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UNIT 4: CURRENT ISSUES IN SPECIAL EDUCATION
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The adage "there are two sides to every story" applies to special
education. In the early years of special education, there was one clearly
defined goal - an appropriate education for students with disabilities.
Parents, professionals, and students with disabilities rallied together to
attain this right. Having secured this goal, the allies splintered into
numerous advocacy groups, each fighting for different issues in special
education. Issues such as school reform, full inclusion, standards
assessment, and disability classification can be viewed not only from at
least two perspectives, but from many variations or degrees of each.
2.0
OBJECTIVES
At the end of this unit, you should be able to:
a.
Differentiate between Special Education and the Regular form of
Education
b.
List the different categories Persons with Special Needs
c.
State the different type of programmes available to persons with
Special Needs.
3.0
MAIN CONTENT
3.1
Special Education and Reform Issues
School reform has been a burning issue since the early 1980s, but
special education was not often included in discussions of reform until about
the turn of the twentieth century. In the early years of the twenty- first
century, the following are the issues involved:
3.1.1
Full inclusion
In full inclusion, all students - regardless of disability, health needs,
academic ability, service needs, and, often, preference of parent or student
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- are educated full-time in a general education class in their neighborhood
school (the school they would attend had they no disability). In this model,
the child receives special education support services in the general
education classroom. Full inclusion requires either a team-teaching
approach or consultation of the regular classroom teacher with a special
educator. In team teaching, a classroom will have both a general education
teacher and a special education teacher equally sharing the responsibility
to teach the whole class. In consultation, a special education teacher works
with many general education teachers, meeting with them and answering
questions as needed or on a regular schedule.
Proponents of full inclusion believe that pulling a child out of the
classroom to provide special education services or placing the child in a
self-contained classroom or special school is inherently unfair and inferior
and, therefore, not just. They also argue that both the students with
disabilities and their peers benefit from full inclusion, an argument that
often places greater emphasis on social interaction than academic
achievement.
3.1.2
Full continuum of placements
Proponents of a full continuum of alternative placements, noted that
since 1975 the law has mandated a continuum of placements including
placement: (1) full-time in a general education classroom; (2) part time
in a special education resource room; (3) fulltime in a special education
self-contained classroom;(4) in a separate special education school; (5) at
a residential facility; and (6) in the hospital. They agree that full-time
placement in general education is appropriate for some students, but not
for every student with disabilities. Proponents also argued that in
accordance with the education policy, each student should be assessed and
placed individually. Many students with disabilities commonly need a more
structured and clearly defined environment, either academically or
behaviorally, than a general education classroom can provide. Also,
students with severe emotional or behavioral disabilities can infringe on
other students' education in a general education classroom by either
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monopolizing a teacher's attention or by placing peers and teachers in
physical danger. While believing that students should be educated in the
least restrictive environment with nondisabled peers to the maximum
extent appropriate, proponents of the continuum also believes that it is
immoral and illegal to place every student in the exact same placement
regardless of individual needs.
SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 4
1.
Identify different reform issues that has taken place in Special
Education.
3.2
The Nomenclature Issue
Controversies surrounding labels and categories of disabilities are a
major concern to parents and professionals. One issue is whether students
should be labeled at all. Proponents of labels such as learning disabled,
deaf, or autistic are of the opinion that these labels provide a common
ground for professionals, researchers, and parents to discuss practices and
share knowledge about particular disabilities. Labels help teachers and
administrators prepare for and provide a student with an appropriate
education. Schools can better manage their budgets if they can explain
what they normally do with the funds already provided for them and why
they still need more funds..
Opponents of labels argue that labels permanently stigmatize the
student. They believe that teachers and administrators lower their
expectations of a labeled student, creating a vicious cycle in which the
student is given fewer and fewer challenges and falls further behind what
is expected of the child. An extension of the labeling issue is categorical
versus non categorical labeling. Categorical labeling specifies a disability
based on categories in the national policy of education. Non categorical
labeling tags a student as disabled or developmentally delayed without
specifying the precise disability. Non-descriptive labels can provide
educators and parents additional time to observe and evaluate the child
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before making a decision on disability type. Though this can help avoid
mislabeling, the benefits of categorical labeling are lost.
