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BS Geography 5
th
semester (Economic Geography
1
University of Sargodha
Name Muhammad Safeer Hussain
Roll Number BGRF19M033
Assignment Economic Geography
Topic Approaches to study
Economic Geography
Lecturer Sir Umar Younis
Submission date 24_Jan_,2022
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th
semester (Economic Geography
2
Department of Earth Science
UOS
Approaches to Study Economic Geography
Name______________________ Roll
No____________
Economic__ “ Concerned with how
Economic System operation’s.
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th
semester (Economic Geography
3
Geography__ “ Concerned with
understanding of how spatial System
operates.
Economic Geography__ “ The study of
Location, Distribution and spatial
organization of Economic Activity’s .
Ideographic Approach __ The step by step
Study with the help of Flow chart and solve
problems
Nomothetic Approach__ “ The solve problems
with the help of mathematical systems
Traditional Approach __
Regional Approach_ “ Study in the specific
Region
Commodity Approach Systematic
description and interpenetration of the world
distribution pattern of a Commodity.
Principles Approach Economic regions are
based on certain fundamental principles
Philosophic Approach
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th
semester (Economic Geography
4
Positivism It involves informed hypothesis
testing leading to empirical generalisations
and law-like statements.
Structuralism “ Develop ideas and theories
that will help us understand what we see and
experience.
Humanism “ Base on the both Positivism
and Structuralism.
Modern Analysis
System Analysis “ is an approach or
methodology rather then a philosophy of
scientific Method.
Behavioral Approach “Economic
Geographers study the overall results of
economically oriented behavior as they
appear in the landscape”
Institutional Approach “ It is the rule of
formal and informal systems which is the
focus of an institutional Approach to
economic Geography”
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th
semester (Economic Geography
5
Comments Section
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
__________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
__________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
__________________________
Economics :-
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th
semester (Economic Geography
6
Economics is "the social science that studies the
production, distribution, and consumption of
goods and services."
Geography:-
Geography is the study of places and the
relationships between people and their
environments.
Economic Geography:-
Economic geography is one of the most diverse,
vibrant, and catalytic subdisciplines
within human geography. It is concerned with
describing and explaining the varied places and
spaces in which economic activities are carried
out and circulate. It was institutionalized as a
subdiscipline in the late nineteenth century in
both Western Europe and the United States. The
first part of this article provides a history of the
development of economic geography.
Idiographic approach
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th
semester (Economic Geography
7
The idiographic approach is focused on an
individual case and aims at finding out
details about the individual case, this may be a
person, as in the case of psychology where it is
used to understand the behaviour and
personality attributes of the individual, or a
society, as in sociology.
Nomothetic Approach
Windelband used nomothetic to describe an
approach to producing knowledge that seeks to
make large-scale generalizations. With a
nomothetic approach, one conducts careful and
systemic observation and experimentation to
derive results that can be applied more broadly
outside the realm of study.
1. Traditional Approaches:
These are the approaches which are common
in geography and frequently used in
economic geography. These are:
(i) Regional Approach,
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th
semester (Economic Geography
8
(ii) Commodity or Topical Approach, and
(iii) Principles Approach.
(i) Regional Approach:
This is one of the popular approaches of study
of Economic Geography that attempts to study
the economy of the different geographical re-
gions in a country, a continent or the world as a
whole. ‘The term region’, as Dickinson has put
it, ‘is undoubtedly one of the catch-words of our
day among both popular and scientific writers.’
By region we mean a suitable areal unit with
some degree of homogeneity.
“The basic advantage of the regional approach
is that it gives a better and comprehensive
knowledge of the different parts of a unit, their
relationship to each other and to the units as a
whole. This is true whether the unit is a country,
a continent or the world.”
(ii) Commodity or Topical Approach:
This approach provides a systematic description
and interpretation of the world distribution
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th
semester (Economic Geography
9
pattern of a commodity (wheat), or an industry
(cotton textile industry), or a human occupation
(fishing). It analyses the whole sequence of their
development, and catches them on their march
to progression or retrogression.
