Unformatted Attachment Preview
Answer the Following Questions using your own words.
1. Discuss the Objectives of Research.
➢ Generally, Research Objectives emphasize what the study aims to accomplish. It
is set as a guide to where, what, and how the research should be develop and the
answer that is need. Moreover, research objectives in engineering commonly
target the need to develop of certain subjects/topics.
2. Why do we do research?
➢ As what I said earlier, researches usually aims to develop a certain subject,
whether in human life or the environment. Also, research was created to refute,
prove, or make advance of an existing theory or principle. As long as there is a
need for an answer and development, we will always conduct researches.
Differentiate Engineering Research from other fields of studies.
3.1 Engineering Research Vs Research in the Field of Education
➢ Basic engineering research is involved with the discovery and methodical
conceptual structure of knowledge via definition. Engineers create, design,
manufacture, or construct economic and societally valuable gadgets, structures,
equipment, and systems. Almost all engineering study is motivated by the
expected value of a particular application. However, not all prospective uses can
be predicted, and often the hoped-for application isn't as essential as one
discovered by chance. On the other hand, educational research is a form of
systematic inquiry in which empirical approaches are used to solve educational
problems. It uses rigorous and well-defined scientific methods to collect and
evaluate data in order to solve problems and improve knowledge. Educational
research, according to J. W. Best, is any effort aimed at developing a science of
behavior in educational settings. The ultimate purpose of such a science is to give
information that allows educators to achieve their objectives using the most
efficient means possible.
3.2 Engineering Research Vs Basic Science Research
➢ The source of new phenomena and their integration into coherent conceptual
models of large physical or biological systems are at the foundation of basic
scientific research. The center of greatest interest is, by definition, on the
boundaries of current understanding. Most scientific information will find
technological applications of economic and social value in a very varied and
unpredictable manner, but the nature of such applications will not always be
obvious to those who do the initial scientific study. Engineering basic research is
defined as the discovery and methodical conceptual structure of knowledge.
Engineers create, design, manufacture, or construct products, structures,
equipment, and systems that have economic and societal value. Almost all
engineering research is motivated by the expected value of a certain application.
However, not all prospective uses can be predicted, and the hoped-for application
may not be as essential as one discovered by chance. The time it takes from
research to production can be a few years, as in the creation and use of the laser,
or decades, as in the development of television.
4. Discuss the different Approaches to Research. Give some other approaches to research
not discussed in class
➢ Descriptive research refers to the methods that describe the characteristics of
the variables under study. This methodology focuses on answering questions
relating to “what” than the “why” of the research subject. The primary focus of
descriptive research is to simply describe the nature of the demographics under
study instead of focusing on the “why”.
➢ Analytical research is a specific type of research that involves critical thinking
skills and the evaluation of facts and information relative to the research being
conducted. A variety of people including students, doctors and psychologists use
analytical research during studies to find the most relevant information. From
analytical research, a person finds out critical details to add new ideas to the
material being produced.
➢ Applied research is a type of research design that seeks to solve a specific
problem or provide innovative solutions to issues affecting an individual, group or
society. It is often referred to as a scientific method of inquiry or contractual
research because it involves the practical application of scientific methods to
➢ Fundamental research, also known as basic research or pure research does not
usually generate findings that have immediate applications in a practical level.
Fundamental research is driven by curiosity and the desire to expand knowledge
in specific research area. This type of research makes a specific contribution to
the academic body of knowledge in the research area.
➢ Quantitative research is defined as a systematic investigation of phenomena by
gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical, or
computational techniques. Quantitative research collects information from existing
and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys,
online polls, questionnaires, etc., the results of which can be depicted in the form
of numerical. After careful understanding of these numbers to predict the future of
a product or service and make changes accordingly.
➢ Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g.,
text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be
used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.
Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research, which involves
collecting and analyzing numerical data for statistical analysis.
➢ Conceptual research, as the name suggests, is research that relates to abstract
concepts and ideas. It doesn’t involve practical experimentation but instead relies
on the researcher analyzing available information on a given topic. Conceptual
research has been widely used in the study of philosophy to develop new theories,
counter existing theories, or interpret existing theories in a different way.
➢ Experimental research is research conducted with a scientific approach using
two sets of variables. The first set acts as a constant, which you use to measure
the differences of the second set. Quantitative research methods, for example, are
➢ A deductive approach is concerned with “developing a hypothesis (or
hypotheses) based on existing theory, and then designing a research strategy to
test the hypothesis”. It has been stated that “deductive means reasoning from the
particular to the general. If a causal relationship or link seems to be implied by a
particular theory or case example, it might be true in many cases. A deductive
design might test to see if this relationship or link did obtain on more general
➢ Inductive approach, also known in inductive reasoning, starts with the
observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research
process as a result of observations. Inductive research “involves the search for
pattern from observation and the development of explanations – theories – for
those patterns through series of hypotheses”. No theories or hypotheses would
apply in inductive studies at the beginning of the research and the researcher is
free in terms of altering the direction for the study after the research process had
➢ Abductive research is set to address weaknesses associated with deductive and
inductive approaches. Specifically, deductive reasoning is criticized for the lack of
clarity in terms of how to select theory to be tested via formulating hypotheses.
