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Sir tanveer
Note: The following material describes morpheme and its types briefly. You are
advised to study them at length before we conduct live class soon. Good luck.
Morpheme
Words may be constructed from one or more morphemes. Morphemes are the smallest forms
(i.e., spoken and/or written units) in a language that have meanings or grammatical functions.
(Note: they are not the smallest units of meaning.) Cat is a word consisting of one morpheme,
cat. Cats consists of two morphemes, cat and -s. Inactive contains three: in-, act, and -ive.
From the point of view of their functions in words, morphemes may be divided into three
classes: derivational, inflectional, and root. Adding a derivational morpheme to a word or to
another morpheme creates a separate, though related, word.For example, adding the
derivational morpheme er to the word read creates the word reader. In the following
examples, the derivational morphemes are in bold: man-hood, king-dom, act-or, antithet-ic-
al, act-ive, re-act-or, act-iv-ate, wise-ly. Notice that there may be several derivational
morphemes in a word. While adding derivational morphemes to a root or word creates a
separate word, adding an inflectional morpheme merely creates a modified version of the
word to which it is added. Inflections are added to words to indicate such things as plural,
past tense, or comparison. They are bolded in the following examples: paint-ed, book-s,
small-er. Modern English uses only eight inflectional morphemes:
-s plural of nouns: coats -’s genitive of noun phrases: Harry’s, the kid next door’s -er
comparative of short adjectives and adverbs: faster -est superlative of short adjectives and
adverbs: fastest -s third person, singular, present tense of verbs: sleeps -ed regular past tense
of verbs: pointed -ing progressive marker on verbs (occurs with be): is eating -ed/-en past
participle marker of verbs (occurs with have and passive be): has eaten, has asked, was
challenged
The root morpheme of a word is the morpheme left over when all derivational and
inflectional morphemes have been removed. Thus, seem is what remains when we remove
the derivational morphemes {-ing} and {-ly} from seemingly, and must therefore be its root.
If an inflectional morpheme occurs in an English word, it will always follow the root and any
derivational morphemes, as in:
tele-phon-ist-s
D R D I
A morpheme attached before the root of a word is said to be prefixed; a morpheme attached
after the root of a word is said to be suffixed. “Word” is ambiguous. On one meaning, phone
and phones would be two separate words, but on another meaning, they would be different
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versions of the same word. We can eliminate the ambiguity with a little lexical ingenuity.
We’ll say that the inflected forms of a word are word forms, and we’ll call the word that they
are inflected forms of a lexeme. This implies that derivationally related words are different
lexemes.

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Sir tanveer Note: The following material describes morpheme and its types briefly. You are advised to study them at length before we conduct live class soon. Good luck. Morpheme Words may be constructed from one or more morphemes. Morphemes are the smallest forms (i.e., spoken and/or written units) in a language that have meanings or grammatical functions. (Note: they are not the smallest units of meaning.) Cat is a word consisting of one morpheme, cat. Cats consists of two morphemes, cat and -s. Inactive contains three: in-, act, and -ive. From the point of view of their functions in words, morphemes may be divided into three classes: derivational, inflectional, and root. Adding a derivational morpheme to a word or to another morpheme creates a separate, though related, word.For example, adding the derivational morpheme –er to the word read creates the word reader. In the following examples, the derivational morphemes are in bold: man-hood, king-dom, act-or, antithet-ical, act-ive, re-act-or, act-iv-ate, wise-ly. Notice that there may be several derivational morphemes in a word. While adding derivational morphemes to a root or word creates a separate word, adding an inflectional morpheme merely creates a modified version of the word to which it is added. Inflections are added to words to indicate such things as plural, past tense, or comparison. They are bolded in the following examples: paint-ed, book-s, small-er. Modern English uses only eight inflectional morphemes: -s plural of nouns: coats -’s genitive of noun phrases: Harry’s, the kid next door’s -er comparative of short adjectives and adverbs: faster -est superlative of short adjectives and adverbs: fastest -s third person, singular, present tense of verbs: sleeps -ed regular past tense of verbs: pointed -ing progressive marker on verbs (occurs with be): is eating -ed/-en past participle marker of verbs (occurs with have and passive be): has eaten, has asked, was challenged The root morpheme of a word is the morpheme left over when all derivational and inflectional morphemes have been removed. Thus, seem is what remains when we remove the derivational morphemes {-ing} and {-ly} from seemingly, and must therefore be its root. If an inflectional morpheme occurs in an English word, it will always follow the root and any derivational morphemes, as in: tele-phon-ist-s D R D I A morpheme attached before the root of a word is said to be prefixed; a morpheme attached after the root of a word is said to be suffixed. “Word” is ambiguous. On one meaning, phone and phones would be two separate words, but on another meaning, they would be different versions of the same word. We can eliminate the ambiguity with a little lexical ingenuity. We’ll say that the inflected forms of a word are word forms, and we’ll call the word that they are inflected forms of a lexeme. This implies that derivationally related words are different lexemes. Name: Description: ...
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