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JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
(CRI C202)
Faculty;
Joel A. Agtarap
joel.agtarap@jru.edu
MODULE 4 (Week 4)
THEORIES OF DELIQUENCY
Specific Objectives;
After this module, students will be able to;
1. discuss the early general theories on the causes of
delinquency
2. explain biological theory, and
3. state the psychological theory
Introduction
Various theories have been propounded to understand the
deviant behavior of juveniles.
A. Early General Theories on the Causes of Delinquency
1. Demonological Theory This was developed the middle
ages. Hence, it is oldest f of perspective or theory. It was
based on the belief of primitive people that every object and
person is guided by a spirit. This theory promoted the
notion that persons should not be held responsible for their
actions when they do evil things because their body is
possessed by evil spirits.
2. Classical Theory- Postulated by Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy
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Bentham, Classical theory was consistent the utilitarian
view that people weigh the benefits and costs of future
action before they decide to act. This was based on the
assumption that people are rational, have free will, and
therefore able to choose.
It promoted the idea that people choose criminality the
same way when they choose conformity, that youths commit
crime because they think or imagine that greater good things
can be earned through conformity, This is because people by
nature are hedonistic, Hedonism is a doctrine that pleasure is
the highest good in life and that moral duty is fulfilled through
the pursuit of pleasure.
Classicists have four good reasons why delinquent persons
and offenders should be punished
a) General Deterrence- punishment of delinquents and
criminal offenders will strike fear in the hearts of
other people, thus making them less likely to
commit acts of delinquency or crimes.
b) Specific Deterrence punishment will strike fear in
the heart of wrongdoers, thus making them less
likely to offend others again.
c) Incapacitation the form of simplest jurisdiction,
wrongdoers should be locked uo in jail since they
were imprisoned in an institution, they cannot
commit offenses against other people in the outside
world.
d) Retribution this reason objects the idea that
anything good or useful will follow or result from
punishing offenders.
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1. Criminals or delinquents should be punished
because they deserve it, a punishment is
morally right and just in light of the harm and
damage caused by the offense.
2. Punishing criminals has no positive purpose or
no positive effect on the minds and hearts of
the people
3. Positive or Italian theory- this theory was
developed by Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri and
Raffaele Garofalo. Positive theory promoted the
idea of determinism as a way of explaining
crime and delinquency. Determinism means
that every acts has a cause that is waiting to be
discovered in the natural word.
Positivists believed that the cause of juvenile delinquency
could be identified through the application of the scientific
method. Once cause were discovered the individual offender
could be treated (or rehabilitated) much as the medical doctors
treat the cause of harmful illness.
Positive theory blames delinquency on biological,
psychological and sociological factors.
4. Critical Theory- this theory is much more
significant in criminological analysis on the causes of juvenile
delinquency. Critical criminologists and sociologists view
juvenile delinquency as a by product of existing social
arrangements. The concepts of power influence, inequality and
conflict guide this theory is exploring and clarifying the nature
of juvenile delinquency on the imbalance of power within the
human society.
B. Biological Theories
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Early biological theories claim that criminal behavior is a
result of biological or genetic defect in the individual
contemporary biological theories focus more on variations in
genetic and other biological factors in interaction with the
environment, and are less likely to refer to biological defects or
abnormalities.
1. Lombrosian Theory this was developed by Dr. Cesare
Lombroso, a prison doctor in Turin Italy and known as the
father of criminology, his job was to examine hundreds of
criminals. This theory holds the following assumptions:
a) Criminals have many stigmata (distinctive
physical features) such as symmetrical faces,
enormous jaws, large or protruding ears and
receding chins.
b) Criminals are atavistic beings who look
differently, having the mentality of primitive
people, they are incapable of living in modern
society.
c) Criminals are classified as epileptic, insane and
inborn.
Critics on Lombroso’s Theory: Lombrosian theory was flawed as
it was based only on his findings from examining criminals. He
did not conduct studies on non-offenders character. Hence there
is valid comparison as to the difference between the physical
characteristics of criminal and non criminals, also there is no
such thing as a physical criminal type.
2.General Inferiority Theory/ Hooton’s Theory- this was
proposed by Earnest Hooton, this theory has the following
assumptions:
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a) Crime is the result of the impact of environment upon
low grade human organisms and their criminals were
originally inferior people
b) Crimes exist because there are some inferior people who
are responsible for them.
c) Men with mediocre builds are people who tend to break
the law without preference because crimes are like
physical make up characterless.
d) Criminals should be permanently exiled to well-
governing reservations, isolated from the society to
prevent future off springs.
3.William Sheldon’s Theory- according to Sheldon body type
affects a person’s entire personality or temperament. People are
classified in three ways.
a. Endomophs- people who tend to be fat round and soft,
and have to short arms and legs.
b) Mesomorphs people who have athletic and muscular
physique, with active. Assertive and aggressive personality.
Delinquency exists because there are no mesomorphic men or
youths who are responsible for its occurrence.
c) Ectomorphs people who are basically skinny with lean
and fragile bodies.
