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Case Study1: UTI
A urinary tract infection often considered UTI is a bacterial infection affecting various
parts of the urinary tract. Infection takes place when microorganisms, usually bacteria from the
digestive tract or the skin surrounding the rectal and vaginal area traveling up the urethra and
inside the bladder and starts multiplying within the urine, which leads to an infection as well as
inflammation of the bladder. Most of the diseases result from the bacterium Escherichia Coli
(E.coli) (Karlowsky et al., 2002). Urinary tract infection is sometimes caused due to a visit to the
doctor’s office after respiratory tract infections. If left untreated, urinary tract infection can
involve the whole bladder or spread to the kidney.
Leila is more prone to urinary tract infection because of the symptoms of UTI. According
to the case study, her previous infection resulted from Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli is the
most common cause of UTI. The health conditions that change the operation of the normal
function of the system gives Leila a high chance of developing a UTI-specifically, any
circumstances affecting the immune system or the urinary tract. The fact that she had children
who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 also poses her to the risk of UTI. Diabetes
affects the immune system of the body through slowing down blood circulation. The slowing
down reduces the ability of blood cells to fight infection.
Leila has the clinical manifestation of dysuria and urinary inconsistency because of
urinary tract infection causes painful and frequent urination. Dysuria is used in describing painful
urination, which is a sign of UTI and other pathological conditions. It is mainly caused by
inflammation. Dysuria also results from the history of the patient, especially her account of
chronic tract infection. Urine inconsistency is defined as being unable to hold urine voluntarily.
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Urinary inconsistency and dysuria occur transiently with UTIs. For Leila, the clinical
manifestation of dysuria and urinary inconsistency is due to her history of UTI, and it is
indicative of impaired control of urination.
UTIs are often complicated for patients with diabetes mellitus because diabetes partially
accounts for the higher incidences in cases of patients with the infection. Diabetes mellitus can
do three things to the body, which makes UTIs less able to recover. Diabetes affects the immune
system of the body because it slows down the circulation and the ability of blood cells to
properly fight diseases and does not allow them to go where they go in the body (Geerlings,
2008). Secondly, individuals affected with diabetes mellitus typically have bladders that do not
function properly, and as a result, allows urine to collect bacteria and increase its growth.
Thirdly, the urine for people with diabetes mellitus has a high content of sugar. This, as a result,
promotes the development of kidney infection and bacteria.
Treatment options for Leila in terms of planning care involves optimizing the use of
antibiotics through the prescription of antibiotics only when they are indicated clinically. A plan
of beginning antibiotics when the infection is noticed may be recommended, but in this case, the
symptoms of the infection show that it is not the first time. Therefore, the treatment plan is done
through antibiotics. The treatment begins after infection. For this case, the urination culture can
assist guide with the appropriate choice of antibiotic. The treatment plan will also depend on
identifying the specific bacteria that causes the infection, and it is recommended that the patient
should obtain a urine culture.
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Case Study 2
Shannon complains of intermittent headaches, dizziness, and several episodes. The
patient also feels that he is overtraining, has a highly stressful job, and having difficulty with
eating right. The patient also reports overtraining due to his high demands on outcomes.
Furthermore, Shannon says that his father died of a stroke at the age of 60 years, and his mother
died of a heart attack. The patient also acknowledges that his two brothers both have coronary
heart disease. According to the patient, he used to smoke cigarettes and was overweight until he
began a fitness campaign.
Most cardiac disorders such as heart disease can be inherited, and this heart disease can
lead to heart attack, stroke, or heart failure, which runs in the family. The patient reports to
experience difficulty with exercising, which is a sign of heart disease. Dizziness is also an
indicator of a heart condition. Inherited heart condition is genetic. This means that a change in
one or more genes passed can cause the disease. Given the patient’s history and difficulty with
exercising, there is a possibility of a familial heart condition.
Even though not every heart problem comes with clear warning signs, there are physical
signs that can contribute to specific conclusions. For the patient, the particular physical
symptoms include dizziness and several episodes. In addition, diet plays a vital role in
functioning as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The patient reports to have a reduction in a
healthy diet, and this increases the risk of heart disease. The patient is also a risk factor for a
heart problem.
Specific modifiable risk factors include being overweight, smoking, and the patient's diet.
These factors increase the risk of heart and blood vessel cardiovascular disease. The non-
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modifiable risk factors that correlate with cardiovascular disease include the patient’s age. Most
people who die from cardiovascular disease are 65 of age or older. The patient’s gender is also a
non-modifiable risk factor, family history, and smoking.
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References
Karlowsky, J. A., Kelly, L. J., Thornsberry, C., Jones, M. E., & Sahm, D. F. (2002). Trends in
antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract infection isolates of Escherichia coli from
female outpatients in the United States. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 46(8),
2540-2545.
