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Class: BBA 6
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Within last 5 years, number of companies has changed their way of recruitment. Before the
explosion of the internet, firms used to advertise through different mediums, such as through
newspapers or they outsource the candidates through recruiting agencies, by radio and by
word of mouth for recruitment.There is no any published information about the recruitment
and motivation towards the jobs in various companies through social networking sites.
Because everyone is in search of competitive, determined and best candidate who is
beneficial to them (Cable, 2003).Use of social networkingisincreasing day-by-day which
improves the quality of recruitment because it empowers both recruiters and candidates to
share one universal data base(Karssing,2008).The recruitment industry has been changed
because number of people areusing social network sites for hiringstaff and it also change the
process of seeking for jobs since 2010(Gregory, 2013).
For the purpose of recruitment, social media is used in those organizations where the
institutions have great revenue taking rates and they always face the challenges to select the
best employees. Progressively, organizations are in search of ground breaking techniques to
make the recruitment process more proficient, charming and cost effective. This aid helps to
reduce the turnover of employees and organization reputations is also improved (Bharwani,
2012).For online recruitment, help from internet can be taken which have been increased in
the last few years. Organizations exposed their company’s needs and positions on websites
and job boards (Anderson, 2011).
According to research the recruitment strategies that have been used traditionally are no
longer adequate to draw the attention of qualified candidates to a company (Joos, 2008).
Social media accounts of companies are now thought to be promising recruitment devices
since most of the potential employees use these platforms (Adecco, 2015). Strehlke (2010)
considered that by using different sites of social media improves the exposure to job seekers
including its challenges.
The use of personal information available on the profiles in the practice of Human Resource
is uncertain. The scanning of public content by the employer is less complicated, but the
usage of private accounts for recruitment and selection seems to be less effective (Van
Iddekinge et al., 2013). Although such activities have been questioned according to several
reports (Haefner, 2009).
Johnson and Black (2012) described that social media sites can lead to discrimination due to
many reasons. As it would be favorable for the one who have freely access on social media
then for those applicants who do not have access over social media sites. It seems that there is
no complete information related to social media sites that is helpful for the organization for
recruiting pool of potential and talented candidates because it provides a competitive
advantage in hiring applicants in the company (Cable, 2003).
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Using social media in the workplace improves the job efficiency of an employee, as
suggested by (Bennett et al., 2010). Whereas other studies have indicated that using social
media is a waste of time and decreases the efficiency of employees (Clark, 2010). Research
by Madera (2012) examines by social media transparency of selection process and perception
of job pursuing can be increased.
Little attention has been paid by the researches that by the useof social sites in recruitment
methods, employers canattracts new talents easily. Therefore it is quite unclear that using
social media issignificant or not. This is the reason why research is made weather to identify
that if social media is putting its positive impact on the recruitment and how it will influence
employee performance.
RQ1: What are the challenges and opportunities faced by a company while using social
media for attracting potential employees? And how to handle these problems?
RQ2: What factors influence employee’s performance by the social media in the recruitment
RQ3: What are the variables of social media that can affect the hiring process? And what are
the suggestions for most suitable social media tool for recruitment should be widely adopted?
The purpose of this study is to determine how the use of social media during recruitment
process could influence the employee performance.
Social Media is not just used for keeping people in touch with each other but it is the medium
that is used by companies to influence the way of recruitment for hiring new candidates in a
workplace. A very simple, more efficient, cost saving and interactive method of recruitment
have been created by social media platforms(Blacksmith,2013).In professional work, social
media is comparatively easy and less expensive and also helpful to HRM for personnel
recruitment (Hauptman, 2013).
In a workplace, impact of technology is in every field of employment and technology usage is
one of the significant way to increase recruitment process in an organization(Gregory,2013).
On social networking sites, employees can frame their profiles. They can see organizational
structures by searching information on a company and exchange information with employers
as well as current employees. It is significantbecause employees can also get “informal” data
and details via feedback received from current employees instead of “formal” details and
knowledge that firms offer(Tussyadiah,2009).
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Social media usage in the recruitment process now a days appears to have grown
exponentially. All sites related to social networking assist organizations to find and attract
candidate while it allows them to look over background. However, many researchers believe
that the companies will be failed if they do not avail social media opportunities such as not
using social media in recruitment.
