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Covid 19 related to travel
1. Shamshiripour, A., Rahimi, E., Shabanpour, R., & Mohammadian, A. (2020). How is COVID-19
reshaping activity-travel behavior? Evidence from a comprehensive survey in
Chicago. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 7, 100216. doi:
10.1016/j.trip.2020.100216
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590198220301275
Summary
Our everyday lives have been dramatically altered by the unprecedented outbreak of COVID-19 over the
planet. It's becoming more common for people to work from home and purchase from the comfort of
their own homes instead of going to the store. The epidemic has hastened many of these changes,
which have been taking place for a long time. The goal of this study is to see whether and how the
COVID-19 pandemic has altered people's mobility habits and travel habits, and if they will stick around
or if they will go back to how they were before the epidemic. Chicago metropolitan region SP-RP (stated
preference-revealed preference) survey is planned and executed. People's travel patterns, attitudes, and
impressions before to and during the epidemic as well as their predictions for the future are all included
in the poll. Data analysis demonstrates considerable shifts in people's travel habits across a range of
variables. To help policymakers prepare for more fair, sustainable, and resilient cities, we also provide a
number of insights.
Annotation
I believe that COVID-19 has prompted individuals to reconsider their habits and priorities, which have
resulted in a significant shift in the way people carry out their daily routines. For the purpose of this
study, we sought to gain a better understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted people's
mobility styles, including their habits, predispositions, and higher-level orientations toward tele-
activities and travels (such as commuting, long-distance commuting, and urban travel mode choice).
2. Burns, J., Movsisyan, A., Stratil, J., Coenen, M., Emmert-Fees, K., & Geffert, K. et al. (2020).
Travel-related control measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review. Cochrane
Database Of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd013717
https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD013717.pub2/full
Summary
This research implies that travel-related controls during the COVID-19 pandemic may have a favorable
influence on infectious disease transmission and screening-related outcomes. Even yet, the quality and
variety of the studies included in this fast evaluation give it a moderate to very low level of assurance.
Because of this, the actual results may be somewhat different from what we've seen here. As a general
rule, limits on cross-border travel may help to prevent the spread of illness. Some instances of COVID-19
will be detected by symptom/exposure screening alone at border checkpoints, according to research.
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There would likely be too few instances detected for the strategy to be effective in preventing new cases
from spreading outside of the area it was designed to safeguard. However, in compared to symptom
and exposure screening, PCR testing is more effective in detecting more instances. However, if
conducted just at the time of arrival, it is likely to miss more cases. Quarantine's success is tied to the
level of cooperation and the duration of quarantine, with intervals of 10 or 14 days preventing the
majority of patients from being released back into the population. Combining quarantine with border
screening is anticipated to boost efficiency significantly.
Annotation
I found this paper very interesting because there is a dearth of "real-world" evidence supporting many
of the travel restrictions that reduce or prohibit cross-border travel and quarantine of travelers. Most
travel-related control measures and outcomes have a very low level of evidence, and the real effects are
likely to be significantly different from those described here. “Travel restrictions may be used to control
the transmission of illness across national boundaries. There is a good chance that symptom/exposure-
based screening methods at the borders are ineffective on their own; but, when combined with PCR
testing, this screening method is likely to identify more instances than symptom/exposure-based
screening at the borders. With a long enough quarantine period and strong levels of compliance,
quarantine is likely to stop travelers from spreading the disease further. PCR testing and quarantine at
the border are likely to be more successful when used together. Effects may be influenced by several
variables, including transmission levels within a community or region, the volume and length of travel,
existing public health measures in place, or even the specifics and timing of the intervention itself. It is
imperative that future studies communicate their findings more clearly, apply a wider variety of
research methods than simple simulations, and weigh the possible advantages and drawbacks of travel-
related safety measures from a society standpoint.
3. Irawan, M., Belgiawan, P., Joewono, T., Bastarianto, F., Rizki, M., & Ilahi, A. (2021). Exploring
activity-travel behavior changes during the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia.
Transportation. doi: 10.1007/s11116-021-10185-5
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11116-021-10185-5
Summary
This research investigates how Indonesians' daily routines and related travel changed as the COVID-19
outbreak spread throughout the country. Travel frequency and activity-travel behavior changes related
to ICT usage are all examined in this research. We're especially interested in how attitudes, normative
beliefs, protective actions, and individual characteristics all play a role. A web-based questionnaire
survey was used to collect data from 1062 participants. SEM was used to investigate complicated
correlations between variables. During the COVID-19 pandemic, descriptive norms were shown to have
a favorable effect on the frequency of travel. Changes in activity-travel behavior were closely linked to
changes in telework, elearning, and COVID-19 attitudes. In fact, during the COVID-19 epidemic,
teleshopping did not help to reduce the number of people who were spending time outside of their
homes. Travel frequency and ride-hailing usage decreased as a result of people's experiences with ICT.
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In addition, whereas personal characteristics had only a little impact on activity-travel behavior
modification, these characteristics had a direct impact on ICT use.. Outside of Java, individuals were
more likely to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic's early stages than those on the island. People
should be educated about the pandemic risk and encouraged to work from home or attend school
through telework and e-learning as soon as possible in an emergency caused by disasters, according to
this study's conclusions. The spread of the epidemic will be reduced if ICT is enabled to assist home-
based activities.
Annotation
The study's results led to recommendations to decrease out-of-home activities to slow COVID-19 spread
in Indonesia. These suggestions are beneficial for first aid in an emergency. Since attitudes concerning
pandemics have been shown to restrict travel and out-of-home activities, the government must first
heavily educate the population through television and social media. Since the start of the COVID-19
epidemic, travel and participation in out-of-home activities have been restricted.