4.Genetic Theory This theory assumes that:
a) Crime and delinquency is committed by people who
have abnormal genetic structure or chromosomal
abnormalities.
b) DNA is the transmitter or genetic materials (genes)
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c) Extra Y chromosome is responsible for aggressiveness
and thus, criminal activity. Men with extra chromosome are
taller and have a 10to 20 percent greater tendency to
break the law than genetically normal XY males.
C.Psychological
These theories assumes that:
a. Delinquency is result of internal, underlying
disturbances.
b. This disturbances develop in childhood and tend to
become permanent features of the individual character.
c. Since the individual has problems, he or she must be
the focus of attention if the problem is to be solved.
1.Psychogene Theories- these are theories which blame
delinquency on impulses that are rooted in the child rather than
in his environment. Psychogenics believe that it easier to change
a person than it is to change an environment,
1.1 Freudan Psychoanalytic Theory
The proponent of this theory was Sigmund Freud,
Freud believed that people develop in a series of
stages.
The four Elements In Freud’s Theory
a. Human nature is inherently and social. Every child
possesses a set of primitive and social instincts that
Freud called the ID.
b. Good behavior comes through effective socialization,
Through socialization the child learns internal control.
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c. The life-long features of the human personality. By age 5
, all essential features of the child’s adult personality
have been developed.
d. Delinquent behavior is the result of a defective superego.
The Three Parts of Human Psyche ( personality)
a. ID It is the unconscious portion of personality
dominated by the drive ( cravings) for pleasure and by
inborn sexual and aggressive impulses.
b. Ego - this is the rational part of the personality, it
grows from the ID. T represents problem solving
dimension of personality.
c. Super ego It grows out of ego, it represents the moral
code, norms and values the individual has required.
2.The Low IQ Theory this theory claims that:
a. People with low intelligence are easily led into law
breaking activities by the wiles of more clever people.
b. People with low intelligence are unable to realize that
committing offenses in a certain way.
3.Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Theory- this theory claims
that:
a. Juvenile Delinquency is caused by immaturity and
hyperactivity
b. Grade schoolers usually experience attention deficit,
hyperactivity, disorder, which is characterized by:
1. Short attention span
2. Day dreaming
3. Sluggishness
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4. Preoccupation
5. Impulsiveness
4.Frustration Aggression Theory- this theory claims that people
who are frustrated will get aggressively, and people who engage
in aggression are frustrated first.
Frustration is a behavior directed at anticipated goals
or experience or expectations. It develops when a person
experiences the blocking of some goal.
Aggression is a behavior whose goal is to inflict
damage or injury on some objects or persons.
Review Questions;
1. Extra Y chromosome is responsible for criminal behavior
2. Criminals are originally low grade people who tend to break
the law without preference.
3. Juvenile Delinquency is caused by immaturity hyperactivity
4. People who are frustrated who will act aggressively.
END of MODULE 4

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JUVENILE DELINQUENCY (CRI – C202) Faculty; Joel A. Agtarap joel.agtarap@jru.edu MODULE 4 (Week 4) THEORIES OF DELIQUENCY Specific Objectives; After this module, students will be able to; 1. discuss the early general theories on the causes of delinquency 2. explain biological theory, and 3. state the psychological theory Introduction Various theories have been propounded to understand the deviant behavior of juveniles. A. Early General Theories on the Causes of Delinquency 1. Demonological Theory – This was developed the middle ages. Hence, it is oldest f of perspective or theory. It was based on the belief of primitive people that every object and person is guided by a spirit. This theory promoted the notion that persons should not be held responsible for their actions when they do evil things because their body is possessed by evil spirits. 2. Classical Theory- Postulated by Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, Classical theory was consistent the utilitarian view that people weigh the benefits and costs of future action before they decide to act. This was based on the assumption that people are rational, have free will, and therefore able to choose. It promoted the idea that people choose criminality the same way when they choose conformity, that youths commit crime because they think or imagine that greater good things can be earned through conformity, This is because people by nature are hedonistic, Hedonism is a doctrine that pleasure is the highest good in life and that moral duty is fulfilled through the pursuit of pleasure. Classicists have four good reasons why delinquent persons and offenders should be punished a) General Deterrence- punishment of delinquents and criminal offenders will strike fear in the hearts of other people, thus making them less likely to commit acts of delinquency or crimes. b) Specific Deterrence – punishment will strike fear in the heart of wrongdoers, thus making them less likely to offend others again. c) Incapacitation – the form of simplest jurisdiction, wrongdoers should be locked uo in jail since they were imprisoned in an institution, they cannot commit offenses against other people in the outside world. d) Retribution – this reason objects the idea that anything good or useful will follow or result from punishing offenders. 1. Criminals or delinquents should be punished because they deserve it, a punishment is morally right and just in light of the harm and damage caused by the offense. 