For jobseekers social media recruitment could also be helpful. It facilitates the recruitment
process of the jobseeker because they can access information for the better preparation of
job screening process(Plummer,2009).HR departments of the companies can take benefit
from the results of the study and also helps them in designing and implementing
technologies of e-recruitment within their organizations. . This research will show whether
the impact of social media is on the recruitment or not and how to make it effective for
employee’s performance.
In this research, the first part of the paper is divided into introduction in which the
background, problem statement, research questions, purpose and significance are discussed.
Secondly, literature review & research framework model including variablesinformativeness,
social presence, cost effectiveness, social media, effective recruitment and employees'
performance are discussed. Then it is followed by Methodology(Research Approach,
Research Design, Sampling Design, Instrument, Procedure and Statistical Technique) then
Part of Analysis in which Respondent Profile, Validation On Model, CFA, Reliability and
Validity,R^2,F^2,VIF and Resultsare discussed. After analysis finally the last sectionin which
discussion, conclusion, implications, limitations and recommendations are described.
A literature review of a research is an all over summary and interpretation that defines a
particulartopic of research (Aveyard, 2010). This research justifiesusing social media make
the process of recruitment more effective and how this recruitment through social media
impact on an employee performance.Social media is a platform that is used for delivering
information, creating awareness, providing social presence on pages and it is also cost
effective if we compare it with different sources of recruitment (Nisar, 2018). Social media
networking technologiesare used for effective recruitment that helps to gathered pool of
potential and true candidate for a particular job opportunity at right time that will further
leads to employees performance (Parveen, 2015).
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Social media is an interactive platform where content is created, and also give users a quick
electronic communication of content (Boyd, 2007). In the past researches it is observed that
using social media for job purpose has been increased rapidly. The two platforms which are
mostly used for the purpose of job and recruitment are LinkedIn and Facebook (Adecco,
2015). About 2.23 billion monthly active users had recorded in June, 2018.The accurate
number of LinkedIn is not communicated, but declares that there are around 550 million
members that are using it.Social media plays an important role to reform Human Resource
Activities including recruitment process (McFarland, 2015). For the purpose of branding
employers and recruitment, most organizations are spending resources on social media
(SHRM, 2016). Social media is an exclusive site uses in various ways and means of
communication and dealing (Papacharissi, 2009). In studies, the positive effects of Facebook
pages on the workers image and attractiveness of organization is highlighted (Carpentier,
Informativeness :
The job vacancies for different organizations are posted on websites and job boards through
internet from where people get chances for online recruitment which has been using Web 1.0
technology (Anderson,2003).Now a days social networking sites and Web 2.0 technology is
mostly used for sake of recruitment. People are endowed to create and share information and
experiences online through social media which includeblogs, wikis, fora
etc.(Tussyadiah,2009).Sivertzen et al (2003) studied that people had more positive
observations of corporate reputation who had seen the information about the organization on
social media. Information uploaded on social media also attracted employer and also created
a positive image of organization (Kissel, 2015).
In this modern era most institutions and organizations have made pages on which they share
information about their product and these pages also help to contact with stakeholders
(McFarland & Ployhart,2015).Social media is an encouraging contrivance for organization
because it is very helpful to bring out the perception and intentions of potential applicants
(Highhouse et al., 2007).Additional, higher level of informativeness were linked with
interpretation of competence. Active individuals who are supposed to afford more relevant
information are reflected as more competent (Williamson et al., 2003).
Social presence of an organization:
Social presence is considered as the social existence of an organization on its social media
page and the way it maintains a channel of communication with other individuals and
entities, therefore these platforms are used to determine by the candidates, the extent to
which the organization is friendly or social (Williams, 1976). Since the social media page is
meant to build social contacts (Boyd &Ellison, 2007), therefore the interaction done on
websites are not considered to be formal (Carpentier et al., 2017). According to signaling
theory a company showing an active presence on social media page causes public to believe
that organization is more engaged with the audience and the organization will be perceived as
affectionate. Therefore an organization’s social presence has a greatinfluence on applicants’
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assumptionsregarding the capability and friendliness of an organization and can be
considered as a signal by the applicants of how does the organization treat it members and
how would they feel by being a member of it. (Cable & Turban, 2001).
According to (Slaughter et al., 2004) the potential applicants will be using the social media
page of an organization to gain knowledge about them which can have an influence on their
perceptions about that organization.