Given how descriptive norms have influenced travel frequency during the pandemic, the public must be
educated in personal responsibility for limiting COVID-19 spread by reducing travel frequency. It is
unlikely that individuals would travel further to meet their requirements during the COVID-19 epidemic
because they feel comfortable. This action is particularly for low-educated and elderly individuals, since
the model findings show a favorable association with descriptive norms.
The government might limit internet transportation to decrease COVID-19 pandemic activity. Given the
strong link between ride-hailing and teleshopping, the government should promote ride-hailing to
promote teleshopping, particularly for fresh food and drink. The government and online transportation
and logistics firms should prepare a system for products preparation and delivery for both drivers and
suppliers. According to Koch et al., providing open communication and advanced internet platforms
might raise demand for teleshopping (2020). For individuals who use ride-hailing to commute during the
COVID-19 epidemic, a prohibition on people-transport ride-hailing services is advised, at least for
motorcycle-based services. Our model indicated a negative association between ride-hailing usage and
teleworking. Using ride-hailing may further discourage travelers from calling COVID-19.
4. Aebli, A., Volgger, M., & Taplin, R. (2021). A two-dimensional approach to travel motivation in
the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Current Issues In Tourism, 25(1), 60-75. doi:
10.1080/13683500.2021.1906631
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13683500.2021.1906631
Summary
According to tourism crisis literature, travel motivation is a major issue. Previous research have mostly
focused on demoralizing aspects in crisis situations. During the COVID-19 epidemic, this research
examines the factors that motivate and discourage people from traveling. In order to better understand
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and restore travelers' desire to travel during a persistent global health crisis, a two-factor theory based
on Herzberg was used to interviews with prospective tourists and tourism destination managers. To
meet these socio-psychological goals of mental well-being and interpersonal connection, COVID-19
participants have a variety of reasons for traveling. In terms of travel deterrents, health and safety
hazards and travel-related risks are the most common deterrences. Tourists, on the other hand, are
hardy souls who take precautions to keep themselves safe while on the road. Tourism crisis literature
will benefit from this study's investigation of visitors' concerns as they relate to the continuing global
health issue.
Annotation
I find the two-dimensional approach to travel motivation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic
relevant because COVID-19's influence on the DACH area (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) was
evaluated as a factor in travelers' perceptions of travel risk and their decision-making process when it
comes to visiting the region. In terms of travel deterrents, health and safety hazards and travel-related
risks are the most common deterrence. Tourism crisis literature will benefit from this study's
investigation of visitors' concerns as they relate to the continuing global health issue.
5. Matiza, T. (2020). Post-COVID-19 crisis travel behaviour: towards mitigating the effects of
perceived risk. Journal Of Tourism Futures, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/jtf-04-
2020-0063
https://www.scinapse.io/papers/3092469100
This paper's goal is to give insight into the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic and its possible impact on visitor
behavior. While the pandemic's effect on tourists' perceived risk and future travel behavior is yet to be
determined, this research addresses the possible link. This study also offers tourism practitioners with
solutions for reducing the impact of increased perceived risk on travel and tourism decision-making
post-COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: This report combines recent academic research on
perceived risk and post-crisis tourism with new information on the COVID-19 incident. Findings: This
study focuses on research on past health crises and their influence on tourism, as well as visitor
behavior. By comparing prior research to the ongoing COVID-19, we can predict how the pandemic's
perceived risk may affect post-crisis visitor behavior. To help assist practitioners in the future recovery
of the industry, short-term actions to limit risk are proposed. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/ The COVID-19
epidemic is an ongoing worldwide tourist disaster. Thus, this work acts as a primer for future tourism
research and gives theoretical guidance. Consequences: While the COVID-19 problem has yet to be
quantified, existing research anticipates heightened perceived risk and cognitive dissonance that may
severely effect tourist decision-making. These measures will help reduce the possible impact of
increased immigration and domestic tourism. Originality/value: This is one of the first papers to explore
the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on post-crisis tourist decisions and behavior. This article proposes
a research agenda for academic inquiry within a developing and unpredictable global tourist sector.
Annotation
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I found this article very interesting because for the first time, the COVID-19 pandemic is being examined
for its possible impact on travelers' post-crisis decision-making processes and their conative behavior.
This article serves as a starting point for additional empirical research in an ever-evolving and ever-
uncertain global tourist sector. Even though it is still too early to tell how the COVID-19 problem will
affect traveler behavior, past research suggests that heightened risk perceptions and cognitive
dissonance might have a detrimental effect on traveler behavior.
6. Zenker, S., & Kock, F. (2020). The coronavirus pandemic A critical discussion of a tourism
research agenda. Tourism Management, 81, 104164. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104164
https://www.scinapse.io/papers/3033103988
The coronavirus (Covid-19) virus is one of the most significant occurrences of the twenty-first century.
We urge increased deliberateness and rigor in tourism research. While we agree that the coronavirus
virus is distinctive and merits studying, we contend that not all impacts are worth studying. History
repeats itself in crisis and catastrophe studies, and previous ideas typically explain contemporary events.
So, here are six examples of a research agenda. This covers areas where tourism theory is lacking and
areas where we believe the coronavirus pandemic may cause a tourism paradigm change.
Annotation
I found this report to be informative in that while many tourist researchers throughout the globe are
now engaged in 'Covid-19 research gap detection,' we believe that greater deliberateness and rigor
should be used. While we agree that the coronavirus pandemic is distinct and pertinent to study, we
contend that not all of its impacts are worth investigating or are new to us in terms of their nature.
Previous study on crises and catastrophes has shown similar patterns, and previous ideas may
frequently be used to explain the present happenings rather well.