This topical or commodity approach is very
popular. The systematic economic geography, if
we choose this appellation, is the legitimate
child of this very conception.
(iii) Principles Approach:
In every sphere of human activity certain
fundamental truths or principles hold good:
indeed, they provide the rock-foundations upon
which the varied and varying superstructures
rest. The concepts of Economic Geography are
through and through permeated with the same
spirit whether we talk of Regional Economic
Geography or Systematic Economic Geography.
Economic regions are based on certain
fundamental principles; and similar is the case
with the extraction of minerals (coals, iron ore
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BS Geography 5
th
semester (Economic Geography
10
or diamond), or the localisation of industries
(metal fabricating or textile industries), or the
exchange of commodities.
At least four principles, viz., the principle of
genomics relationship, the principle of optimum
location, the principle of regional specialisation
and the principle of geonomic succession appear
to be valid generalisations under all conditions.
That is why it seems to be a sound proposition if
we enunciate certain fundamental principles in
the discussion of geonomic problems. This
approach has two distinct advantages: firstly, it
provides an analytical method which promotes
critical acumen; and secondly, it does away with
parrot learning of factual material.
2. Philosophic Approaches:
The 1990s research in economic geography
may be characterised by three major
philosophic approaches. These are:
(i) Positivism,
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BS Geography 5
th
semester (Economic Geography
11
(ii) Structuralism, and
(iii) Humanism.
(i) Positivism:
It employs the scientific method to interpret and
understand issues in economic geography. The
scientific approach is based on empirically
verifiable and commonly agreed upon evidence
through replication of analytical results.
It involves informed hypothesis testing leading
to empirical generalisations and law-like
statements. GIS (Group Information System) is
central to analytical and positivist approaches to
geography in general and with especially
numerous applications in economic geography.
(ii) Structuralism:
In economic geography, structuralism, posits
that what we see in the world does not reveal the
causes of what we see. The structure of the
economy cannot be directly observed, and we
should therefore, develop ideas and theories that
will help us understand what we see and
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th
semester (Economic Geography
12
experience. While there is no way to directly
test such theories, we can debate about them to
achieve better understanding.
(iii) Humanism:
It is a part of critique of positivism. Humanistic
economic geographers object to both positivism
and structuralism on the basis that these
approaches view people as responding
mechanically to spatial and structural forces.
3. Modern Approaches:
In economic geography, three approaches
have been developed during last three
decades that can be considered as modern
approaches. These are:
(i) System analysis,
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BS Geography 5
th
semester (Economic Geography
13
(ii) Behavioural approach, and
(iii) Institutional approach.
(i) System Analysis:
A system is a set of identified elements so
related that together they form a complex whole.
System analysis is an approach or methodology
rather than a philosophy or scientific paradigm.
Economic geographers utilise the system
concept in order to better understand the
component elements of some part of reality, and
the relations between them. The use of such a
conception stresses the study of the whole as
well as of the parts. Thus, the world economy
can be regarded as a set of interlocking parts
and sub-systems.
(ii) Behavioural Approach:
Incorporation of the behavioural science outlook
in geography is known as behavlouralism. In
economic geography behavioural approach now
has become very common. Economic
geographers study the overall results of
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BS Geography 5
th
semester (Economic Geography
14
economically-oriented behaviour as they appear
in the landscape. In economic geography, the
study of decision-making process is an
important aspect.
The type of decision-making, which is the
concern of economic geography, can be
classified as problem-solving or behavioural
decision-making with such results as new
locations for shops, farms or factories.
Similarly, the studies of consumer behaviour,
movement or trip behaviour, etc. are considered
to be important. The decision-making process
and other aspects of behavioural analysis.
(iii) Institutional Approach:
Ron Martin (2003) has emphasised the need of
institutional approach in economic geography.