Cost effectiveness:
By making use of e-recruitment for hiring can be very efficient and helps in reducing the
recruitment cost. Targeting the suitable employee helps in improving the service and thus
leads to customer satisfaction and therefore reduces the turnover rate (Bharwani, 2012). The
use of internet in recruitment process provides an organization with innovative ways for
recruiting the staff as organizations can now post their job advertisements on multiple
platforms on social media for free and can attract a vast audience at a time. It also enables the
organizations to track the employee personal and professional status or profile.(Anderson,
2003) .Internet is cost effective, efficient and fast for the organization that needs to find
suitable staff. According to a research employees have influence through social media
networking and they can easily report about unfair or dishonest employers (Janta & Ladkin,
2013). The human resource practices are now more enhanced for cost effectiveness,
capabilities of time saving and for better accuracy for marketing to more potential candidates
through social media (Fisher, 2017).
In the modern era of development and higher competition in every business in the
contemporary world, most of the businesses is utilizing the advantages and new opportunities
of virtual internet that provides all types of connection across the globe (Hoffman, 2000).
According to Ma and Leung (2019) based on their research there are about 467bn and 1.94bn
people who have created their profiles on social sites like on LinkedIn or Facebook
respectively. With the respect of HRM it is define that the method for attracting the right and
potential applicants for a particular job by an organization at right time is called recruitment
(Tyson & York, 2000). In the recruitment process, effective recruitment strategies are used to
attract and seeking a pool of potential, right and qualified applicants (Cascio, 1998). As
compared to different recruitment methods the recruitment through social is proved to be
more effective to attract large number of potential applicants in shorter period of time and it
is also cost effective.
The measurement of an employee’s behavior is known as job performance or in other words,
how well employees perform their job tasks in a firm(Groen,2017).Job applicants have plenty
of opportunities to promote their CVs and profiles globally and online and on social
networks. Therefore, effectively use of social media can improveemployees skills related to
their job performance (Nisar, 2018).
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The conditions by which employee performance can also be influenced are job satisfaction,
work atmosphere, motivation, and stress (Kakkos&Fillipou, 2010).Employee’s job
performance is influenced by social communication technologies and the degrees of such
relations are moderated by social factors(Koo,2011). An efficient use of such Social Media
technology by employee is related to the completion of tasks and the establishment and
maintenance of social relationships with colleagues and friends through the social media
platform (Parveen, 2015).Performance of an employee is the extent to which member of
staffmeet their job demands or degree of pleasure in keeping with their manager
(Groen&Wilderom, 2017).
Independent Variables And Dependent Variable: (Informativeness, Social
Presence, Cost Effectiveness And Employee's Performance)
Social media factors plays a role in creating new jobs vacancies in this modern era (Adecco,
2015).Sharing information and collaborating in a positive way helps employees improve
their performance and also in building social relationships with their team(Kim & Lee,
2012).The social media page is meant to build social contacts (Boyd & Ellison,
2007).Targeting the suitable employee helps in improving the service and thus leads to
customer satisfaction and therefore reduces the turnover rate (Bharwani, 2012). Employee’s
job performance is influenced by social communication technologies and the degree of such
relationships are moderated by social factors(Koo,2011).
Mediator And 2
Mediator: (social media and effective recruitment)
By providing advertisements on social media or on firm's website is a better chance to attract
large numbers of potential candidates (Phillips, 2012). Because most of the active potential
candidates respond to these advertisements that result the pool of candidates in short period
of time, so due to large number of candidates the momentum of recruitment through social
media channel is increased (Dutta, 2014).As compared to traditional methods, recruitment
through social media is more cost effective, quicker and this effective recruitment help to get
better candidates (Armstrong, 2006). The recruiters from any firm effectively use social
media as an attractive tool that provide better competition in recruitment to others (Singh,
Mediator And Dependent Variable: (effective recruitment and
employee’s performance)
Recruitment process through social mediaaffect the employee’s performance.There is close
relationship between the development of the organization and recruited candidates for
suitable jobs for the company (Ichniowski, 1997). Huselid (1995)in his studies, explained that
by using online sources in recruitment, companies can getmore skilled and potential
candidates. He further discussed that employee behavior and company's culture can gives
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positive results by providing training in recruitment.Alnaqabi (2011) expressed that between
performance of employees and recruitment, there is a positive impact. Smith and Lynch
(2010) in their studies discussed that evaluation of employee’s performance starts by
recruitment process. It also shows a thatfirm'srequirements can be fulfilled by selecting
appropriate candidates that provides best possible outcomes for the firm and recruitment
process attracts most suitable candidates for specified job. Human Resource practices is
linked positively by training and selectionprocess with employee's performance and it is one
of the most important factor among other HR practices(Qureshi & Ramay, 2006).