3.3
Disability Classifications
Some disabilities can be measured and defined objectively, and thus
are easily identifiable. If a child is classified as blind, there is usually
agreement about what blindness means and whether the child qualifies for
special education or other services. However, many disabilities are not easy
to identify and label. Judgemental categories such as learning disability,
intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbance, autism, and giftedness
require professional judgement and subjective analysis. Severe and multiple
disabilities, though often easier to identify, also create controversies
because judgement is required to distinguish the level of disability (mild,
moderate, or severe).
3.3.1
Learning disability: The majority of students categorically labeled
have learning disabilities (LD). This is ironic because LD is one of the most
difficult disabilities to define. Some individuals believe that LD is simply a
social construct for those students who have not had adequate instruction.
Another concern is that the policy’s definition of LD describes what LD is
not, rather than what it is, leaving localities with the task of finding an
appropriate definition for it. Most people define LD using a discrepancy
between the student's actual achievement and the student's presumed
ability or IQ. The problem is that not all localities use the same discrepancy
standard or the same tests to measure achievement and ability and
discrepancy scores have inherent limitations.
3.3.2
Intellectual Disabilities: Intellectual Disabilities (ID) is identified
by below average intellectual ability and poor adaptive behavior that is
pervasive in all areas of life. Intellectual ability and adaptive behavior can
both be ambiguous, as different tests yield different intelligence quotients
and assessment of adaptive behavior requires subjective judgment. A
disproportionately large number of children from minority populations and
low socioeconomic status are identified as having intellectual disabilities,
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giving rise to the argument that identification of intellectual disabilities is
biased (too many African-American and Latino students and too many
poor students are identified, but too few children of Asian descent are
identified).
3.3.3
Emotional disturbance: Emotional disturbance refers to severe and
protracted difficulties in relationships with other people. Controversies
abound regarding who should be included in the category of emotional
disturbance (ED). The policy of education excludes from ED students who
are socially maladjusted but not emotionally disturbed, but it does not
define social maladjustment. Confounding the problem is another clause
describing ED as "an inability to build or maintain satisfactory relationships
with peers and teachers," which can be interpreted to mean social
maladjustment. Thus the language of the law seems self- contradictory.
Another issue in ED is disagreement on the actual number of students with
this disorder. Many estimates based on prevalence studies range from 6
to 25 percent of the student population, but less that 1 percent of the
school population has been identified as having ED for special education
purposes.
3.3.4
Autism: Autism is a pervasive developmental disability affecting
approximately one in 500 children. Its onset is noted before the age of
three years. Professionals find it hard to agree on a definition. One of the
main controversies in definition involves the closely related syndromes of
Asperger's and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). There is great
confusion and disagreement as to whether these are separate disabilities
or different levels of severity of autism. Causes as well as the best
treatments are also disputed for each.
3.3.5
Attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder Attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) have always been controversial. One reason for this is
that the characteristics of ADD/ADHD, including careless mistakes on
school work, forgetting daily activities, fidgeting with hands or feet, or
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talking excessively, can describe an average child. What makes a diagnosis
of ADD/ADHD difficult is determining whether these
characteristics are beyond normal for the student's age and have become
a disability. In fact, some professionals argue that ADD/ADHD does not
exist and that the label is used haphazardly on students who simply exhibit
inappropriate behavior and a lack of discipline. Furthermore, IDEA does not
acknowledge ADD/ADHD as a separate category but includes it under "other
health impaired" (OHI). There is also a growing concern that too many
children are being medicated for ADD/ADHD.
3.3.6
Gifted and Talented: Gifted and talented are the opposite of
disabilities, but some, if not all, of the same issues discussed previously
apply (e.g., stigma of identification, judgment in assessment). Opponents
of special programs for gifted and talented students argue that separating
them from their non gifted classmates is elitist and that all students
should be exposed to a superior, highly challenging education. A
disproportionately high number of Caucasian and Asian students are
identified as gifted, while a disproportionately low number of African-
American and Hispanic students are found eligible for gifted programs.
