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A. BASIC CONCEPT IN STATISTICS
Statistics it is a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining the data, and then
analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data.
Basic Terms in Statistics:
Data are the values that the variables can assume.
Variables is a characteristic that is observable or measurable in every unit of universe.
Population - is the set of all possible values of a variable.
Sample is a subgroup of the population.
Classification of Variables:
Qualitative Variables
- words or codes that represent a class or category.
- Express a categorial attribute.
- e.g., gender, religion, marital status, highest educational attainment
Quantitative Variables
- Number that represents an amount or a count.
- Numerical data, sizes are meaningful and answer questions such as “how many” or
“how much”.
- e.g., height, weight, household size, number of registered cars.
Discrete Variables
- Data that can counted.
- e.g., number of days, number of siblings, usual number of text messages sent in day.
Continuous Variables
- It can assume all values between any two specific values like 0.5, 1.2, etc. and data that
can be measured.
- e.g., weight, height, body temperature
Levels of Measurement:
Nominal Level
- this is characterized by the data that consists of names, labels, and categories only.
- E.g., gender, most preferred color, usual sleeping time
Ordinal Level
- This involves data that arranged in some order, but differences between data.
- e.g., happiness index for the day, highest educational attainment, the rankings of tennis
Interval Level
- This is the same in ordinal level, with an additional property that we can determine
meaningful amounts of differences between the data.
- e.g., body temperature, intelligence quotient.
Ratio Level
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- This is an interval level modified to include the inherent zero starting point.
- It possesses a meaningful absolute, fixed zero pint and allows all arithmetic operations.
- e.g., number of siblings, weight, height
Four Basic Methods of Sampling:
Random Sampling is done by using chance or random numbers.
Systematic Sampling is done by numbering each subject of the population and then selecting
nth number.
Stratified Sampling if the population has a distinct groups, it is possible to divide the
population into these groups and to draw SRS’s from each f the groups.
Cluster Sampling a method uses intact group called clusters.

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A. BASIC CONCEPT IN STATISTICS Statistics – it is a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining the data, and then analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data. Basic Terms in Statistics: • • • • Data – are the values that the variables can assume. Variables – is a characteristic that is observable or measurable in every unit of universe. Population - is the set of all possible values of a variable. Sample – is a subgroup of the population. Classification of Variables: • • • • Qualitative Variables - words or codes that represent a class or category. - Express a categorial attribute. - e.g., gender, religion, marital status, highest educational attainment Quantitative Variables - Number that represents an amount or a count. - Numerical data, sizes are meaningful and answer questions such as “how many” or “how much”. - e.g., height, weight, household size, number of registered cars. Discrete Variables - Data that can counted. - e.g., number of days, number of siblings, usual number of text messages sent in day. Continuous Variables - It can assume all values between any two specific values like 0.5, 1.2, etc. and data that can be measured. - e.g., weight, height, body temperature Levels of Measurement: • • • • Nominal Level - this is characterized by the data that consists of names, labels, and categories only. - E.g., gender, most preferred color, usual sleeping time Ordinal Level - This involves data that arranged in some order, but differences between data. - e.g., happiness index for the day, highest educational attainment, the rankings of tennis player, Academic excellence award. Interval Level - This is the same in ordinal level, with an additional property that we can determine meaningful amounts of differences between the data. - e.g., body temperature, intelligence quotient. Ratio Level - This is an interval level modified to include the inherent zero starting point. It possesses a meaningful absolute, fixed zero pint and allows all arithmetic operations. e.g., number of siblings, weight, height Four Basic Methods of Sampling: • • • • Random Sampling – is done by using chance or random numbers. Systematic Sampling – is done by numbering each subject of the population and then selecting nth number. Stratified Sampling – if the population has a distinct groups, it is possible to divide the population into these groups and to draw SRS’s from each f the groups. Cluster Sampling – a method uses intact group called clusters. Name: Description: ...
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