Mediator And Dependent Variable: (social media and employee's
The more correlational and interactive platform for users are SocialMedia. Normally,
employees gathered and use data from colleagues so that they can exchange information and
interact with each other and it gives tremendous impact on job performance and develop their
skills (Al-Jabri, 2016). Research have claimed that using social media can enhance the
performance of an employee in the workplace (Tajvidi&Karami, 2017).Employee
performance is affected by the using two types of Social Media (personal & work-related)
through the exchange of obtaining and sharing information. In corporation, working as a team
enhance employee’s skills as well as is a great way of learning from the experiences of their
members. Therefore, sharing information and collaborating in a positive way helps
employees improve their performance and also in building social relationships with their
team(Kim & Lee, 2012).The distribution of knowledge enhances the job performance of the
members of an organization(Cummings,2004). Acquiring information
helpcandidatestounderstand the views of others in online Social Media
communities(Flanagin, 2001).
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The hypothesis that are given below are based on the conceptual framework of the study.
Following are the statements that were made for this study:
H1: There is a positive impact of Social media on Effective recruitment. When the use of
social media is increased the effectiveness in the recruitment will also increase.
H2: There is a positive impact of Effective recruitment on Employee's performance.When the
effectiveness in recruitment will increase the performance of employees will also increase.
Quantitative research methods is a method in which a problem is explained by the collection
of numeric data which involves the use of mathematical techniques, specifically in
statistics(Gunderson, 2002). Qualitative research includes using the techniques such as case
studies or the valuation of participants that provides detailed and narrative information of an
activity. In this research non numeric data is collected (Drislane, 2011).Exploratory research
is carried out when an issue has not been clearly identified and the phenomenon is not
sufficiently understood. (Saunders, 2007).An explanatory research attempts to illustrate the
descriptive details.Descriptive studies ask 'what' sort of questions while explanatory studies
further provides explanation by asking 'why' and 'how' type of questions (Grey,2014).
Clark (2007) stated that the deductive researcher uses the ‘top down’ approach which
functions from theories to hypothesis to data to add or refute the theory. While inductive
researcher on the other hand is described as someone who operates from the lowest to top
level, and generates the theory by connecting the themes that are constructed from the views
of participants.
This conducted research is quantitative in nature and is based on deductive approach, all the
data is collected from different articles that are gathered from authentic sources. The
approach used in this research is explanatory.
In co-relational research, the connection is created between similar variables of two
populations or same population having two or more variables (Leedy, 2010).Gall (2007)
stated that causalcomparative research is a research which does not involve experiments and
includes the formation of groups of people having independent variable so as to identify their
causes and consequences and also finding out if the groups differ from dependent variable.
Experimental research is strictly attached to the scientific research design. In this a hypothesis
is required, having a variable that can be managed and calculated by the researcher. Most
particularly, experimental testing requires a controlled condition or setting to be performed.
The information is gathered by the researcher and the result will either be in support
ofhypothesis or against it. This method of analysis is called as a deductive research method
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(Babbie,1998).Kothari (2001) observed, when one needs to get information on the existing
state of a person or entity, a descriptive study is used.
The correlation research design is adopted in this research. The association between
independent and dependent variables that are used in this study is explained in this correlation
research design.
This research is conducted to determine whether the use of social media will make
recruitment process more effective that will impact on employee’s performance. To
determine the sample design for this research target population, sample size and sample
technique are required. Target population is a group of people that are required for the
research and analyzing. Sample size are the number of participants that are needed to conduct
the particular research. And sampling technique are divided into two groups. In probability
sampling random selection is done and every participant got equal chance of selection. Non
probability sampling involves researcher’s subjective judgement and different criteria of
selection are used. Probability sampling includes different methods like simple, systematic,
stratified and cluster sampling while non probability sampling includes purposive, snowball,
quota and convenience sampling.
In sample random technique opinions from online candidate are collected. In systematic
sampling whole data of population is required and one unit after each selected interval is
considered randomly. In stratified random sampling smaller groups are made from population
on the basis of common characteristics or attributes. In cluster random sampling,
geographically divided population are divided into groups then selected. In purposive
sampling population is selected on the basis of researcher judgements. In snowball sampling
other participants are hired to research for the particular study. In quota sampling common
characters are filter step by step from homogenous population to collect data. In convenience
sampling data is collected conveniently from everywhere without any restriction.