Inductive reasoning, on other hand, criticized because “no amount of empirical
data will necessarily enable theory-building”. Abductive reasoning, as a third
alternative, overcomes these weaknesses via adopting a pragmatist perspective.
5. What constitutes conclusive proof in Engineering Research?
➢ Proofs is necessary for every research since it lends credibility to your conclusions
and suggestions. It is also a trustworthy data that backs up and validates your
research methods, conclusions, and suggestions. You're basically proving how you
know something. Proofs in engineering research have four attributes: describe the
situation clearly and objectively, referred from published credible sources,
examples of prior best practice, opinions and analysis from published credible
sources, and the gathered evidence should be from reliable procedures.
6. What is a "utility model"?
➢ The utility model system, which is comparable to the patent system, protects socalled "small inventions." Recognizing that minor improvements to existing products
that do not meet patentability requirements can play an important role in a local
innovation system, utility models provide protection for such inventions by granting
an exclusive right that allows the right holder to prevent others from commercially
using the protected invention without his permission for a limited time.
7.1 What is a research question?
➢ A research question is a specific question to which the research aims to respond. It
is at the foundation of systematic study and aids in defining a clear route for the
research process. It's also the first stage in almost every research endeavor. It is,
in essence, your research's major interrogation point, and it sets the tone for the
rest of your work.
7.2 Give your own example of a research question. (Provide brief context)
➢ What could be the disadvantages of online classes to BSEE students in their handson performance?
➢ Context: Engineering courses are known to its hard math and technical subjects. It
also focuses on application of engineering practices. So, in time of pandemic where
classes are made to be online, what would it be its result to the hands-on
performance of BSEE students.
A research question can be phrased using one of the following questioning words: why, what,
how, and when. Discuss each type of RQs and give your own example of each (Refer to Research
Methods for Engineers by Thiel, pages 9-11)
8.1 "why" type of RQ
➢ Why inquiries are more on reasoning, and they are more likely to be about cause and
effect scenarios. This is also a question concerning the subject's motives and
explanations. This question enquires about all of the reasons that affect to the situation.
For example, why don’t we utilize tidal energy in Philippines as renewable source of
8.2 "what" type of RQ
➢ What is your research? This question needs to be answered as specifically as possible.
One of the hardest parts in the early stages is to be able to define your project – so much
research fails because the researcher has been unable to do this. What questions, this
sort of inquiry is about determining the solution to the problem; this type of question is
simply interested in the consequences or the conclusion. Unlike the why question, what
questions do not require any logic or explanation; all that is required is the response. For
example, what is the advantages of tidal energy in Philippines as renewable source of
8.3 "how" type of RQ
➢ This sort of query tries to figure out how something works. It relates to the steps of anything
that you're researching, and by asking this sort of inquiry, you may figure out what
procedure or path to take to solve your concerns. For example, how could we utilize
efficiently the tidal energy in Philippines as renewable source of electricity?
8.4 "when" type of RQ
➢ When questions, this sort of inquiry concerns the passage of time. It decides when
particular issues arise. You can determine the time, year, and other details by asking
questions like these. This sort of inquiry is frequently answered with phrases like
"yesterday," "today," "recently," "tomorrow," and so on. Unlike the other three types of
questions, this one does not need any logic or explanation of the procedures. For example,
when will tidal energy be more efficient in terms of low and high tides?
9. Under CMO 88, s. 2017, Section 6.2 "BSEE Program Outcomes" (this document is
downloadable), what is expected of a graduate of the Electrical Engineering Program in
Philippine schools that have something to do with "ethics"? Why are these qualities important?
➢ Under CMO 88, s. 2017, Section 6.2 "BSEE Program Outcomes" letter e emphasize that
a graduate of Electrical Engineering Program should recognize ethical and professional
responsibilities in engineering practice. Reality of life comes after graduation. In
professional works, being able to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities helps
you both in self and professional development. It also helps you to cope with your work
diligently and gain the trust and respect from the people in your work environment.
10. What is ethics and why is it important in research?
➢ Ethics in research are essential for a variety of reasons. For starters, they encourage the
goals of study, such as knowledge expansion. It also promotes the principles of mutual
respect and fairness that are essential for collaborative work. Because scientific research
relies on collaboration between researchers and groups, this research ethics is crucial.
They might be a way of holding researchers accountable for their conduct. Many
researchers are funded by the government, and rules governing conflicts of interest,
misbehavior, and human or animal research are required to guarantee that funds are used
wisely. Furthermore, it ensures that the public has faith in research. People must have
faith in research in order to support and fund it. Important social and moral principles, such
as the concept of causing no damage to others, are also supported by research ethics.