living things preserved by natural process. Fossils help the study of life
in the past and process of evolution. Paleontology is the study of fossils, which are the remains
of extinct organisms
5. Define Biotechnology.
The study of use of different techniques to manipulate the living organisms for the benefit of
mankind. Biotechnologist’s study and work to produce useful products through microorganisms.
Example: such as insulin, barley, brewer's yeast, bread etc.
6. Distinguish between Macromolecule and Micro molecules.
Macromolecule
Micro molecules.
The large organic molecules are with high
molecular weights are called
macromolecules
Example. starch, proteins, lipids etc.
The small biomolecules with low molecular
weight in living things are called micro
molecules.
Example. sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and
nucleotides.
7. Define Organ and Organelles
Organ
Organelles
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In higher multicellular organisms more than
one type of tissue having related functions
are organized
together and make a unit, called organ.
Example. stomach is an organ specialized
for the digestion of proteins and for storing
food. Two major types of tissue are present
in its structure. Epithelial (glandular) tissue
secretes gastric juice for the digestion of
proteins.
Biomolecules assemble in a particular way
and form organelles. The organelles are
subcellular structures and when they
assemble, units of life i.e., cells are formed.
Example mitochondria are specialized for
cellular respiration and ribosomes are
specialized for protein synthesis.
8.Why Jabir Bin Hayyan and Bu Ali Sina famous for?
Jabir Bin Hayyan
Bu Ali Sina
He was born in Iran and practised medicine in
Iraq. He introduced experimental
investigation in
chemistry and wrote a number of books on
plants and animals. His famous books are
“Al-Nabatat” and “Al-Haywan”..
He is honoured as the founder of medicine
and called as Avicenna in the West. He was a
physician,
philosopher, astronomer and poet. One of his
books “Al-Qanun-fi al-Tib” is known as the
canon of medicine in West.
”.
10.Define genetics and inheritance?
The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics, Inheritance means the
transmission of characters from one generation to the other.
Example: Eye color, height.
11.Define biophysics.
It deals with the study of the principles of physic, which are applicable to biological phenomena,
for example there is a similarity between the working principles of lever in physics and limbs of
animal in biology.
12. What is studied in profession of farming?
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It deals with the development and maintenance of different types of farms. A student who has
gone through the professional course of agriculture, animal husbandry or fisheries
etc. can adopt this profession.
For example. In some farms. Animals breeding technologies are used to produce animals which
are better for protein and milk sources. In poultry farms chicken and eggs are produced.
Similarly in fruit farms, different fruit yielding plants are grown.
13. Differentiate Between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
The organisms whose cells do not have
distinct nucleus, lack membrane bounded
structure like mitochondria and have limited
number and types of organelles are called
prokaryotes.
Example. bacteria, Cyanobacteria.
Archaea
The organisms whose cells do have distinct
nucleus, membrane bounded structures and
large number and types of organelles.
Example. protists, fungi, plants, and animals
14.Differentiate between molecule and biomolecules?
Molecule
Biomolecules
atoms of different elements combine with
each other through ionic or covalent bonding
to make a stable particle, which is called
molecule.
Example
water (H
2
O) has three atoms, two hydrogen
(H) atoms and one oxygen (O) atom
The stable particle which is made by atoms of
bio elements i.e., carbon, nitrogen, Sulphur
etc through ionic or covalent bonding is called
biomolecules. Types: Macromolecules, Micro
molecules
About 16 of the 92 natural elements are
essential to life. These bio-elements. O, C, H,
N, Ca, & P) make 99% of the total mass
15.Write down the contributions of Abdul Malik Asmai.
Abdul Malik is considered the first Muslim scientist who studied animals in detail. His famous
writing include Al-abil(Camel)", "Al-Khail (horse)", 'Al-Wahoosh (animal0" and " Kalq-al-
ansan.
16.Differntiate netween population and community.
Population
Community
A populationis defined as a group of
organisms of the same species located at the
A community is the assemblage of different
populations,interacting with one another with
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same place, in the same time. Example:
Human population in Pakistan in 2019
comprises of 173.5 million individuals.
in the same environment. Example: A forest
may be considered as a community. It
includes different plants, micro-
organismm,fungi and animal species
17. Define organ and tissue.
Organ
Tissue
In higher multicellular organisms, more than
one types of tissues having related functions
are organized together to make a unit, called
organ.
Example: Stomach and liver etc.
A tissue is a group of similar cells specialized
for the performance of a common function.
Example: Animal tissue and plant tissue like
xylem tissues, phloem tissues, Epithelial
tissues, Connective tissues, Nervous tissue,
Muscular tissue
18.write briefly about colonial type of cellular organization?
Colonial type of cellular organization: In colonial type of cellular organization, many
unicellular organisms live together but do not have any division of labor among them. Each
unicellular organism in a colony lives its own life and does not depend on other cells for its
vital requirements.