Geerlings, S. E. (2008). Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: epidemiology,
pathogenesis and treatment. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 31, 54-57.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Case Study1: UTI A urinary tract infection often considered UTI is a bacterial infection affecting various parts of the urinary tract. Infection takes place when microorganisms, usually bacteria from the digestive tract or the skin surrounding the rectal and vaginal area traveling up the urethra and inside the bladder and starts multiplying within the urine, which leads to an infection as well as inflammation of the bladder. Most of the diseases result from the bacterium Escherichia Coli (E.coli) (Karlowsky et al., 2002). Urinary tract infection is sometimes caused due to a visit to the doctor’s office after respiratory tract infections. If left untreated, urinary tract infection can involve the whole bladder or spread to the kidney. Leila is more prone to urinary tract infection because of the symptoms of UTI. According to the case study, her previous infection resulted from Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of UTI. The health conditions that change the operation of the normal function of the system gives Leila a high chance of developing a UTI-specifically, any circumstances affecting the immune system or the urinary tract. The fact that she had children who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 also poses her to the risk of UTI. Diabetes affects the immune system of the body through slowing down blood circulation. The slowing down reduces the ability of blood cells to fight infection. Leila has the clinical manifestation of dysuria and urinary inconsistency because of urinary tract infection causes painful and frequent urination. Dysuria is used in describing painful urination, which is a sign of UTI and other pathological conditions. It is mainly caused by inflammation. Dysuria also results from the history of the patient, especially her account of chronic tract infection. Urine inconsistency is defined as being unable to hold urine voluntarily. Urinary inconsistency and dysuria occur transiently with UTIs. For Leila, the clinical manifestation of dysuria and urinary inconsistency is due to her history of UTI, and it is indicative of impaired control of urination. UTIs are often complicated for patients with diabetes mellitus because diabetes partially accounts for the higher incidences in cases of patients with the infection. Diabetes mellitus can do three things to the body, which makes UTIs less able to recover. Diabetes affects the immune system of the body because it slows down the circulation and the ability of blood cells to properly fight diseases and does not allow them to go where they go in the body (Geerlings, 2008). Secondly, individuals affected with diabetes mellitus typically have bladders that do not function properly, and as a result, allows urine to collect bacteria and increase its growth. Thirdly, the urine for people with diabetes mellitus has a high content of sugar. This, as a result, promotes the development of kidney infection and bacteria. Treatment options for Leila in terms of planning care involves optimizing the use of antibiotics through the prescription of antibiotics only when they are indicated clinically. A plan of beginning antibiotics when the infection is noticed may be recommended, but in this case, the symptoms of the infection show that it is not the first time. Therefore, the treatment plan is done through antibiotics. The treatment begins after infection. For this case, the urination culture can assist guide with the appropriate choice of antibiotic. The treatment plan will also depend on identifying the specific bacteria that causes the infection, and it is recommended that the patient should obtain a urine culture. Case Study 2 Shannon complains of intermittent headaches, dizziness, and several episodes. The patient also feels that he is overtraining, has a highly stressful job, and having difficulty with eating right. The patient also reports overtraining due to his high demands on outcomes. Furthermore, Shannon says that his father died of a stroke at the age of 60 years, and his mother died of a heart attack. The patient also acknowledges that his two brothers both have coronary heart disease. According to the patient, he used to smoke cigarettes and was overweight until he began a fitness campaign. Most cardiac disorders such as heart disease can be inherited, and this heart disease can lead to heart attack, stroke, or heart failure, which runs in the family. The patient reports to experience difficulty with exercising, which is a sign of heart disease. Dizziness is also an indicator of a heart condition. Inherited heart condition is genetic. This means that a change in one or more genes passed can cause the disease. Given the patient’s history and difficulty with exercising, there is a possibility of a familial heart condition. Even though not every heart problem comes with clear warning signs, there are physical signs that can contribute to specific conclusions. For the patient, the particular physical symptoms include dizziness and several episodes. In addition, diet plays a vital role in functioning as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The patient reports to have a reduction in a healthy diet, and this increases the risk of heart disease. The patient is also a risk factor for a heart problem. Specific modifiable risk factors include being overweight, smoking, and the patient's diet. These factors increase the risk of heart and blood vessel cardiovascular disease. The non- modifiable risk factors that correlate with cardiovascular disease include the patient’s age. Most people who die from cardiovascular disease are 65 of age or older. The patient’s gender is also a non-modifiable risk factor, family history, and smoking. References Karlowsky, J. A., Kelly, L. J., Thornsberry, C., Jones, M. E., & Sahm, D. F. (2002). Trends in antimicrobial resistance among urinary tract infection isolates of Escherichia coli from female outpatients in the United States. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 46(8), 2540-2545. Geerlings, S. E. (2008). Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 31, 54-57. Name: Description: ...
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