7. Dandapat, S., Bhattacharyya, K., Annam, S., Saysardar, K., & Maitra, B. (2020). Impact of COVID-
19 Outbreak on Travel Behaviour: Evidences from early stages of the Pandemic in India. SSRN
Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3692923
https://www.scinapse.io/papers/3105523281
Travel patterns in India were affected by the spread of COVID-19 at an early stage, according to this
study. There are five rounds to a questionnaire that was created to gather people's answers on different
elements of travel and disseminated through various internet platforms for collecting data. According to
different statistical methods, 3,830 refined replies from throughout India were examined. The study
reveals a number of intriguing findings about people's travel habits, such as the growing popularity of
"work from home" jobs, a shift in travel modes, their perceptions of the risks associated with various
modes of transportation, and what they can expect in terms of travel habits after COVID. Public
transportation, intermediate transportation, and airplanes are seen to be more dangerous than they
used to be, leading to a shift from public transportation to private automobiles in the early stages of
COVID, which is likely to continue in the post-COVID period.
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Annotation
I found this dissertation very interesting because People's travel characteristics have been studied
extensively, and various intriguing discoveries have been discovered, including the tendency toward
"work from home," modal shift, risk perception regarding traveling on different modes, and predicted
travel characteristics in the post-COVID scenario. Results show that people have a higher risk perception
for public transportation, intermediate transportation, and flights, that modal shift in favor of personal
vehicles occurs during the initial stage, and that ridership on PT and IPT modes is expected to recover
more slowly than expected during the post-COVID era, among other things.
8. Teeroovengadum, V., Seetanah, B., Bindah, E., Pooloo, A., & Veerasawmy, I. (2021). Minimising
perceived travel risk in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic to boost travel and tourism.
Tourism Review, 76(4), 910-928. doi: 10.1108/tr-05-2020-0195
https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TR-05-2020-
0195/full/html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=rss_journalLatest
Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been linked to an increased possibility of tourists visiting a place, and this
research intends to validate this linkage. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, it tries to determine the
most important indicators of perceived travel risk. A theoretically based paradigm for understanding and
predicting international travel behavior in the context of global pandemics has been presented and may
be further enhanced.
Annotation
I thought this article to be very interesting and thought provoking because in the wake of the COVID-19
incident, those tourists who are ready to go are likely to be influenced by their perception of danger. For
example, the COVID-19 status; transportation; national sanitary measures; health-care facilities and
ecotourism amenities are some of the important indicators of perceived travel dangers. Furthermore,
reliability of the information is expected to reduce the possible impact of those variables on perceived
COVID-19 associated travel danger.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517721000054
There are several ways in which pandemics are harming tourism. Before the coronavirus (COVID-19)
pandemic, this was a somewhat obscure area of study.The Pandemic Anxiety Travel Scale was created
with the help of two large online surveys and two diverse cultural settings to investigate changes in
tourist perceptions and behavior brought on by the pandemic (US and Denmark). The provided model
adds face validity to the brief and simple 5-item solution found via exploratory and confirmatory factors
analysis. Structure (reliability) and nomological validity were examined by placing PATS in the context of
distinct constructions. Though COVID-19 (the coronavirus that caused this pandemic) inspired the
development of the suggested scale, it is not confined to this pandemic and will hopefully be a useful
assessment tool for future pandemics as well.
Annotation:
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I found this article Too afraid to Travel? Development of a Pandemic (COVID-19) Anxiety
Travel Scalebecause it studies the perceived risk associated with such travel is likely to have an
impact on their travel intention. It is discovered that many important indicators of perceived
travel hazards exist, and they are classified as follows: COVID-19 status; transportation services;
national sanitary measures; health-care services; lodging services; and ecotourism facilities.
Furthermore, the potential impacts of those elements on perceived COVID-19-related travel
danger are likely to be mitigated by the credibility of the information provided by the
government.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966692320309832
There has never been a health-related disruption of this size in a century of global economic activity. On
the topic of human movement, there is a dearth of information from prior epidemics in the literature.
To the best of our knowledge, no in-depth research has been done on the impact of mandated or self-
imposed travel limits. There is a considerable decrease in human mobility and a major shift in travel
patterns as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, according to many study initiatives. Aggregated data from
Google or Apple's communities confirms this. It's possible that monitoring services don't have the ability
to provide this level of data. Also included in this study are senior citizens, many of whom seldom use
cell phones and those whose cellphones have been configured to disable location services. This study,
on the other hand, focuses only on local visits, while Google and Apple focus on long-distance travel.
According to our findings, the pandemic has had a significant influence on the daily movement of
various socio-economic categories. There were varying degrees of exposure and varying perceptions of
the risk of COVID-19.
Annotation
I find this to be very interesting because this study examines the current COVID-19 epidemic's influence
on everyday movement. Existing research on epidemic travel patterns indicates to transportation being
a disease spreader, with long-distance travel being of particular importance. Instead, we focus on the
epidemic's impact on the transportation system, particularly everyday short-distance movement. We
investigate beyond basic travel avoidance to variables affecting travel times and modal split during
epidemics. This leads to the research issues we raise here. We examine the elements that influence
people's choices to avoid everyday travel. This research focuses on impacted modes and investigates
sociocultural disparities.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180010/
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Many nations are restricting travel in an effort to prevent the spread of the epidemic, but these
restrictions are hampering the transfer of critical equipment and workers. Sravani Devi has the latest on
the situation. Unprecedented border and airline closures have been prompted by the coronavirus
disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which severely restricts the movement of key medical professionals
and supplies necessary to stop the virus's spread and preserve lives. 90% of commercial passenger
flights have been canceled or delayed. Since the epidemic of COVID-19 started, more than 130 nations
have implemented some type of travel restriction, including screening, quarantine, and travel bans from
high-risk locations. As advised by WHO, WHO member states should not impose travel or trade
restrictions on countries where COVID-19 outbreaks are taking place. Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus,
WHO director-general, stated on Jan 30 when he declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of
International Concern. "There is no need for restrictions that unduly interfere with international travel
and commerce," he added.
