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Geography
Geography
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and
their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface
and the human societies spread across it.
Ancient Geographers
The term "geography" comes to us from the ancient Greeks, who needed a word to
describe the writings and maps that were helping them make sense of the world in
which they lived. In Greek, geo means earth and -graphy means “to write.” Using
geography.
Age of Discovery
The period of time between the 15th and 17th centuries is known in the West as
the Age of Exploration or the Age of Discovery. With the dawn of the Age of Discovery,
the study of geography regained popularity in Europe. The invention of the printing
press in the mid-1400s helped spread geographic knowledge by making maps
and charts widely available.
Emergence of Modern Geography
Some people have trouble understanding the complete scope of the discipline of
geography because, unlike most other disciplines, geography is not defined by
one particular topic. Instead, geography is concerned with many different topics
people, culture, politics, settlements, plants, landforms, and much more. What
distinguishes geography is that it approaches the study of diverse topics in a particular
way (that is, from a particular perspective). Geography asks spatial questionshow
and why things are distributed or arranged in particular ways on Earth’s surface. It
looks at these different distributions and arrangements at many different scales.
Physical Geography
The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although
many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems.
Physical geographers study Earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams,
landforms, and oceans. Some disciplines within physical geography
include geomorphology, glaciology, pedology, hydrology, climatology, biogeography,
and oceanography.
Human Geography
Human geography is concerned with the distribution and networks of people and cultures on
Earth’s surface. A human geographer might investigate the local, regional, and global impact
of rising economic powers China and India, which represent 37 percent of the world’s people.
Human geographers also study how people use and alter their environments. When, for
example, people allow their animals to overgraze a region, the soil erodes and grassland is
transformed into desert. The impact of overgrazing on the landscape as well as agricultural
production is an area of study for human geographers. Finally, human geographers study how
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Geography
political, social, and economic systems are organized across geographical space. These
include governments, religious organizations, and trade partnerships.
Geographic Techniques
Specialists in geographic techniques study the ways in which geographic processes can be
analysed and represented using different methods and technologies. Mapmaking,
or cartography, is perhaps the most basic of these. Cartography has been instrumental to
geography throughout the ages.
As early as 1500 BCE, Polynesian navigators in the Pacific Ocean used complex maps made
of tiny sticks and shells that represented islands and ocean currents they would encounter on
their voyages. Today, satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defence
communicate with receivers on the ground called global positioning system (GPS) units to
instantly identify exact locations on Earth.
Today, almost the entire surface of Earth has been mapped with remarkable accuracy, and
much of this information is available instantly on the internet.
Regional Geography
Regional geographers take a somewhat different approach to specialization, directing their
attention to the general geographic characteristics of a region. A regional geographer might
specialize in African studies, observing and documenting the people, nations, rivers,
mountains, deserts, weather, trade, and other attributes of the continent.
There are different ways you can define a region. You can look at climate zones, cultural
regions, or political regions. Often regional geographers have a physical or human geography
specialty as well as a regional specialty.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Geography Geography Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it. Ancient Geographers The term "geography" comes to us from the ancient Greeks, who needed a word to describe the writings and maps that were helping them make sense of the world in which they lived. In Greek, geo means “earth” and -graphy means “to write.” Using geography. Age of Discovery The period of time between the 15th and 17th centuries is known in the West as the Age of Exploration or the Age of Discovery. With the dawn of the Age of Discovery, the study of geography regained popularity in Europe. The invention of the printing press in the mid-1400s helped spread geographic knowledge by making maps and charts widely available. Emergence of Modern Geography Some people have trouble understanding the complete scope of the discipline of geography because, unlike most other disciplines, geography is not defined by one particular topic. Instead, geography is concerned with many different topics— people, culture, politics, settlements, plants, landforms, and much more. What distinguishes geography is that it approaches the study of diverse topics in a particular way (that is, from a particular perspective). Geography asks spatial questions—how and why things are distributed or arranged in particular ways on Earth’s surface. It looks at these different distributions and arrangements at many different scales. Physical Geography The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems. Physical geographers study Earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms, and oceans. Some disciplines within physical geography include geomorphology, glaciology, pedology, hydrology, climatology, biogeography, and oceanography. Human Geography Human geography is concerned with the distribution and networks of people and cultures on Earth’s surface. A human geographer might investigate the local, regional, and global impact of rising economic powers China and India, which represent 37 percent of the world’s people. Human geographers also study how people use and alter their environments. When, for example, people allow their animals to overgraze a region, the soil erodes and grassland is transformed into desert. The impact of overgrazing on the landscape as well as agricultural production is an area of study for human geographers. Finally, human geographers study how Geography political, social, and economic systems are organized across geographical space. These include governments, religious organizations, and trade partnerships. Geographic Techniques Specialists in geographic techniques study the ways in which geographic processes can be analysed and represented using different methods and technologies. Mapmaking, or cartography, is perhaps the most basic of these. Cartography has been instrumental to geography throughout the ages. As early as 1500 BCE, Polynesian navigators in the Pacific Ocean used complex maps made of tiny sticks and shells that represented islands and ocean currents they would encounter on their voyages. Today, satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defence communicate with receivers on the ground called global positioning system (GPS) units to instantly identify exact locations on Earth. Today, almost the entire surface of Earth has been mapped with remarkable accuracy, and much of this information is available instantly on the internet. Regional Geography Regional geographers take a somewhat different approach to specialization, directing their attention to the general geographic characteristics of a region. A regional geographer might specialize in African studies, observing and documenting the people, nations, rivers, mountains, deserts, weather, trade, and other attributes of the continent. There are different ways you can define a region. You can look at climate zones, cultural regions, or political regions. Often regional geographers have a physical or human geography specialty as well as a regional specialty. Name: Description: ...
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