Proponents of special education for gifted students believe that these
students need a special curriculum. Gifted students who are asked to
work below their ability level or tutor their less gifted peers become bored
and lose motivation. Identifying gifted students is also difficult because
there is not one universally accepted definition, nor is gifted a category
acknowledged under the law. The decision to provide gifted education and
to determine what qualifies a student as gifted is often a local responsibility.
3.3.7
Severe and multiple disabilities: Compared to other conditions,
there is less uncertainty in the identification of students with severe and
multiple disabilities (SMD). Increased numbers of children identified as
having SMD, however, is a fairly new trend in special education. Advances
in medicine and technology are helping more children than ever before
survive serious medical emergencies and severe injuries. This increase has
spurred changes in special education and has placed new demands on
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personnel and the physical environment. These children often need
assistive and medical technology in the classroom, as well as personnel
knowledgeable about this equipment. Some of these students need
continuous support from a classroom assistant, especially when included in
general education.
3.4
Classroom Environment
Three trends in special education have especially significant influence on
the classroom environment, they are:(1) early intervention and prevention,
(2) technology, and (3) transition plans.
1.
Early intervention and prevention. Early intervention and
prevention of disabilities are not new ideas, but they have
experienced increasing emphasis. Schools are realizing that early
intervention and prevention not only benefit children in the long
run but save money as well by reducing the later need for costly
services. Two significant issues are the appropriate role for the
family of the child and whether the intervention should be child-
centered or teacher-directed. In addition, obstacles to early
intervention and prevention are still being addressed.
2.
Technology. Technology permeates our society with increasing
intensity and reaches into classrooms. It helps students overcome
limitations previously placed on them by a disability. Computer
programs allow keyboarding and navigation of the Internet by eye
movements. Cochlear implants allow deaf students to hear, and
new prosthetics (artificial body parts) provide greater mobility and
participation in education and society.
3.
Transition. This is transition from one school setting to another
or from school to work. Firstly, there must be transition-planning
conferences for children exiting early intervention programs, the
second is a statement of needed services for the transition from
high school to higher education or work in the Individualized

Unformatted Attachment Preview

UNIT 4: 1.0 CURRENT ISSUES IN SPECIAL EDUCATION INTRODUCTION The adage "there are two sides to every story" applies to special education. In the early years of special education, there was one clearly defined goal - an appropriate education for students with disabilities. Parents, professionals, and students with disabilities rallied together to attain this right. Having secured this goal, the allies splintered into numerous advocacy groups, each fighting for different issues in special education. Issues such as school reform, full inclusion, standards assessment, and disability classification can be viewed not only from at least two perspectives, but from many variations or degrees of each. 2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit, you should be able to: a. Differentiate between Special Education and the Regular form of Education b. List the different categories Persons with Special Needs c. State the different type of programmes available to persons with Special Needs. 3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Special Education and Reform Issues School reform has been a burning issue since the early 1980s, but special education was not often included in discussions of reform until about the turn of the twentieth century. In the early years of the twenty- first century, the following are the issues involved: 3.1.1 Full inclusion In full inclusion, all students - regardless of disability, health needs, academic ability, service needs, and, often, preference of parent or student - are educated full-time in a general education class in their neighborhood school (the school they would attend had they no disability). In this model, the child receives special education support services in the general education classroom. Full inclusion requires either a team-teaching approach or consultation of the regular classroom teacher with a special educator. In team teaching, a classroom will have both a general education teacher and a special education teacher equally sharing the responsibility to teach the whole class. In consultation, a special education teacher works with many general education teachers, meeting with them and answering questions as needed or on a regular schedule. Proponents of full inclusion believe that pulling a child out of the classroom to provide special education services or placing the child in a self-contained classroom or special school is inherently unfair and inferior and, therefore, not just. They also argue that both the students with disabilities and their peers benefit from full inclusion, an argument that often places greater emphasis on social interaction than academic achievement. 