Annotation
In Travel restrictions hampering COVID-19 response several countries are limiting travel in order to
prevent the spread of the pandemic, but these restrictions are impeding the movement of crucial
equipment and employees. Devi has the most recent information on the issue. The coronavirus disease
2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in unprecedented border and airline restrictions, drastically
limiting the movement of crucial medical specialists and supplies required to stem the virus's spread and
save lives. Almost all commercial passenger flights have been canceled or delayed.
https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article/27/5/taaa085/5847845?login=true
This certificate of immunity should act as a safety net for the traveler, his or her companions, and the
people living in both their destination and in route. Nearly everyone who has been infected will develop
antibodies that can be detected; these antibodies are protective/neutralizing and prevent the
transmission of transmissible viruses; data establish the minimum antibody titer required for protection;
data are available to ensure that immunity is long-lasting enough to justify issuing an expatriation
certificate. It is doubtful that a "immunity certificate" system that does not meet all of the
aforementioned requirements would find widespread acceptance.
The data that has been gathered is promising, but it is still inadequate to address many of these issues.
A comparison of this unique disease to known viruses is insufficient when extrapolating correlations of
immunity and practical concerns from the other viruses. Tests for immunity and their performance have
been outlined here.
Annotation
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I believe this dissertation to be credible and trustworthy because Trade, travel, and most face-to-face
contacts have all come to a halt. According to World Tourism Organization statistics, all worldwide
destinations have travel restrictions in place; 72 percent of countries have totally closed their borders to
international tourism. if an air passenger can demonstrate that they have recovered from COVID-19 and
are thus immune, they will be exempt from many airport, boarding gate, on-board, and port-of-entry
procedures, including many protective steps such as face cover and quarantine/test on arrival.
'Immunity certificate' would ideally need a worldwide standard similar to the ICVP, and the related
paperwork may be supplied online.
https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.aba9757
The prediction of the impact of travel restrictions on the COVID-19 epidemic and its analysis might be
useful to national and international public health organizations in their response plans. The disease has
already spread to other cities in mainland China by January 23, 2020, according to our research. It's
unlikely that the quarantine imposed around Wuhan, China, would stop the illness from spreading
farther throughout the country. Separate investigations on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in mainland China
support this conclusion. In spite of the Wuhan travel ban's early success, the number of imported cases
outside of China is expected to continue to rise over the next two to three weeks. To make matters
worse, the research demonstrates that even with stricter travel restrictions (up to a 90 percent decrease
in traffic), only minor reductions in disease transmission may be achieved without other public health
initiatives and behavioral changes . Even though travel to and from mainland China has been severely
restricted since January 23rd, 2020, the model predicts that many people who have been exposed to
SARS-CoV-2 have traveled abroad undetected. In the future, we predict travel restrictions to locations
impacted by COVID-19 to have only a limited impact, and transmission reduction efforts to be the most
effective means of reducing the disease outbreak. Our findings might aid in the development of optimal
containment and mitigation plans for the COVID-19 outbreak, which includes both local and
international aspects.
Annotation:
I believe that quarantine strategies have been taken across the globe in response to the worldwide
spread of (SARS-CoV-2). used a global metapopulation infection transmission model to empirical studies
from China to study how travel and quarantine impact the patterns of the spread of this unique human
virus. They determined that the travel quarantine implemented in Wuhan on January 23, 2020, only
slowed disease advancement inside China by 3 to 5 days, but worldwide travel restrictions did assist to
limit transmission elsewhere in the globe until mid-February. Their findings show that early diagnosis,
hand washing, self-isolation, and home quarantine will likely be more successful at controlling this
pandemic than travel limitations.
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsif.2020.0875
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Non-pharmaceutical treatments (NPIs), such as measures to minimize social activities and mobility
restrictions, are the only successful ways of responding to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic to yet.
In order to reduce their social and economic implications, quantifying their impact is very challenging.
Based on the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy, we have developed a meta-population model that may be
used to analyze the effects of these two kinds of NPIs. By using activity-driven networks to simulate
social interactions, we may take advantage of granular spatial modeling of meta-population models.
Dissecting the effect of these two sorts of NPIs: those aimed at restricting persons' social activities, such
as lockdowns; and those that limit mobility. It is possible to evaluate the efficiency of various NPIs,
which differ in terms of their timing and intensity, by using our methodology. This study's findings imply
that the effectiveness of activity reduction policies, as opposed to mobility limitations, is highly
dependent on the ability to adopt NPIs in the early stages of an epidemic.
Annotated
Total mortality in these locations decreased by 12 percent as a consequence of the overall effect of early
travel restrictions. As part of our investigation, we looked at potential options across age groups and
came to the conclusion that limiting strict restrictions to just the most vulnerable age groups would not
be sufficient to effectively reduce the death rate. It is possible to see a variety of occurrences when
confinement measures are reduced, with the impact of chronic mobility restrictions being minimal. This
stage of the epidemic's battle, measures restricting social contact (for example, by requiring the use of
face masks or social distance) are the most effective in preventing the outbreak of new outbreaks.
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsif.2020.0875
Throughout the course of the COVID-19 epidemic, models have played a significant role in policy
development. Travel restrictions and border closures were inspired by early worldwide forecasts of the
disease's spread. Using model forecasts based on the virus' infectiousness, the global response was
coordinated and nations were made ready expecting rises in hospitalizations and fatalities to take place,
It has been crucial in analyzing these choices to track the effect of distance and mobility rules and
behavioral changes. We can better understand the epidemiological variations between nations with
greater and lower incomes, along with the most susceptible segments of the population within each of
those countries, thanks to computer models. The economic impact of COVID-19 has been evaluated
using both epidemic models and classic economic models, which have led to requests for a reduction in
restrictions. We may now evaluate the best strategies to loosen mobility constraints and distance
measures while still maintaining social interaction. Finally, end-game scenarios, including how
suppression may be accomplished and the effect of alternative immunization techniques, can be
included in models.