The effective data is collected, the sampling is constrained to the target population. This
research target different employees and HR professionals of different gender and educational
background that are concerned with recruitment. The sample size of137 is adopted for this
research. As the population size for this survey was unknown, hence Cochran’s formula is
used for finding the sample size. For this research convenience sampling technique is used
because no proper requirements are needed. It is unrestricted non probability sampling.
Instrument of data collection will be different based on the type of data you plan to collect
and the way how you choose to collect it. In construction research a variety of data collection
methods are used which includes: Observations, Questionnaires, archival documents and
government sources, interviews, laboratory experiments and scales.
The instrument used in this study was structured and close-ended questionnaire.
Questionnaires are used for the collection of data helps to saves time (Kothari ,2008).Both
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dependent and independent variables were mentioned on 5 point Likert scale with “strongly
disagree” to “strongly agree”. The demographic section wasalso included in questionnaire
which was composed of income, occupation, education, age and gender.
Reliability and validity analysis are used to determine research’s quality as they shows how
perfectly has something been calculated by a technique, method or a test. Reliability means
consistency of a measure, and validity refers to the precision of a measure. The value of
Cronbach’s alpha shows the reliability of constructs. The observation shows that all
constructs will be reliable and valid as they range above 0.7 otherwise will not be reliable.
Data is collected from the people who are engaged in different jobs and are user of social
media. Survey was conducted randomly and data was gathered through Facebook, WhatsApp
and LinkedIn user community by sending questionnaire on these online platforms. Survey is
done by a structured content analysis of the responses of respondents. Questionnaire was
created using Google forms. The participants were randomly chosen and were invited to fill
the survey.
All the data were gathered from employees and HR professionals of different organizations in
Pakisan. The questionnaire was divided into two parts. First part was all about the
demographics and the second section was related to close ended questions of different
variables in order to analyze the result. Questionnaire was filled by the people who are
socially active and have knowledge of Social media.
The statistical techniques that are used in research are descriptive analysis, exploratory factor
analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), reliability analysis, validity analysis and
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). In a descriptive analysis we analyze data which help us
to explain our data in a meaningful way. By using this data different patterns might be
formed. Descriptive analysis is important because it provide a transitory summary of
illustration and measures done on a specific study, while exploratory analysis help us to
analyze and investigate set of data and summarize their main characteristics. CFA is
distinctive type of factor analysis which is mostly used in research that is social. Reliability
analysis states to the fact that scale should consistently the construct it at meaning. Validity
states to which a concept conclusion or measurement is well founded and likely resembles
exactly to the real word and SEM is a multilevel statistical technique which helps to find
structure relation.
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To analyze the result for this study close ended questionnaire was distributed among different
people. Total data for this study was gathered from 137 respondents. The responses consist of
52.6% male and 47.4% females ratio. The age of respondent varies from 73% that belong to
21-30 age group, 13.1% belong to 31-40 age group 10.9% were less then 21 years. The
education level for these people were 49.6% graduates, 40.1% undergraduates and 5.8% are
doctorates. The occupation for these respondents varies from 64.2% employees, 26.3%
students and 6.6% have their own businesses. And have different levels of income.
There are six different variables discussed in this study. Informativeness, Social Presence,
Cost Effectiveness, Social media, Effective Recruitment and Employees Performance. The 3
variables (informativeness, social presence and cost effectiveness) are independent variables
that impact on the Social media, which is 1
mediator and then Effective recruitment is 2
mediator that will impact on Employees performance which is dependent variable.
To find out the relation between these variables following analysis is done to estimate the
The most important factor of analysis in social research is CFA. It shows whether the data fits
in research framework model or not.The following Table 1.1 shows the confirmation that the
relation between observed and latent variables exist.All the data in research framework model
are valid.
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Average Variance Extracted
Cost Effectiveness
Social Media
Social presence
Internal consistency reliability is measured by using Cronbach’s alpha. If the value is greater
than 0.7 considered “accepted”. This table 1.3 shows that values of all variables are >0.7 i.e
0.81, 0.76, 0.76, 0.81, 0.743 and 0.85 for cost effectiveness, effective recruitment, employee
performance, informativeness, social media and social presence showing that questionnaire
used for this study is reliable to collect data.
Table 1.3
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