3.1.2 Full continuum of placements Proponents of a full continuum of alternative placements, noted that since 1975 the law has mandated a continuum of placements including placement: (1) full-time in a general education classroom; (2) part time in a special education resource room; (3) fulltime in a special education self-contained classroom;(4) in a separate special education school; (5) at a residential facility; and (6) in the hospital. They agree that full-time placement in general education is appropriate for some students, but not for every student with disabilities. Proponents also argued that in accordance with the education policy, each student should be assessed and placed individually. Many students with disabilities commonly need a more structured and clearly defined environment, either academically or behaviorally, than a general education classroom can provide. Also, students with severe emotional or behavioral disabilities can infringe on other students' education in a general education classroom by either monopolizing a teacher's attention or by placing peers and teachers in physical danger. While believing that students should be educated in the least restrictive environment with nondisabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate, proponents of the continuum also believes that it is immoral and illegal to place every student in the exact same placement regardless of individual needs. SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 4 1. Identify different reform issues that has taken place in Special Education. 3.2 The Nomenclature Issue Controversies surrounding labels and categories of disabilities are a major concern to parents and professionals. One issue is whether students should be labeled at all. Proponents of labels such as learning disabled, deaf, or autistic are of the opinion that these labels provide a common ground for professionals, researchers, and parents to discuss practices and share knowledge about particular disabilities. Labels help teachers and administrators prepare for and provide a student with an appropriate education. Schools can better manage their budgets if they can explain what they normally do with the funds already provided for them and why they still need more funds.. Opponents of labels argue that labels permanently stigmatize the student. They believe that teachers and administrators lower their expectations of a labeled student, creating a vicious cycle in which the student is given fewer and fewer challenges and falls further behind what is expected of the child. An extension of the labeling issue is categorical versus non categorical labeling. Categorical labeling specifies a disability based on categories in the national policy of education. Non categorical labeling tags a student as disabled or developmentally delayed without specifying the precise disability. Non-descriptive labels can provide educators and parents additional time to observe and evaluate the child before making a decision on disability type. Though this can help avoid mislabeling, the benefits of categorical labeling are lost. 3.3 Disability Classifications Some disabilities can be measured and defined objectively, and thus are easily identifiable. If a child is classified as blind, there is usually agreement about what blindness means and whether the child qualifies for special education or other services. However, many disabilities are noteasy to identify and label. Judgemental categories such as learning disability, intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbance, autism, and giftedness require professional judgement and subjective analysis. Severe and multiple disabilities, though often easier to identify, also create controversies because judgement is required to distinguish the level of disability (mild, moderate, or severe). 3.3.1 Learning disability: The majority of students categorically labeled have learning disabilities (LD). This is ironic because LD is one of the most difficult disabilities to define. Some individuals believe that LD is simply a social construct for those students who have not had adequate instruction. Another concern is that the policy’s definition of LD describes what LD is not, rather than what it is, leaving localities with the task of finding an appropriate definition for it. Most people define LD using a discrepancy between the student's actual achievement and the student's presumed ability or IQ. The problem is that not all localities use the same discrepancy standard or the same tests to measure achievement and ability and discrepancy scores have inherent limitations. 3.3.2 Intellectual Disabilities: Intellectual Disabilities (ID) is identified by below average intellectual ability and poor adaptive behavior that is pervasive in all areas of life. Intellectual ability and adaptive behavior can both be ambiguous, as different tests yield different intelligence quotients and assessment of adaptive behavior requires subjective judgment. A disproportionately large number of children from minority populations and low socioeconomic status are identified as having intellectual disabilities, giving rise to the argument that identification of intellectual disabilities is biased (too many African-American and Latino students and too many poor students are identified, but too few children of Asian descent are identified). 3.3.3 Emotional disturbance: Emotional disturbance refers to severe and protracted difficulties in relationships with other people. Controversies abound regarding who should be included in the category of emotional disturbance (ED). The policy of education excludes from ED students who are socially maladjusted but not emotionally disturbed, but it does not define social maladjustment. Confounding the problem is another clause describing ED as "an inability to build or maintain satisfactoryrelationships with peers and teachers," which can be interpreted to mean social maladjustment. Thus the language of the law seems self- contradictory. Another issue in ED is disagreement on the actual number of students with this disorder. Many estimates based on prevalence studies range from 6 to 25 percent of the student population, but lessthat 1 percent of the school population has been identified as having ED for special education purposes. 