Annotated
In this study, the European Commission blocked all of its exterior borders in an attempt to restrict the
transmission of the coronavirus 2019, which I thought to be really fascinating. COVID-19, marking the
first time in history that this has been done. Throughout the last two months, governments throughout
the globe have imposed huge restrictions on travel and border controls in an effort to prevent the
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spread of this worldwide epidemic from spreading much farther. The specific impact of travel limitations
on the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic, on the other hand, remain a mystery.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Covid 19 related to travel 1. Shamshiripour, A., Rahimi, E., Shabanpour, R., & Mohammadian, A. (2020). How is COVID-19 reshaping activity-travel behavior? Evidence from a comprehensive survey in Chicago. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 7, 100216. doi: 10.1016/j.trip.2020.100216 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590198220301275 Summary Our everyday lives have been dramatically altered by the unprecedented outbreak of COVID-19 over the planet. It's becoming more common for people to work from home and purchase from the comfort of their own homes instead of going to the store. The epidemic has hastened many of these changes, which have been taking place for a long time. The goal of this study is to see whether and how the COVID-19 pandemic has altered people's mobility habits and travel habits, and if they will stick around or if they will go back to how they were before the epidemic. Chicago metropolitan region SP-RP (stated preference-revealed preference) survey is planned and executed. People's travel patterns, attitudes, and impressions before to and during the epidemic as well as their predictions for the future are all included in the poll. Data analysis demonstrates considerable shifts in people's travel habits across a range of variables. To help policymakers prepare for more fair, sustainable, and resilient cities, we also provide a number of insights. Annotation I believe that COVID-19 has prompted individuals to reconsider their habits and priorities, which have resulted in a significant shift in the way people carry out their daily routines. For the purpose of this study, we sought to gain a better understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted people's mobility styles, including their habits, predispositions, and higher-level orientations toward teleactivities and travels (such as commuting, long-distance commuting, and urban travel mode choice). 2. Burns, J., Movsisyan, A., Stratil, J., Coenen, M., Emmert-Fees, K., & Geffert, K. et al. (2020). Travel-related control measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review. Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews. doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd013717 https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD013717.pub2/full Summary This research implies that travel-related controls during the COVID-19 pandemic may have a favorable influence on infectious disease transmission and screening-related outcomes. Even yet, the quality and variety of the studies included in this fast evaluation give it a moderate to very low level of assurance. Because of this, the actual results may be somewhat different from what we've seen here. As a general rule, limits on cross-border travel may help to prevent the spread of illness. Some instances of COVID-19 will be detected by symptom/exposure screening alone at border checkpoints, according to research. There would likely be too few instances detected for the strategy to be effective in preventing new cases from spreading outside of the area it was designed to safeguard. However, in compared to symptom and exposure screening, PCR testing is more effective in detecting more instances. However, if conducted just at the time of arrival, it is likely to miss more cases. Quarantine's success is tied to the level of cooperation and the duration of quarantine, with intervals of 10 or 14 days preventing the majority of patients from being released back into the population. Combining quarantine with border screening is anticipated to boost efficiency significantly. Annotation I found this paper very interesting because there is a dearth of "real-world" evidence supporting many of the travel restrictions that reduce or prohibit cross-border travel and quarantine of travelers. Most travel-related control measures and outcomes have a very low level of evidence, and the real effects are likely to be significantly different from those described here. “Travel restrictions may be used to control the transmission of illness across national boundaries. There is a good chance that symptom/exposurebased screening methods at the borders are ineffective on their own; but, when combined with PCR testing, this screening method is likely to identify more instances than symptom/exposure-based screening at the borders. With a long enough quarantine period and strong levels of compliance, quarantine is likely to stop travelers from spreading the disease further. PCR testing and quarantine at the border are likely to be more successful when used together. Effects may be influenced by several variables, including transmission levels within a community or region, the volume and length of travel, existing public health measures in place, or even the specifics and timing of the intervention itself. It is imperative that future studies communicate their findings more clearly, apply a wider variety of research methods than simple simulations, and weigh the possible advantages and drawbacks of travelrelated safety measures from a society standpoint. 3. Irawan, M., Belgiawan, P., Joewono, T., Bastarianto, F., Rizki, M., & Ilahi, A. (2021). Exploring activity-travel behavior changes during the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Transportation. doi: 10.1007/s11116-021-10185-5 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11116-021-10185-5 Summary This research investigates how Indonesians' daily routines and related travel changed as the COVID-19 outbreak spread throughout the country. Travel frequency and activity-travel behavior changes related to ICT usage are all examined in this research. We're especially interested in how attitudes, normative beliefs, protective actions, and individual characteristics all play a role. A web-based questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 1062 participants. SEM was used to investigate complicated correlations between variables. During the COVID-19 pandemic, descriptive norms were shown to have a favorable effect on the frequency of travel. Changes in activity-travel behavior were closely linked to changes in telework, elearning, and COVID-19 attitudes. In fact, during the COVID-19 epidemic, teleshopping did not help to reduce the number of people who were spending time outside of their homes. Travel frequency and ride-hailing usage decreased as a result of people's experiences with ICT. In addition, whereas personal characteristics had only a little impact on activity-travel behavior modification, these characteristics had a direct impact on ICT use.. Outside of Java, individuals were more likely to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic's early stages than those on the island. People should be educated about the pandemic risk and encouraged to work from home or attend school through telework and e-learning as soon as possible in an emergency caused by disasters, according to this study's conclusions. The spread of the epidemic will be reduced if ICT is enabled to assist homebased activities. Annotation The study's results led to recommendations to decrease out-of-home activities to slow COVID-19 spread in Indonesia. These suggestions are beneficial for first aid in an emergency. Since attitudes concerning pandemics have been shown to restrict travel and out-of-home activities, the government must first heavily educate the population through television and social