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PSYCHOLOGY
It’s a scientific discipline that studies mental states and processes and
behaviour in humans and other animals.
The discipline of psychology is broadly divisible into two parts: a large
profession of practitioners and a smaller but growing science of mind, brain,
and social behaviour.
Behaviourism
Beginning in the 1930s, behaviorism flourished in the United States, with
B.F. Skinner leading the way in demonstrating the power of operant
conditioning through reinforcement.
Behaviorists in university settings conducted experiments on the conditions
controlling learning and “shaping” behaviour through reinforcement,
usually working with laboratory animals such as rats and pigeons. Skinner
and his followers explicitly excluded mental life, viewing the human mind as
an impenetrable “black box,” open only to conjecture and speculative
fictions.
Linking mind, brain, and behaviour
Late in the 20th century, methods for observing the activity of the living
brain were developed that made it possible to explore links between what the
brain is doing and psychological phenomena, thus opening a window into the
relationship between the mind, brain, and behaviour. The functioning of the
brain enables everything one does, feels, and knows.
To examine brain activity, functional magnetic resonance imaging used to
measure the magnetic fields created by the functioning nerve cells in the
brain, detecting changes in blood flow.
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Epigenetics
This term is used to describe the dynamic interplay between genes and the
environment during the course of development.
The study of epigenetics highlights the complex nature of the relationship
between the organism’s genetic codes or genome, and the organism’s directly
observable physical and psychological manifestations and behaviours.
Epigenetic regulation of gene activity plays a critical role in the process of
development, influencing the organism’s psychological and behavioral
expressions.
Evolving scope and structure of psychological science
The discoveries and advances of psychological science keep expanding its
scope and tools and changing its structure and organization. For most of the
20th century, psychological science consisted of a variety of specialized
subfields with little interconnection. They ranged from clinical psychology to
the study of individual differences and personality, to social psychology, to
industrial-organizational psychology, to community psychology, to the
experimental study of such basic processes as memory, thinking, perception
and sensation, to animal behaviour and to physiological psychology.
In larger academic psychology departments, the list got longer. The various
subfields, each with its own distinct history and specialized mission, usually
were bundled together within academic departments, essentially a loose
federation of unrelated disciplines, each with its own training program and
research agenda.

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PSYCHOLOGY It’s a scientific discipline that studies mental states and processes and behaviour in humans and other animals. The discipline of psychology is broadly divisible into two parts: a large profession of practitioners and a smaller but growing science of mind, brain, and social behaviour. Behaviourism Beginning in the 1930s, behaviorism flourished in the United States, with B.F. Skinner leading the way in demonstrating the power of operant conditioning through reinforcement. Behaviorists in university settings conducted experiments on the conditions controlling learning and “shaping” behaviour through reinforcement, usually working with laboratory animals such as rats and pigeons. Skinner and his followers explicitly excluded mental life, viewing the human mind as an impenetrable “black box,” open only to conjecture and speculative fictions. Linking mind, brain, and behaviour Late in the 20th century, methods for observing the activity of the living brain were developed that made it possible to explore links between what the brain is doing and psychological phenomena, thus opening a window into the relationship between the mind, brain, and behaviour. The functioning of the brain enables everything one does, feels, and knows. To examine brain activity, functional magnetic resonance imaging used to measure the magnetic fields created by the functioning nerve cells in the brain, detecting changes in blood flow. Epigenetics This term is used to describe the dynamic interplay between genes and the environment during the course of development. The study of epigenetics highlights the complex nature of the relationship between the organism’s genetic codes or genome, and the organism’s directly observable physical and psychological manifestations and behaviours. Epigenetic regulation of gene activity plays a critical role in the process of development, influencing the organism’s psychological and behavioral expressions. Evolving scope and structure of psychological science The discoveries and advances of psychological science keep expanding its scope and tools and changing its structure and organization. For most of the 20th century, psychological science consisted of a variety of specialized subfields with little interconnection. They ranged from clinical psychology to the study of individual differences and personality, to social psychology, to industrial-organizational psychology, to community psychology, to the experimental study of such basic processes as memory, thinking, perception and sensation, to animal behaviour and to physiological psychology. In larger academic psychology departments, the list got longer. The various subfields, each with its own distinct history and specialized mission, usually were bundled together within academic departments, essentially a loose federation of unrelated disciplines, each with its own training program and research agenda. Name: Description: ...
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