3.3.4 Autism: Autism is a pervasive developmental disability affecting approximately one in 500 children. Its onset is noted before the age of three years. Professionals find it hard to agree on a definition. One of the main controversies in definition involves the closely related syndromes of Asperger's and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). There is great confusion and disagreement as to whether these are separate disabilities or different levels of severity of autism. Causes as well as the best treatments are also disputed for each. 3.3.5 Attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have always been controversial. One reason for this is that the characteristics of ADD/ADHD, including careless mistakes on school work, forgetting daily activities, fidgeting with handsor feet, or talking excessively, can describe an average child. What makesa diagnosis of ADD/ADHD difficult is determining whether these characteristics are beyond normal for the student's age and have become a disability. In fact, some professionals argue that ADD/ADHD does not exist and that the label is used haphazardly on students who simply exhibit inappropriate behavior and a lack of discipline. Furthermore, IDEA does not acknowledge ADD/ADHD as a separate category but includes it under "other health impaired" (OHI). There is also a growing concern that too many children are being medicated for ADD/ADHD. 3.3.6 Gifted and Talented: Gifted and talented are the opposite of disabilities, but some, if not all, of the same issues discussed previously apply (e.g., stigma of identification, judgment in assessment). Opponents of special programs for gifted and talented students argue that separating them from their non gifted classmates is elitist and that all students should be exposed to a superior, highly challenging education. A disproportionately high number of Caucasian and Asian students are identified as gifted, while a disproportionately low number of AfricanAmerican and Hispanic students are found eligible for gifted programs. Proponents of special education for gifted students believe that these students need a special curriculum. Gifted students who are asked to work below their ability level or tutor their less gifted peers become bored and lose motivation. Identifying gifted students is also difficult because there is not one universally accepted definition, nor is gifted a category acknowledged under the law. The decision to provide gifted education and to determine what qualifies a student as gifted is often a local responsibility. 3.3.7 Severe and multiple disabilities: Compared to other conditions, there is less uncertainty in the identification of students with severe and multiple disabilities (SMD). Increased numbers of children identified as having SMD, however, is a fairly new trend in special education. Advances in medicine and technology are helping more children than ever before survive serious medical emergencies and severe injuries. This increase has spurred changes in special education and has placed new demands on personnel and the physical environment. These children often need assistive and medical technology in the classroom, as well as personnel knowledgeable about this equipment. Some of these students need continuous support from a classroom assistant, especially when includedin general education. 3.4 Classroom Environment Three trends in special education have especially significant influence on the classroom environment, they are:(1) early intervention and prevention, (2) technology, and (3) transition plans. 1. Early intervention and prevention. Early intervention and prevention of disabilities are not new ideas, but they have experienced increasing emphasis. Schools are realizing that early intervention and prevention not only benefit children in the long run but save money as well by reducing the later need for costly services. Two significant issues are the appropriate role for the family of the child and whether the intervention should be childcentered or teacher-directed. In addition, obstacles to early intervention and prevention are still being addressed. 2. Technology. Technology permeates our society with increasing intensity and reaches into classrooms. It helps studentsovercome limitations previously placed on them by a disability. Computer programs allow keyboarding and navigation of theInternet by eye movements. Cochlear implants allow deaf students to hear, and new prosthetics (artificial body parts)provide greater mobility and participation in education and society. 3. Transition. This is transition from one school setting to another or from school to work. Firstly, there must be transition-planning conferences for children exiting early intervention programs, the second is a statement of needed services for the transition from high school to higher education or work in the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for students age fourteen or older. Other forms of transition planning, such as from middle school to high school or from a self-contained or restrictive environment to a less restrictive environment, are also becoming common. 