media. Since the start of the COVID-19 epidemic, travel and participation in out-of-home activities have been restricted. Given how descriptive norms have influenced travel frequency during the pandemic, the public must be educated in personal responsibility for limiting COVID-19 spread by reducing travel frequency. It is unlikely that individuals would travel further to meet their requirements during the COVID-19 epidemic because they feel comfortable. This action is particularly for low-educated and elderly individuals, since the model findings show a favorable association with descriptive norms. The government might limit internet transportation to decrease COVID-19 pandemic activity. Given the strong link between ride-hailing and teleshopping, the government should promote ride-hailing to promote teleshopping, particularly for fresh food and drink. The government and online transportation and logistics firms should prepare a system for products preparation and delivery for both drivers and suppliers. According to Koch et al., providing open communication and advanced internet platforms might raise demand for teleshopping (2020). For individuals who use ride-hailing to commute during the COVID-19 epidemic, a prohibition on people-transport ride-hailing services is advised, at least for motorcycle-based services. Our model indicated a negative association between ride-hailing usage and teleworking. Using ride-hailing may further discourage travelers from calling COVID-19. 4. Aebli, A., Volgger, M., & Taplin, R. (2021). A two-dimensional approach to travel motivation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Current Issues In Tourism, 25(1), 60-75. doi: 10.1080/13683500.2021.1906631 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13683500.2021.1906631 Summary According to tourism crisis literature, travel motivation is a major issue. Previous research have mostly focused on demoralizing aspects in crisis situations. During the COVID-19 epidemic, this research examines the factors that motivate and discourage people from traveling. In order to better understand and restore travelers' desire to travel during a persistent global health crisis, a two-factor theory based on Herzberg was used to interviews with prospective tourists and tourism destination managers. To meet these socio-psychological goals of mental well-being and interpersonal connection, COVID-19 participants have a variety of reasons for traveling. In terms of travel deterrents, health and safety hazards and travel-related risks are the most common deterrences. Tourists, on the other hand, are hardy souls who take precautions to keep themselves safe while on the road. Tourism crisis literature will benefit from this study's investigation of visitors' concerns as they relate to the continuing global health issue. Annotation I find the two-dimensional approach to travel motivation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic relevant because COVID-19's influence on the DACH area (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) was evaluated as a factor in travelers' perceptions of travel risk and their decision-making process when it comes to visiting the region. In terms of travel deterrents, health and safety hazards and travel-related risks are the most common deterrence. Tourism crisis literature will benefit from this study's investigation of visitors' concerns as they relate to the continuing global health issue. 5. Matiza, T. (2020). Post-COVID-19 crisis travel behaviour: towards mitigating the effects of perceived risk. Journal Of Tourism Futures, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/jtf-042020-0063 https://www.scinapse.io/papers/3092469100 This paper's goal is to give insight into the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic and its possible impact on visitor behavior. While the pandemic's effect on tourists' perceived risk and future travel behavior is yet to be determined, this research addresses the possible link. This study also offers tourism practitioners with solutions for reducing the impact of increased perceived risk on travel and tourism decision-making post-COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: This report combines recent academic research on perceived risk and post-crisis tourism with new information on the COVID-19 incident. Findings: This study focuses on research on past health crises and their influence on tourism, as well as visitor behavior. By comparing prior research to the ongoing COVID-19, we can predict how the pandemic's perceived risk may affect post-crisis visitor behavior. To help assist practitioners in the future recovery of the industry, short-term actions to limit risk are proposed. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/ The COVID-19 epidemic is an ongoing worldwide tourist disaster. Thus, this work acts as a primer for future tourism research and gives theoretical guidance. Consequences: While the COVID-19 problem has yet to be quantified, existing research anticipates heightened perceived risk and cognitive dissonance that may severely effect tourist decision-making. These measures will help reduce the possible impact of increased immigration and domestic tourism. Originality/value: This is one of the first papers to explore the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on post-crisis tourist decisions and behavior. This article proposes a research agenda for academic inquiry within a developing and unpredictable global tourist sector. Annotation I found this article very interesting because for the first time, the COVID-19 pandemic is being examined for its possible impact on travelers' post-crisis decision-making processes and their conative behavior. This article serves as a starting point for additional empirical research in an ever-evolving and everuncertain global tourist sector. Even though it is still too early to tell how the COVID-19 problem will affect traveler behavior, past research suggests that heightened risk perceptions and cognitive dissonance might have a detrimental effect on traveler behavior. 6. Zenker, S., & Kock, F. (2020). The coronavirus pandemic – A critical discussion of a tourism research agenda. Tourism Management, 81, 104164. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104164 https://www.scinapse.io/papers/3033103988 The coronavirus (Covid-19) virus is one of the most significant occurrences of the twenty-first century. We urge increased deliberateness and rigor in tourism research. While we agree that the coronavirus virus is distinctive and merits studying, we contend that not all impacts are worth studying. History repeats itself in crisis and catastrophe studies, and previous ideas typically explain contemporary events. So, here are six examples of a research agenda. This covers areas where tourism theory is lacking and areas where we believe the coronavirus pandemic may cause a tourism paradigm change. Annotation I found this report to be informative in that while many tourist researchers throughout the globe are now engaged in 'Covid-19 research gap detection,' we believe that greater deliberateness and rigor should be used. While we agree that the coronavirus pandemic is distinct and pertinent to study, we contend that not all of its impacts are worth investigating or are new to us in terms of their nature. Previous study on crises and catastrophes has shown similar patterns, and previous ideas may frequently be used to explain the present happenings rather well. 7. Dandapat, S., Bhattacharyya, K., Annam, S., Saysardar, K., & Maitra, B. (2020). Impact of COVID19 Outbreak on Travel Behaviour: Evidences from early stages of the Pandemic in India. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3692923 https://www.scinapse.io/papers/3105523281 Travel patterns in India were affected by the spread of COVID-19 at an early stage, according to this study. There are five rounds to a questionnaire that was created to gather people's answers on different elements of travel and disseminated through various internet platforms for collecting data. According to different statistical methods, 3,830 refined replies from throughout India were examined. The study reveals a number of intriguing findings about people's travel habits, such as the growing popularity of "work from home" jobs, a shift in travel modes, their perceptions of the risks associated with various modes of transportation, and what they can expect in terms of travel habits after COVID. Public transportation, intermediate transportation, and airplanes are seen to be more dangerous than they used to be, leading to a shift from public transportation to private automobiles in the early stages of COVID, which is likely to continue in the post-COVID period. Annotation I found this dissertation very interesting because People's travel characteristics have been studied extensively, and various intriguing discoveries have been discovered, including the tendency toward "work from home," modal shift, risk perception regarding traveling on different modes, and predicted travel characteristics in the post-COVID scenario. Results show that people have a higher risk perception for public transportation, intermediate transportation, and flights, that modal shift in favor of personal vehicles occurs during the initial stage, and that ridership on PT and IPT modes is expected to recover more slowly than expected during the post-COVID era, among other things. 8. Teeroovengadum, V., Seetanah, B., Bindah, E., Pooloo, A., & Veerasawmy, I. (2021). Minimising perceived travel risk in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic to boost travel and tourism. Tourism Review, 76(4), 910-928. doi: 10.1108/tr-05-2020-0195 https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TR-05-20200195/full/html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=rss_journalLatest Coronavirus (COVID-19) has been linked to an increased possibility of tourists visiting a place, and this research intends to validate this linkage. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, it tries to determine the most important indicators of perceived travel risk. A theoretically based paradigm for understanding and predicting international travel behavior in the context of global pandemics has been presented and may be further enhanced. Annotation I thought this article to be very interesting and thought provoking because in the wake of the COVID-19 incident, those tourists who are ready to go are likely to be influenced by their perception of danger. For example, the COVID-19 status; transportation; national sanitary measures; health-care facilities and ecotourism amenities are some of the important indicators of perceived travel dangers. Furthermore, reliability of the information is expected to reduce the possible impact of those variables on perceived COVID-19 associated travel danger. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517721000054 There are several ways in which pandemics are harming tourism. Before the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, this was a somewhat obscure area of study.The Pandemic Anxiety Travel Scale was created with the help of two large online surveys and two diverse cultural settings to investigate changes in tourist perceptions and behavior brought on by the pandemic (US and Denmark). The provided model adds face validity to the brief and simple 5-item solution found via exploratory and confirmatory factors analysis. Structure (reliability) and nomological validity were examined by placing PATS in the context of distinct constructions. Though COVID-19 (the coronavirus that caused this pandemic) inspired the development of the suggested scale, it is not confined to this pandemic and will hopefully be a useful assessment tool for future pandemics as well. Annotation: I found this article “Too afraid to Travel? Development of a Pandemic (COVID-19) Anxiety Travel Scale” because it studies the perceived risk associated with such travel is likely to have an impact on their travel intention. It is discovered that many important indicators of perceived travel hazards exist, and they are classified as follows: COVID-19 status; transportation services; national sanitary measures; health-care services; lodging services; and ecotourism facilities. Furthermore, the potential impacts of those elements on perceived COVID-19-related travel danger are likely to be mitigated by the credibility of the information provided by the government. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966692320309832 There has never been a health-related disruption of this size in a century of global economic activity. On the topic of human movement, there is a dearth of information from prior epidemics in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, no in-depth research has been done on the impact of mandated or selfimposed travel limits. There is a considerable decrease in human mobility and a major shift in travel patterns as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, according to many study initiatives. Aggregated data from Google or Apple's communities confirms this. It's possible that monitoring services don't have the ability to provide this level of data. Also included in this study are senior citizens, many of whom seldom use cell phones and those whose cellphones have been configured to disable location services. This study, on the other hand, focuses only on local visits, while Google and Apple focus on long-distance travel. According to our findings, the pandemic has had a significant influence on the daily movement of various socio-economic categories. There were varying degrees of exposure and varying perceptions of the risk of COVID-19. Annotation I find this to be very interesting because this study examines the current COVID-19 epidemic's influence on everyday movement. Existing research on epidemic travel patterns indicates to transportation being a disease spreader, with long-distance travel being of particular importance. Instead, we focus on the epidemic's impact on the transportation system, particularly everyday short-distance movement. We investigate beyond basic travel avoidance to variables affecting travel times and modal split during epidemics. This leads to the research issues we raise here. We examine the elements that influence people's choices to avoid everyday travel. This research focuses on impacted modes and investigates sociocultural disparities. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180010/ Many nations are restricting travel in an effort to prevent the spread of the epidemic, but these restrictions are hampering the transfer of critical equipment and workers. Sravani Devi has the latest on the situation. Unprecedented border and airline closures have been prompted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which severely restricts the movement of key medical professionals and supplies necessary to stop the virus's spread and preserve lives. 90% of commercial passenger flights have been canceled or delayed. Since the epidemic of COVID-19 started, more than 130 nations have implemented some type of travel restriction, including screening, quarantine, and travel bans from high-risk locations. As advised by WHO, WHO member states should not impose travel or trade restrictions on countries where COVID-19 outbreaks are taking place. Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO director-general, stated on Jan 30 when he declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. "There is no need for restrictions that unduly interfere with international travel and commerce," he added. Annotation In Travel restrictions hampering COVID-19 response several countries are limiting travel in order to prevent the spread of the pandemic, but these restrictions are impeding the movement of crucial equipment and employees. Devi has the most recent information on the issue. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in unprecedented border and airline restrictions, drastically limiting the movement of crucial medical specialists and supplies required to stem the virus's spread and save lives. Almost all commercial passenger flights have been canceled or delayed. https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article/27/5/taaa085/5847845?login=true This certificate of immunity should act as a safety net for the traveler, his or her companions, and the people living in both their destination and in route. Nearly everyone who has been infected will develop antibodies that can be detected; these antibodies are protective/neutralizing and prevent the transmission of transmissible viruses; data establish the minimum antibody titer required for protection; data are available to ensure that immunity is long-lasting enough to justify issuing an expatriation certificate. It is doubtful that a "immunity certificate" system that does not meet all of the aforementioned requirements would find widespread acceptance. The data that has been gathered is promising, but it is still inadequate to address many of these issues. A comparison of this unique disease to known viruses is insufficient when extrapolating correlations of immunity and practical concerns from the other viruses. Tests for immunity and their performance have been outlined here. Annotation I believe this dissertation to be credible and trustworthy because Trade, travel, and most face-to-face contacts have all come to a halt. According to World Tourism Organization statistics, all worldwide destinations have travel restrictions in place; 72 percent of countries have totally closed their borders to international tourism. if an air passenger can demonstrate that they have recovered from COVID-19 and are thus immune, they will be exempt from many airport, boarding gate, on-board, and port-of-entry procedures, including many protective steps such as face cover and quarantine/test on arrival. 'Immunity certificate' would ideally need a worldwide standard similar to the ICVP, and the related paperwork may be supplied online. https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.aba9757 The prediction of the impact of travel restrictions on the COVID-19 epidemic and its analysis might be useful to national and international public health organizations in their response plans. The disease has already spread to other cities in mainland China by January 23, 2020, according to our research. It's unlikely that the quarantine imposed around Wuhan, China, would stop the illness from spreading farther throughout the country. Separate investigations on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in mainland China support this conclusion. In spite of the Wuhan travel ban's early success, the number of imported cases outside of China is expected to continue to rise over the next two to three weeks. To make matters worse, the research demonstrates that even with stricter travel restrictions (up to a 90 percent decrease in traffic), only minor reductions in disease transmission may be achieved without other public health initiatives and behavioral changes . Even though travel to and from mainland China has been severely restricted since January 23rd, 2020, the model predicts that many people who have been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 have traveled abroad undetected. In the future, we predict travel restrictions to locations impacted by COVID-19 to have only a limited impact, and transmission reduction efforts to be the most effective means of reducing the disease outbreak. Our findings might aid in the development of optimal containment and mitigation plans for the COVID-19 outbreak, which includes both local and international aspects. Annotation: I believe that quarantine strategies have been taken across the globe in response to the worldwide spread of (SARS-CoV-2). used a global metapopulation infection transmission model to empirical studies from China to study how travel and quarantine impact the patterns of the spread of this unique human virus. They determined that the travel quarantine implemented in Wuhan on January 23, 2020, only slowed disease advancement inside China by 3 to 5 days, but worldwide travel restrictions did assist to limit transmission elsewhere in the globe until mid-February. Their findings show that early diagnosis, hand washing, self-isolation, and home quarantine will likely be more successful at controlling this pandemic than travel limitations. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsif.2020.0875 Non-pharmaceutical treatments (NPIs), such as measures to minimize social activities and mobility restrictions, are the only successful ways of responding to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic to yet. In order to reduce their social and economic implications, quantifying their impact is very challenging. Based on the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy, we have developed a meta-population model that may be used to analyze the effects of these two kinds of NPIs. By using activity-driven networks to simulate social interactions, we may take advantage of granular spatial modeling of meta-population models. Dissecting the effect of these two sorts of NPIs: those aimed at restricting persons' social activities, such as lockdowns; and those that limit mobility. It is possible to evaluate the efficiency of various NPIs, which differ in terms of their timing and intensity, by using our methodology. This study's findings imply that the effectiveness of activity reduction policies, as opposed to mobility limitations, is highly dependent on the ability to adopt NPIs in the early stages of an epidemic. Annotated Total mortality in these locations decreased by 12 percent as a consequence of the overall effect of early travel restrictions. As part of our investigation, we looked at potential options across age groups and came to the conclusion that limiting strict restrictions to just the most vulnerable age groups would not be sufficient to effectively reduce the death rate. It is possible to see a variety of occurrences when confinement measures are reduced, with the impact of chronic mobility restrictions being minimal. This stage of the epidemic's battle, measures restricting social contact (for example, by requiring the use of face masks or social distance) are the most effective in preventing the outbreak of new outbreaks. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsif.2020.0875 Throughout the course of the COVID-19 epidemic, models have played a significant role in policy development. Travel restrictions and border closures were inspired by early worldwide forecasts of the disease's spread. Using model forecasts based on the virus' infectiousness, the global response was coordinated and nations were made ready expecting rises in hospitalizations and fatalities to take place, It has been crucial in analyzing these choices to track the effect of distance and mobility rules and behavioral changes. We can better understand the epidemiological variations between nations with greater and lower incomes, along with the most susceptible segments of the population within each of those countries, thanks to computer models. The economic impact of COVID-19 has been evaluated using both epidemic models and classic economic models, which have led to requests for a reduction in restrictions. We may now evaluate the best strategies to loosen mobility constraints and distance measures while still maintaining social interaction. Finally, end-game scenarios, including how suppression may be accomplished and the effect of alternative immunization techniques, can be included in models. Annotated In this study, the European Commission blocked all of its exterior borders in an attempt to restrict the transmission of the coronavirus 2019, which I thought to be really fascinating. COVID-19, marking the first time in history that this has been done. Throughout the last two months, governments throughout the globe have imposed huge restrictions on travel and border controls in an effort to prevent the spread of this worldwide epidemic from spreading much farther. The specific impact of travel limitations on the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic, on the other hand, remain a mystery. Name: Description: ...
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