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ASSIGNMENT 1
ROCKET PROPULSION
Gaurisha 18101016
1. Types of rockets
There are four different types of rockets:
Solid-fuel rocket
The oldest and simplest of the types of rockets use solid fuel for thrust. Solid-fuel
rockets have been around since the chinese discovered gunpowder. This type is
“monopropellant,” meaning several solid chemicals are combined to make a single
mixture. This mixture is then placed in the combustion chamber awaiting ignition. One
of the disadvantages of this kind of fuel type is that once it starts to burn there is no
way to stop it and thus it will go through the entirety of its fuel supply until it runs out.
Although relatively easy to store compared to liquid fuels, some ingredients used for
solid fuel, such as nitroglycerin, are highly volatile.
Liquid-fuel rocket
Liquid-fuel rockets, as the name suggests, use liquid propellants to create thrust. First
developed by robert h. Goddard, the man touted as the father of modern rocketry, it was
successfully launched in 1926. The liquid-fuel rocket also propelled the space race, first
sending sputnik, the world's first satellite, into orbit with the use of the russian r-7
booster, and finally culminating with the launch of apollo 11 using the saturn v rocket.
Liquid-fuel rockets can be monopropellant or bipropellant in design, the difference
being that bipropellant is composed of fuel and oxidizer, a chemical that allows the fuel
to burn when mixed.
Ion rocket
More efficient than conventional as rocket technology, the ion rocket uses electrical
energy from solar cells to provide thrust. Rather than forcing pressurized hot gas out of
a nozzle which limits how much thrust you can achieve by how much heat the nozzle
can stand the ion rocket propels a jet of xenon ions whose negative electrons have
been stripped by the rocket's electron gun. The ion rocket was tested in space during
deep space 1 on november 10, 1998, and again in smart 1 on september 27, 2003.
Plasma rocket
One of the newer types of rockets in development, the variable specific impulse
magnetoplasma rocket (vasimr), works by accelerating plasma produced by stripping
negative electrons from hydrogen atoms inside a magnetic field and expelling them out
the engine. Touted to decrease the time it would take to reach mars into just a matter of
months, the technology is currently undergoing testing to increase both power and
endurance.
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2. Application of propulsion system of rocket
The propulsion of a rocket includes all of the parts which make up the rocket engine; the
tanks pumps, propellants, power head, and rocket nozzle. The function of the propulsion
system is to produce thrust.
Thrust is the force which moves a rocket through the air and through space. Thrust is
generated by the propulsion system of the rocket. Different propulsion systems develop
thrust in different ways, but all thrust is generated through some application of
Newton's third law of motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. In any
propulsion system, a working fluid is accelerated by the system and the reaction to this
acceleration produces a force on the system. A general derivation of the thrust
equation shows that the amount of thrust generated depends on the mass flow through the
engine and the exit velocity of the gas.
In a rocket engine, fuel and a source of oxygen, called an oxidizer, are mixed and exploded
in a combustion chamber. The combustion produces hot exhaust which is passed through
a nozzle to accelerate the flow and produce thrust. For a rocket, the accelerated gas,
or working fluid, is the hot exhaust produced during combustion. This is a different working
fluid than you find in a gas turbine engine or propeller powered aircraft. Turbine engines and
propellers use air from the atmosphere as the working fluid, but rockets use the combustion
exhaust gases. In outer space there is no atmosphere so turbines and propellers cannot work
there. This explains why a rocket works in space but a turbine engine or a propeller does not
work.

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ASSIGNMENT 1 ROCKET PROPULSION Gaurisha 18101016 1. Types of rockets There are four different types of rockets: • Solid-fuel rocket The oldest and simplest of the types of rockets use solid fuel for thrust. Solid-fuel rockets have been around since the chinese discovered gunpowder. This type is “monopropellant,” meaning several solid chemicals are combined to make a single mixture. This mixture is then placed in the combustion chamber awaiting ignition. One of the disadvantages of this kind of fuel type is that once it starts to burn there is no way to stop it and thus it will go through the entirety of its fuel supply until it runs out. Although relatively easy to store compared to liquid fuels, some ingredients used for solid fuel, such as nitroglycerin, are highly volatile. • Liquid-fuel rocket Liquid-fuel rockets, as the name suggests, use liquid propellants to create thrust. First developed by robert h. Goddard, the man touted as the father of modern rocketry, it was successfully launched in 1926. The liquid-fuel rocket also propelled the space race, first sending sputnik, the world's first satellite, into orbit with the use of the russian r-7 booster, and finally culminating with the launch of apollo 11 using the saturn v rocket. Liquid-fuel rockets can be monopropellant or bipropellant in design, the difference being that bipropellant is composed of fuel and oxidizer, a chemical that allows the fuel to burn when mixed. • Ion rocket More efficient than conventional as rocket technology, the ion rocket uses electrical energy from solar cells to provide thrust. Rather than forcing pressurized hot gas out of a nozzle – which limits how much thrust you can achieve by how much heat the nozzle can stand – the ion rocket propels a jet of xenon ions whose negative electrons have been stripped by the rocket's electron gun. The ion rocket was tested in space during deep space 1 on november 10, 1998, and again in smart 1 on september 27, 2003. • Plasma rocket One of the newer types of rockets in development, the variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (vasimr), works by accelerating plasma produced by stripping negative electrons from hydrogen atoms inside a magnetic field and expelling them out the engine. Touted to decrease the time it would take to reach mars into just a matter of months, the technology is currently undergoing testing to increase both power and endurance. 2. Application of propulsion system of rocket The propulsion of a rocket includes all of the parts which make up the rocket engine; the tanks pumps, propellants, power head, and rocket nozzle. The function of the propulsion system is to produce thrust. Thrust is the force which moves a rocket through the air and through space. Thrust is generated by the propulsion system of the rocket. Different propulsion systems develop thrust in different ways, but all thrust is generated through some application of Newton's third law of motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. In any propulsion system, a working fluid is accelerated by the system and the reaction to this acceleration produces a force on the system. A general derivation of the thrust equation shows that the amount of thrust generated depends on the mass flow through the engine and the exit velocity of the gas. In a rocket engine, fuel and a source of oxygen, called an oxidizer, are mixed and exploded in a combustion chamber. The combustion produces hot exhaust which is passed through a nozzle to accelerate the flow and produce thrust. For a rocket, the accelerated gas, or working fluid, is the hot exhaust produced during combustion. This is a different working fluid than you find in a gas turbine engine or propeller powered aircraft. Turbine engines and propellers use air from the atmosphere as the working fluid, but rockets use the combustion exhaust gases. In outer space there is no atmosphere so turbines and propellers cannot work there. This explains why a rocket works in space but a turbine engine or a propeller does not work. Name: Description: ...
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