Example: Volvox is a green alga found in water that shows colonial organization. Hundreds
of Volvox cells make a colony

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Short question and answers. 1. Define Science from ancient and today’s aspect. In ancient times, science meant knowledge or learning. Today we define science as the study in which observations are made, experiments are done, and logical conclusions are drawn to understand the principles of nature. Scientific knowledge is classified into different branches like, biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics etc. 2. Define Biology and enlist its divisions The word biology consists of two Greek words bios meaning life and logos meaning thought, reasoning and study. Biology is the study of living organisms. The study of living organisms also provides information and remedies to human problems regarding health, food, environment etc. Biology has three main divisions which study the different aspects of the lives of the major groups of organisms i.e., Botany, Zoology and Microbiology. 3. Define Histology and Cell Biology. The microscopic study of tissues of organisms is called histology. Whereas The study of the structure and functions of cell is called cell biology. This branch also deals with the study of cell division. 4. What are Fossils and their role in studying life. Fossils are remains of the living things preserved by natural process. Fossils help the study of life in the past and process of evolution. Paleontology is the study of fossils, which are the remains of extinct organisms 5. Define Biotechnology. The study of use of different techniques to manipulate the living organisms for the benefit of mankind. Biotechnologist’s study and work to produce useful products through microorganisms. Example: such as insulin, barley, brewer's yeast, bread etc. 6. Distinguish between Macromolecule and Micro molecules. Macromolecule The large organic molecules are with high molecular weights are called macromolecules Example. starch, proteins, lipids etc. 7. Define Organ and Organelles Organ Micro molecules. The small biomolecules with low molecular weight in living things are called micro molecules. Example. sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides. Organelles In higher multicellular organisms more than one type of tissue having related functions are organized together and make a unit, called organ. Example. stomach is an organ specialized for the digestion of proteins and for storing food. Two major types of tissue are present in its structure. Epithelial (glandular) tissue secretes gastric juice for the digestion of Biomolecules assemble in a particular way and form organelles. The organelles are subcellular structures and when they assemble, units of life i.e., cells are formed. Example mitochondria are specialized for cellular respiration and ribosomes are specialized for protein synthesis. proteins. 8.Why Jabir Bin Hayyan and Bu Ali Sina famous for? Jabir Bin Hayyan He was born in Iran and practised medicine in Iraq. He introduced experimental investigation in chemistry and wrote a number of books on plants and animals. His famous books are “Al-Nabatat” and “Al-Haywan”.. Bu Ali Sina He is honoured as the founder of medicine and called as Avicenna in the West. He was a physician, philosopher, astronomer and poet. One of his books “Al-Qanun-fi al-Tib” is known as the canon of medicine in West. ”. 10.Define genetics and inheritance? The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics, Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other. Example: Eye color, height. 11.Define biophysics. It deals with the study of the principles of physic, which are applicable to biological phenomena, for example there is a similarity between the working principles of lever in physics and limbs of animal in biology. 12. What is studied in profession of farming? It deals with the development and maintenance of different types of farms. A student who has gone through the professional course of agriculture, animal husbandry or fisheries etc. can adopt this profession. For example. In some farms. Animals breeding technologies are used to produce animals which are better for protein and milk sources. In poultry farms chicken and eggs are produced. Similarly in fruit farms, different fruit yielding plants are grown. 13. Differentiate Between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes? Prokaryotes The organisms whose cells do not have distinct nucleus, lack membrane bounded structure like mitochondria and have limited number and types of organelles are called prokaryotes. Eukaryotes The organisms whose cells do have distinct nucleus, membrane bounded structures and large number and types of organelles. Example. protists, fungi, plants, and animals Example. bacteria, Cyanobacteria. Archaea 14.Differentiate between molecule and biomolecules? Molecule atoms of different elements combine with each other through ionic or covalent bonding to make a stable particle, which is called molecule. Example water (H2O) has three atoms, two hydrogen (H) atoms and one oxygen (O) atom Biomolecules The stable particle which is made by atoms of bio elements i.e., carbon, nitrogen, Sulphur etc through ionic or covalent bonding is called biomolecules. Types: Macromolecules, Micro molecules About 16 of the 92 natural elements are essential to life. These bio-elements. O, C, H, N, Ca, & P) make 99% of the total mass 15.Write down the contributions of Abdul Malik Asmai. Abdul Malik is considered the first Muslim scientist who studied animals in detail. His famous writing include Al-abil(Camel)", "Al-Khail (horse)", 'Al-Wahoosh (animal0" and " Kalq-alansan. 16.Differntiate netween population and community. Population Community A populationis defined as a group of organisms of the same species located at the A community is the assemblage of different populations,interacting with one another with same place, in the same time. Example: Human population in Pakistan in 2019 comprises of 173.5 million individuals. in the same environment. Example: A forest may be considered as a community. It includes different plants, microorganismm,fungi and animal species 17. Define organ and tissue. Organ In higher multicellular organisms, more than one types of tissues having related functions are organized together to make a unit, called organ. Example: Stomach and liver etc. Tissue A tissue is a group of similar cells specialized for the performance of a common function. Example: Animal tissue and plant tissue like xylem tissues, phloem tissues, Epithelial tissues, Connective tissues, Nervous tissue, Muscular tissue 18.write briefly about colonial type of cellular organization? Colonial type of cellular organization: In colonial type of cellular organization, many unicellular organisms live together but do not have any division of labor among them. Each unicellular organism in a colony lives its own life and does not depend on other cells for its vital requirements. Example: Volvox is a green alga found in water that shows colonial organization. Hundreds of Volvox cells make a colony Name: Description: ...
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