3.5 Special Education Teachers There is a critical teacher shortage in special education in all areasof licensure. Reasons include a shortage of people going through teacher training programs in special education and entering the field, and alarmingly high exit rates for special education teachers. For example, statistics from 1993 - 1994 shows that the total demand for special education teachers was 335,000, yet there were only 18,250 specialeducation degree graduates, covering a mere 5.4 percent of the demand. Because of this gross need, alternative licensure programs have evolved: army personnel are being trained for a second career in teaching and drastically intensified and accelerated summer programs are replacing four-year licensure programs. While these programs can help place more teachers in the classroom, some professionals question the quality of boththe teacher education programs and the newly licensed teachers. Also, some districts fill special education positions with teachers having either no prior education experience or with only general education experience and provide provisional or conditional licensure to these newly hired teachers. Due to these difficulties, teacher retention has also become a critical issue. Debate also exists over categorical or non-categorical licensure. Proponents of categorical licensure argue that each disability category is substantially different from others and that teachers should be highly specialized in that area. Proponents of non-categorical licensure argue that teachers should be prepared to teach all children and should have the expertise to address differing abilities and disabilities. A closely related issue is a trend in higher education to merge the special education teacher program into the general education program, doing away with special education altogether. The arguments for and against this 8 teacher education structure are similar to those for categorical versus noncategorical licensure. 3.6 Funding Issues Funding issues and controversies facing all areas of education,including special education. Because special education requires services above those specified in the general education curriculum, additionalfunding is critical. In1975, the federal government acknowledged the need for additional funding of programmes of persons with Special needs and promised to supplement it by 40 percent of the excess costs incurred in implementing the act's mandates. Unfortunately, the federal government has never come close to fulfilling this promise. Over the years, however, there has been a greater effort to provide these funds to the states. Other issues persist at the local level. One common controversy stems from a belief that because the law requires special educationservices, these programs are funded first, utilizing the money that would otherwise be spent on general education. Another disputed issue is program consolidation - the blending of categorical programs such as special education, English as a second language, or other separatelyfunded programs. Proponents believe that by pooling resources, all children can benefit and can be educated more effectively. Opponents of program consolidation believe it will diminish both the rights of children in these programs as well as the quality of special services provided. Other issues persist at the local level. One common controversy stems from a belief that because the law requires special educationservices, these programs are funded first, utilizing the money that would otherwise be spent on general education. Another disputed issue is program consolidation - the blending of categorical programs such as special education, English as a second language, or other separatelyfunded programs. Proponents believe that by pooling resources, all children can benefit and can be educated more effectively. Opponents of program 9 consolidation believe it will diminish both the rights of children in these programs as well as the quality of special services provided. 4.0 CONCLUSION In this unit, we have highlighted various issues and controversies in Special Needs Education. These controversies and issues, although the most widespread and disputed issues facing special education, represent only a small fraction of the numerous issues permeating special education today. School reform, labeling and classification, inclusion, teacher shortage, and special education funding can often be seen in the headlines of newspapers nationwide. Even though every story has two sides, more work is needed to ensure that every student's story will have a happy ending. 5.0 SUMMARY In this unit, we have learnt about various issues and reforms that have taken place in Special Education. Reforms such as full Inclusion, full continuum placement, nomenclature issues and finding issues. 6.0 SELF-ASSESSEMNT ASSIGNMENT 1. Mention different categories of persons with Special Needs and Discuss briefly two (2) of these categories. 2. What are the various Educational Programmes for Persons with Special Needs. 7.0 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS Bateman, Barbara D., and Linden, Mary A. (1998). Better IEPs: How to Develop Legally Correct and Educationally Useful Programs, 3rdedition. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Crockett, Jean B., and Kauffman, James M. (1999). The Least Restrictive Environment: Its Origins and Interpretations in Special Education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Gersten, Russell; Schiller, Ellen P.; and Vaughn, Sharon,( 2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. 10 Goodlad and Thomas C. Lovitt. Columbus, OH: Merrill/Macmillan. Hallahan, Daniel P., and Kauffman, James M. (2000). Exceptional Learners: Introduction to Special Education, 8th edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Hallahan, Daniel P.; Kauffman, James M.; and Lloyd, John W. (1999). Introduction to Learning Disabilities, 2nd edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Kauffman, James M. (1999). "Commentary: Today's Special Education and Its Messages for Tomorrow." The Journal of Special Education 32:244 - 254. Kauffman, James M., and Hallahan, Daniel P. (1993). "Toward a Comprehensive Delivery System for Special Education." In Integrating General and Special Education, (ed) John I. Lloyd, John W.; Kameenui, Edward J.; and Chard, David,(1997). Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Ysseldyke, James E.; Algozzine, Bob; and Thurlow, Martha L.(2000). Critical Issues in Special Education, 3rd edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 11 Name: Description: ...
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