2. Punishing criminals has no positive purpose or no positive effect on the minds and hearts of the people 3. Positive or Italian theory- this theory was developed by Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri and Raffaele Garofalo. Positive theory promoted the idea of determinism as a way of explaining crime and delinquency. Determinism means that every acts has a cause that is waiting to be discovered in the natural word. Positivists believed that the cause of juvenile delinquency could be identified through the application of the scientific method. Once cause were discovered the individual offender could be treated (or rehabilitated) much as the medical doctors treat the cause of harmful illness. Positive theory blames delinquency psychological and sociological factors. on biological, 4. Critical Theory- this theory is much more significant in criminological analysis on the causes of juvenile delinquency. Critical criminologists and sociologists view juvenile delinquency as a by product of existing social arrangements. The concepts of power influence, inequality and conflict guide this theory is exploring and clarifying the nature of juvenile delinquency on the imbalance of power within the human society. B. Biological Theories Early biological theories claim that criminal behavior is a result of biological or genetic defect in the individual contemporary biological theories focus more on variations in genetic and other biological factors in interaction with the environment, and are less likely to refer to biological defects or abnormalities. 1. Lombrosian Theory – this was developed by Dr. Cesare Lombroso, a prison doctor in Turin Italy and known as the father of criminology, his job was to examine hundreds of criminals. This theory holds the following assumptions: a) Criminals have many stigmata (distinctive physical features) such as symmetrical faces, enormous jaws, large or protruding ears and receding chins. b) Criminals are atavistic beings who look differently, having the mentality of primitive people, they are incapable of living in modern society. c) Criminals are classified as epileptic, insane and inborn. Critics on Lombroso’s Theory: Lombrosian theory was flawed as it was based only on his findings from examining criminals. He did not conduct studies on non-offenders character. Hence there is valid comparison as to the difference between the physical characteristics of criminal and non criminals, also there is no such thing as a physical criminal type. 2.General Inferiority Theory/ Hooton’s Theory- this was proposed by Earnest Hooton, this theory has the following assumptions: a) Crime is the result of the impact of environment upon low grade human organisms and their criminals were originally inferior people b) Crimes exist because there are some inferior people who are responsible for them. c) Men with mediocre builds are people who tend to break the law without preference because crimes are like physical make up characterless. d) Criminals should be permanently exiled to wellgoverning reservations, isolated from the society to prevent future off springs. 3.William Sheldon’s Theory- according to Sheldon body type affects a person’s entire personality or temperament. People are classified in three ways. a. Endomophs- people who tend to be fat round and soft, and have to short arms and legs. b) Mesomorphs – people who have athletic and muscular physique, with active. Assertive and aggressive personality. Delinquency exists because there are no mesomorphic men or youths who are responsible for its occurrence. c) Ectomorphs – people who are basically skinny with lean and fragile bodies. 4.Genetic Theory – This theory assumes that: a) Crime and delinquency is committed by people who have abnormal genetic structure or chromosomal abnormalities. b) DNA is the transmitter or genetic materials (genes) c) Extra Y chromosome is responsible for aggressiveness and thus, criminal activity. Men with extra chromosome are taller and have a 10to 20 percent greater tendency to break the law than genetically normal XY males. C.Psychological These theories assumes that: a. Delinquency is disturbances. result of internal, underlying b. This disturbances develop in childhood and tend to become permanent features of the individual character. c. Since the individual has problems, he or she must be the focus of attention if the problem is to be solved. 1.Psychogene Theories- these are theories which blame delinquency on impulses that are rooted in the child rather than in his environment. Psychogenics believe that it easier to change a person than it is to change an environment, 1.1 Freudan Psychoanalytic Theory The proponent of this theory was Sigmund Freud, Freud believed that people develop in a series of stages. The four Elements In Freud’s Theory a. Human nature is inherently and social. Every child possesses a set of primitive and social instincts that Freud called the ID. b. Good behavior comes through effective socialization, Through socialization the child learns internal control. c. The life-long features of the human personality. By age 5 , all essential features of the child’s adult personality have been developed. d. Delinquent behavior is the result of a defective superego. The Three Parts of Human Psyche ( personality) a. ID – It is the unconscious portion of personality dominated by the drive ( cravings) for pleasure and by inborn sexual and aggressive impulses. b. Ego - this is the rational part of the personality, it grows from the ID. T represents problem solving dimension of personality. c. Super ego – It grows out of ego, it represents the moral code, norms and values the individual has required. 2.The Low IQ Theory – this theory claims that: a. People with low intelligence are easily led into law breaking activities by the wiles of more clever people. b. People with low intelligence are unable to realize that committing offenses in a certain way. 3.Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Theory- this theory claims that: a. Juvenile Delinquency is caused by immaturity and hyperactivity b. Grade schoolers usually experience attention deficit, hyperactivity, disorder, which is characterized by: 1. Short attention span 2. Day dreaming 3. Sluggishness 4. Preoccupation 5. Impulsiveness 4.Frustration Aggression Theory- this theory claims that people who are frustrated will get aggressively, and people who engage in aggression are frustrated first. Frustration is a behavior directed at anticipated goals or experience or expectations. It develops when a person experiences the blocking of some goal. Aggression – is a behavior whose goal is to inflict damage or injury on some objects or persons. Review Questions; 1. Extra Y chromosome is responsible for criminal behavior 2. Criminals are originally low grade people who tend to break the law without preference. 3. Juvenile Delinquency is caused by immaturity hyperactivity 4. People who are frustrated who will act aggressively. END of MODULE 4 Name: Description: ...
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