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Science Reviewer
HUMAN PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGY
Earth’s sources
- Mineral, soil, energy, and water
Industrial Revolution
- Began in England
Nonrenewable
- Has the most mineral resources
When mineral deposits are depleted
- It becomes a challenge for mining companies to find other resources which may be costly to
exploit.
Demands for minerals
1. The use of the minerals (mineral consumption)
2. The number of individuals that consumes it (lifestyle)
3. The standard of living maintained by this population (population)
Iron and copper
- Most important metals in our modern civilization
Iron
- Chief component of steel
- Primary component for industrial use
Copper
- Has numerous applications in manufacturing
Mining
- Extraction of metallic and nonmetallic minerals from Earth with economical value and safety
Surface mining
- Extract ore or minerals near Earth’s surface
Open-Pit mining
- Most common method
- Extracted from an open pit or burrow
- Takes a shape of a spiral
Strip mining
- Similar to open pit mining
- Extracted very near to the land surface but may be covered with layers
Overburden
- Filth that covers the minerals
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Mountaintop removal mining
- Explosives are used to remove the overburden off the top of mountains
Highwall mining
- Method for mining outcropping horizontal seams
Underground mining
- Used to dig tunnels or shafts at greater depths to reach hard minerals
- More costly and risky
Environmental Impacts
1. Soil Erosion
2. Dust
3. Destruction of habitats
4. Contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater by chemicals
5. Loss of valuable land
Fossil fuels
- World’s major sources of energy
- Easiest source of energy
Coal
- Formed from plant remains buried under layers
Oil
- Have more useful characteristics than coal as a source of energy
- More concentrated
- Easier to extract with less damage to the environment
- Moved through pipes
- Found in large water bodies like oceans and seas
Crude oil
- Raw form of oil
- Can be separated and collected by heating it in different temperatures through fractional
distillation
o Higher volatile chemicals can be obtained to produce gas
o Less volatile chemicals can be used as diesel fuel and furnace oil
o Other chemicals derived from crude oil can serve as raw materials for various synthetic
products like plastics
Natural Gas
- Is chiefly methane
- Found in shale rocks that can be recovered through the process of fracking
Fracking or Hydraulic fracturing
- Method where a high-pressure fluid is injected straight into a rock in order to release the
natural gas inside it
Turbine and Generator
- Important components make the conversion of any source of energy to electrical energy
possible
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Raw water has to go through different treatment process
Physical treatment
- Water should not have suspended particles or sediments
- Filtration separates the solid from the liquids using filter
- Sedimentation allows solid particles to settle at the bottom
- Coagulation, special compounds remove the dirt particles from the water
- Disinfection kills the germs
Biological treatment
- Water need to be free from any living form
- Activated sludge, chlorination, or UV light
Chemical treatment
- There are some harmful chemicals or excessive amounts of otherwise harmless chemicals
which cannot be removed by physical or biological treatment
Green Revolution
- Began in 1950s

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Science Reviewer HUMAN PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGY Earth’s sources - Mineral, soil, energy, and water Industrial Revolution - Began in England Nonrenewable - Has the most mineral resources When mineral deposits are depleted - It becomes a challenge for mining companies to find other resources which may be costly to exploit. Demands for minerals 1. The use of the minerals (mineral consumption) 2. The number of individuals that consumes it (lifestyle) 3. The standard of living maintained by this population (population) Iron and copper - Most important metals in our modern civilization Iron - Chief component of steel Primary component for industrial use Copper - Has numerous applications in manufacturing Mining - Extraction of metallic and nonmetallic minerals from Earth with economical value and safety Surface mining - Extract ore or minerals near Earth’s surface Open-Pit mining - Most common method Extracted from an open pit or burrow Takes a shape of a spiral Strip mining - Similar to open pit mining Extracted very near to the land surface but may be covered with layers Overburden - Filth that covers the minerals Mountaintop removal mining - Explosives are used to remove the overburden off the top of mountains Highwall mining - Method for mining outcropping horizontal seams Underground mining - Used to dig tunnels or shafts at greater depths to reach hard minerals More costly and risky Environmental Impacts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Soil Erosion Dust Destruction of habitats Contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater by chemicals Loss of valuable land Fossil fuels - World’s major sources of energy Easiest source of energy Coal - Formed from plant remains buried under layers - Have more useful characteristics than coal as a source of energy More concentrated Easier to extract with less damage to the environment Moved through pipes Found in large water bodies like oceans and seas Oil Crude oil - Raw form of oil Can be separated and collected by heating it in different temperatures through fractional distillation o Higher volatile chemicals can be obtained to produce gas o Less volatile chemicals can be used as diesel fuel and furnace oil o Other chemicals derived from crude oil can serve as raw materials for various synthetic products like plastics Natural Gas - Is chiefly methane Found in shale rocks that can be recovered through the process of fracking Fracking or Hydraulic fracturing - Method where a high-pressure fluid is injected straight into a rock in order to release the natural gas inside it Turbine and Generator - Important components make the conversion of any source of energy to electrical energy possible Raw water has to go through different treatment process Physical treatment - Water should not have suspended particles or sediments Filtration separates the solid from the liquids using filter Sedimentation allows solid particles to settle at the bottom Coagulation, special compounds remove the dirt particles from the water Disinfection kills the germs Biological treatment - Water need to be free from any living form Activated sludge, chlorination, or UV light Chemical treatment - There are some harmful chemicals or excessive amounts of otherwise harmless chemicals which cannot be removed by physical or biological treatment Green Revolution - Began in 1950s Name: Description: ...
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