Showing Page:
1/5
Running head: AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 1
Audism, Linguism, and Phonocentrism
Name
Institutional Affiliation
Showing Page:
2/5
AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 2
Audism, Linguism, and Phonocentrism
Phonocentrism
Phonocentrism follows the belief that sound is superior to text. In essence, the
phonocentric view holds that speech and sound represent the original language, and anything
that follows is secondary. Ertrk, N. (2010) identifies a close connection in Western thought
between the self as a conscious, rational mind and language. In this view, the self is prior to
and the source of meaning which then expresses itself through the medium of language. Since
through communicating our thoughts with language, there is the danger that the language
applied can influence our thoughts, a superior form of communication would be one without
language.
However, since this ideal form of communication cannot be attained, the spoken word
is the next best alternative. Phonocentrism favours speech since the voice is close to the mind
and as a result, is best suited to communicate what we think. In his text of the history of
Western thought, Derrida states that different writers from various disciplines often have free
speech while taking into consideration writing as a secondary and inferior medium (Bauman,
2008). The issue with writing is that it involves using stylistic devices, which can prevent the
ideal of clarity in communication from being achieved.
While not a form of writing, sign language, as a form of visual communication, is
then secondary under a phonocentric paradigm. Phonocentrism is considered damaging and
volatile ideologies, which deaf people encounter. Phonocentrism leads deaf people to believe
that to succeed falsely, a person has to speak. Phonocentrism surpasses other ideologies such
as the ability to read and write in English or another dominant language. Phonocentrism is, in
fact, prevalent that it is even reflected in America Sign Language. The importance of speech
Showing Page:
3/5
AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 3
and sound became embayed in ASL due to its impossibility of entirely escaping the
hegemony of phonocentrism.
Audism
Tom Humphries coined the term audism in 1975 as a name for the discrimination
against deaf people. According to Humphries, audism is the belief that a person is superior
depending on their hearing capability or their ability to behave in the manner of one who has
the capability to hear (Bauman, 2004). The primary manifestation of audism is the form of
people who continuously judge other’s intellect and success based on their ability in the
language of the hearing beliefs. According to this definition, audism is the set belief held by
people that stem from the shared assumption of the preeminence of hearing over being deaf.
The oppressive expectation of being oral is audism in the deaf community. Based on
Humphries definition audism is an attitude that judges those who are deaf as less superior and
bases their abilities on the standards of hearing and hearing language. Therefore, there is a
belief that the happiness of a deaf person is contingent on her ability to learn the language of
hearing culture. The spectrum of audism behaviours includes jumping in to assist a deaf
person, asking a person who is deaf to read lips, making calls for deaf people because you
assume that they are incapable of, and asking someone who is deaf to tone down his or her
facial expressions.
Linguism
Linguism is a form of discrimination based on language usage. This form of
discrimination can occur under different circumstances (Rigoglioso, 2014). People who are
profoundly deaf who use sign language as their primary method of communication
sometimes have fallen prey to mistreatment as a result of misconceptions in regards to their
Showing Page:
4/5
AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 4
communication methods, and some forms of written communication can be negatively judged
on documents that trigger prejudicial responses.
Despite the current diversity in terms of discrimination based on language use, the
most common form of linguistic profiling typically occurs when someone who offers goods
or services receives a telephone call from an unknown person who they deem unworthy. The
telephone recipient then asserts the goods or services being requested by the caller are
unavailable despite the fact that the desired goods or services are actually available. Many
people who are deaf, may be victims of linguistic profiling if they fall prey to discrimination
by those who do not offer equal treatment to those who use sign language as their primary
method of communication.
Black folks who are the most subjected to different forms of oppression including
Audism, Linguism, and Phonocentrism. Black folks who are deaf and use sign language as
their primary method of communication sometimes have fallen prey to mistreatment due to
misapprehensions in regards to their communication techniques, and some forms of written
communication which are negatively arbitrated and that triggers prejudicial responses. The
phonocentric view holds that speech and sound represent the original language, and anything
that follows is secondary. Phonocentrism favours speech since the voice is close to the mind
and as a result, is best suited to communicate what we think. The oppressive expectation of
being oral is audism. Based on Humphries definition audism is an attitude that judges those
who are deaf as less superior and bases their abilities on the standards of hearing and hearing
language. Linguism as a form of discrimination can occur under different circumstances.
Showing Page:
5/5
AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 5
References
Ertrk, N. (2010). Phonocentrism and Literary Modernity in Turkey. boundary 2, 37(2), 155-
185.
Bauman, H. (2008). Listening to phonocentrism with deaf eyes: Derrida’s mute philosophy of
(sign) language. Essays in philosophy, 9(1), 2.
Bauman, H. D. L. (2004). Audism: Exploring the metaphysics of oppression. Journal of deaf
studies and deaf education, 9(2), 239-246.