He stated that the form and evolution of the
economic landscape cannot be fully understood
without giving due attention to the various
social institutions on which economic activity
depends and through which it is shaped.
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BS Geography 5
th
semester (Economic Geography
15
In other words, economic activity is socially and
institutionally situated and it cannot be
explained by reference to atomistic individual
motives alone, but has to be understood as
enmeshed in wider structures of social,
economic and political rules, procedures and
conventions. It is the role of these systems, both
formal and informal, which is the focus of an
institutional approach to economic geography.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography University of Sargodha Name Muhammad Safeer Hussain Roll Number BGRF19M033 Assignment Economic Geography Topic Approaches to study Economic Geography Lecturer Submission date 1 Sir Umar Younis 24_Jan_,2022 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography Department of Earth Science UOS Approaches to Study Economic Geography Name______________________ Roll No____________ ➢ Economic__ “ Concerned with how Economic System operation’s. 2 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography ➢ Geography__ “ Concerned with understanding of how spatial System operates. ➢ Economic Geography__ “ The study of Location, Distribution and spatial organization of Economic Activity’s . Ideographic Approach __ “The step by step Study with the help of Flow chart and solve problems Nomothetic Approach__ “ The solve problems with the help of mathematical systems Traditional Approach __ • Regional Approach_ “ Study in the specific Region • Commodity Approach “Systematic description and interpenetration of the world distribution pattern of a Commodity.” • Principles Approach “ Economic regions are based on certain fundamental principles Philosophic Approach 3 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography • Positivism “It involves informed hypothesis testing leading to empirical generalisations and law-like statements. • Structuralism “ Develop ideas and theories that will help us understand what we see and experience. • Humanism “ Base on the both Positivism and Structuralism. Modern Analysis • System Analysis “ is an approach or methodology rather then a philosophy of scientific Method. • Behavioral Approach “Economic Geographers study the overall results of economically oriented behavior as they appear in the landscape” • Institutional Approach “ It is the rule of formal and informal systems which is the focus of an institutional Approach to economic Geography” 4 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography Comments Section _______________________________________ _______________________________________ __________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ __________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ __________________________ Economics :5 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography Economics is "the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services." Geography:Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Economic Geography:Economic geography is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and catalytic subdisciplines within human geography. It is concerned with describing and explaining the varied places and spaces in which economic activities are carried out and circulate. It was institutionalized as a subdiscipline in the late nineteenth century in both Western Europe and the United States. The first part of this article provides a history of the development of economic geography. Idiographic approach 6 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography The idiographic approach is focused on an individual case and aims at finding out details about the individual case, this may be a person, as in the case of psychology where it is used to understand the behaviour and personality attributes of the individual, or a society, as in sociology. Nomothetic Approach Windelband used nomothetic to describe an approach to producing knowledge that seeks to make large-scale generalizations. With a nomothetic approach, one conducts careful and systemic observation and experimentation to derive results that can be applied more broadly outside the realm of study. 1. Traditional Approaches: These are the approaches which are common in geography and frequently used in economic geography. These are: (i) Regional Approach, 7 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography (ii) Commodity or Topical Approach, and (iii) Principles Approach. (i) Regional Approach: This is one of the popular approaches of study of Economic Geography that attempts to study the economy of the different geographical regions in a country, a continent or the world as a whole. ‘The term region’, as Dickinson has put it, ‘is undoubtedly one of the catch-words of our day among both popular and scientific writers.’ By region we mean a suitable areal unit with some degree of homogeneity. “The basic advantage of the regional approach is that it gives a better and comprehensive knowledge of the different parts of a unit, their relationship to each other and to the units as a whole. This is true whether the unit is a country, a continent or the world.” (ii) Commodity or Topical Approach: This approach provides a systematic description and interpretation of the world distribution 8 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography pattern of a commodity (wheat), or an industry (cotton textile industry), or a human occupation (fishing). It analyses the whole sequence of their development, and catches them on their march to progression or retrogression. This topical or commodity approach is very popular. The systematic economic geography, if we choose this appellation, is the legitimate child of this very conception. (iii) Principles Approach: In every sphere of human activity certain fundamental truths or principles hold good: indeed, they provide the rock-foundations upon which the varied and varying superstructures rest. The concepts of Economic Geography are through and through permeated with the same spirit whether we talk of Regional Economic Geography or Systematic Economic Geography. Economic regions are based on certain fundamental principles; and similar is the case with the extraction of minerals (coals, iron ore 9 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography or diamond), or the localisation of industries (metal fabricating or textile industries), or the exchange of commodities. At least four principles, viz., the principle of genomics relationship, the principle of optimum location, the principle of regional specialisation and the principle of geonomic succession appear to be valid generalisations under all conditions. That is why it seems to be a sound proposition if we enunciate certain fundamental principles in the discussion of geonomic problems. This approach has two distinct advantages: firstly, it provides an analytical method which promotes critical acumen; and secondly, it does away with parrot learning of factual material. 2. Philosophic Approaches: The 1990s research in economic geography may be characterised by three major philosophic approaches. These are: (i) Positivism, 10 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography (ii) Structuralism, and (iii) Humanism. (i) Positivism: It employs the scientific method to interpret and understand issues in economic geography. The scientific approach is based on empirically verifiable and commonly agreed upon evidence through replication of analytical results. It involves informed hypothesis testing leading to empirical generalisations and law-like statements. GIS (Group Information System) is central to analytical and positivist approaches to geography in general and with especially numerous applications in economic geography. (ii) Structuralism: In economic geography, structuralism, posits that what we see in the world does not reveal the causes of what we see. The structure of the economy cannot be directly observed, and we should therefore, develop ideas and theories that will help us understand what we see and 11 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography experience. While there is no way to directly test such theories, we can debate about them to achieve better understanding. (iii) Humanism: It is a part of critique of positivism. Humanistic economic geographers object to both positivism and structuralism on the basis that these approaches view people as responding mechanically to spatial and structural forces. 3. Modern Approaches: In economic geography, three approaches have been developed during last three decades that can be considered as modern approaches. These are: (i) System analysis, 12 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography (ii) Behavioural approach, and (iii) Institutional approach. (i) System Analysis: A system is a set of identified elements so related that together they form a complex whole. System analysis is an approach or methodology rather than a philosophy or scientific paradigm. Economic geographers utilise the system concept in order to better understand the component elements of some part of reality, and the relations between them. The use of such a conception stresses the study of the whole as well as of the parts. Thus, the world economy can be regarded as a set of interlocking parts and sub-systems. (ii) Behavioural Approach: Incorporation of the behavioural science outlook in geography is known as behavlouralism. In economic geography behavioural approach now has become very common. Economic geographers study the overall results of 13 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography economically-oriented behaviour as they appear in the landscape. In economic geography, the study of decision-making process is an important aspect. The type of decision-making, which is the concern of economic geography, can be classified as problem-solving or behavioural decision-making with such results as new locations for shops, farms or factories. Similarly, the studies of consumer behaviour, movement or trip behaviour, etc. are considered to be important. The decision-making process and other aspects of behavioural analysis. (iii) Institutional Approach: Ron Martin (2003) has emphasised the need of institutional approach in economic geography. He stated that the form and evolution of the economic landscape cannot be fully understood without giving due attention to the various social institutions on which economic activity depends and through which it is shaped. 14 BS Geography 5th semester (Economic Geography In other words, economic activity is socially and institutionally situated and it cannot be explained by reference to atomistic individual motives alone, but has to be understood as enmeshed in wider structures of social, economic and political rules, procedures and conventions. It is the role of these systems, both formal and informal, which is the focus of an institutional approach to economic geography. 15 Name: Description: ...
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