Rigoglioso, M. (2014). Stanford linguist says prejudice toward African American dialect can
result in unfair rulings.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM Audism, Linguism, and Phonocentrism Name Institutional Affiliation 1 AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 2 Audism, Linguism, and Phonocentrism Phonocentrism Phonocentrism follows the belief that sound is superior to text. In essence, the phonocentric view holds that speech and sound represent the original language, and anything that follows is secondary. Ertürk, N. (2010) identifies a close connection in Western thought between the self as a conscious, rational mind and language. In this view, the self is prior to and the source of meaning which then expresses itself through the medium of language. Since through communicating our thoughts with language, there is the danger that the language applied can influence our thoughts, a superior form of communication would be one without language. However, since this ideal form of communication cannot be attained, the spoken word is the next best alternative. Phonocentrism favours speech since the voice is close to the mind and as a result, is best suited to communicate what we think. In his text of the history of Western thought, Derrida states that different writers from various disciplines often have free speech while taking into consideration writing as a secondary and inferior medium (Bauman, 2008). The issue with writing is that it involves using stylistic devices, which can prevent the ideal of clarity in communication from being achieved. While not a form of writing, sign language, as a form of visual communication, is then secondary under a phonocentric paradigm. Phonocentrism is considered damaging and volatile ideologies, which deaf people encounter. Phonocentrism leads deaf people to believe that to succeed falsely, a person has to speak. Phonocentrism surpasses other ideologies such as the ability to read and write in English or another dominant language. Phonocentrism is, in fact, prevalent that it is even reflected in America Sign Language. The importance of speech AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 3 and sound became embayed in ASL due to its impossibility of entirely escaping the hegemony of phonocentrism. Audism Tom Humphries coined the term audism in 1975 as a name for the discrimination against deaf people. According to Humphries, audism is the belief that a person is superior depending on their hearing capability or their ability to behave in the manner of one who has the capability to hear (Bauman, 2004). The primary manifestation of audism is the form of people who continuously judge other’s intellect and success based on their ability in the language of the hearing beliefs. According to this definition, audism is the set belief held by people that stem from the shared assumption of the preeminence of hearing over being deaf. The oppressive expectation of being oral is audism in the deaf community. Based on Humphries definition audism is an attitude that judges those who are deaf as less superior and bases their abilities on the standards of hearing and hearing language. Therefore, there is a belief that the happiness of a deaf person is contingent on her ability to learn the language of hearing culture. The spectrum of audism behaviours includes jumping in to assist a deaf person, asking a person who is deaf to read lips, making calls for deaf people because you assume that they are incapable of, and asking someone who is deaf to tone down his or her facial expressions. Linguism Linguism is a form of discrimination based on language usage. This form of discrimination can occur under different circumstances (Rigoglioso, 2014). People who are profoundly deaf who use sign language as their primary method of communication sometimes have fallen prey to mistreatment as a result of misconceptions in regards to their AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 4 communication methods, and some forms of written communication can be negatively judged on documents that trigger prejudicial responses. Despite the current diversity in terms of discrimination based on language use, the most common form of linguistic profiling typically occurs when someone who offers goods or services receives a telephone call from an unknown person who they deem unworthy. The telephone recipient then asserts the goods or services being requested by the caller are unavailable –despite the fact that the desired goods or services are actually available. Many people who are deaf, may be victims of linguistic profiling if they fall prey to discrimination by those who do not offer equal treatment to those who use sign language as their primary method of communication. Black folks who are the most subjected to different forms of oppression including Audism, Linguism, and Phonocentrism. Black folks who are deaf and use sign language as their primary method of communication sometimes have fallen prey to mistreatment due to misapprehensions in regards to their communication techniques, and some forms of written communication which are negatively arbitrated and that triggers prejudicial responses. The phonocentric view holds that speech and sound represent the original language, and anything that follows is secondary. Phonocentrism favours speech since the voice is close to the mind and as a result, is best suited to communicate what we think. The oppressive expectation of being oral is audism. Based on Humphries definition audism is an attitude that judges those who are deaf as less superior and bases their abilities on the standards of hearing and hearing language. Linguism as a form of discrimination can occur under different circumstances. AUDISM, LINGUISM, AND PHONOCENTRISM 5 References Ertürk, N. (2010). Phonocentrism and Literary Modernity in Turkey. boundary 2, 37(2), 155185. Bauman, H. (2008). Listening to phonocentrism with deaf eyes: Derrida’s mute philosophy of (sign) language. Essays in philosophy, 9(1), 2. Bauman, H. D. L. (2004). Audism: Exploring the metaphysics of oppression. Journal of deaf studies and deaf education, 9(2), 239-246. Rigoglioso, M. (2014). Stanford linguist says prejudice toward African American dialect can result in unfair rulings. Name: Description: ...
User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool's honor code & terms of service.
Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4