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World War II Exam Study Guide Key
1) What was America’s Foreign Policy from the end of WWI to the bombing of
Pearl Harbor?
Isolationism - the policy or doctrine of isolating one's country from the affairs of other
nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments,
international agreements, etc.
2) What did it mean that the U.S. was the “arsenal of democracy”? Discuss
Cash and Carry, Lend-Lease Act and Destroyers for Naval Bases.
“ Arsenal for Democracy”- The U.S. was sending military aid to nations fighting
against the Axis powers before we entered WWII
“Cash and Carry- Policy by which other countries could purchase only nonmilitary goods from
the United States as long as the recipients paid immediately in cash and assumed all risk in
transportation using their own ships
The Lend-Lease Act, approved by Congress in March 1941, had given President
Roosevelt virtually unlimited authority to direct material aid such as ammunition,
tanks, airplanes, trucks, and food to the war effort in Europe without violating the
nation's official position of neutrality.
Destroyers for Naval Bases - Franklin D. Roosevelt announced that he was
transferring fifty destroyers to Englandalready at war with Germanyin exchange
for ninetynineyear leases to seven British air and naval bases in the western
hemisphere
3) What was the theory behind the policy of appeasement? Was it effective?
Explain.
Instituted in the hope of avoiding war, appeasement was the name given to Britain's
policy in the 1930s of allowing Hitler to expand German territory unchecked. Most
closely associated with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, it is now widely
discredited as a policy of weakness. Hitler continued his aggression in Europe.
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4) What were the names of the leaders of the major Axis powers?
Hitler - Germany
Mussolini - Italy
Tojo - Japan
5) Describe Germany’s “blitzkrieg” tactics used during the War.
In the first phase of World War II in Europe, Germany sought to avoid a long war.
Germany's strategy was to defeat its opponents in a series of short campaigns.
Germany quickly overran much of Europe and was victorious for more than two
years by relying on a new military tactic called the "Blitzkrieg" (lightning war).
Blitzkrieg tactics required the concentration of offensive weapons (such as tanks,
planes, and artillery) along a narrow front. These forces would drive a breach in
enemy defenses, permitting armored tank divisions to penetrate rapidly and roam
freely behind enemy lines, causing shock and disorganization among the enemy
defenses
6) What was the Nonaggression Pact?
On August 23, 1939shortly before World War II (1939-45) broke out in Europeenemies
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union surprised the world by signing the German-Soviet
Nonaggression Pact, in which the two countries agreed to take no military action against
each other for the next 10 years
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7) What was the name of the book Hitler wrote in prison? What ideas did it
promote?
“Mein Kampf” (My Struggle) - ideas promoted included nationalism, anti-semitism, social
Darwinism, importance of propoganda
8) Explain the significance of each of the following:
a) D-Day Invasion: Allies liberated France from Germany
b) Battle of the Bulge: the last major German offensive on the Western
Front during World War IIan unsuccessful attempt to push the Allies
back from German home territory.
c) Midway: marks the turning point in the war in the Pacific in the
United States favor. The Japanese lost 4 of their best aircraft carriers and
U.S. only loses 1 carrier.
d) Iwo Jima: The island of Iwo Jima was a strategic location because
the US needed a place for fighter planes and bombers to land and take off
when attacking Japan.
9) What was island hopping?
It was the military strategy, used by the Allies in World War II, of concentrating on
Japanese islands which were not well defended. This would allow the Allies to move
closer and closer to Japan.
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10) What was the cause and effect of the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor?
Causes: U.S. was trying to limit Japanese expansionism; U.S. oil embargo was hurting
Japan’s economy
Effect; U.S. declared war on Japan (entering WW2)
11) What role did propaganda posters play in the US?
Posters convinced Americans to support the war in any way they could. Ex. Victory
Gardens, Food rationing, buying war bonds (Tuskegee Airmen poster)
12) What impact did World War II have on the American economy? Give
supporting examples.
Because factory production increased dramatically during WW2, the war helped get us
out of the Great Depression. Ex. - auto industry started to create weapons and war
vehicles/aircraft
13) What were the reasons for wartime rationing? Give some examples.
World War II put a heavy burden on US supplies of basic materials like food, shoes,
metal, paper, and rubber. The Army and Navy were growing, as was the nation’s effort
to aid its allies overseas. Civilians still needed these materials for consumer goods as
well. To meet this surging demand, the federal government took steps to conserve
crucial supplies, including establishing a rationing system that impacted virtually every
family in the United States. Ex- eating less meat
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14) Who were the Tuskegee Airmen? (Liberty Bond poster)
The Tuskegee Airmen were the first Black military aviators in the U.S. Army Air
Corps (AAC), a precursor of the U.S. Air Force. Trained at the Tuskegee Army Air
Field in Alabama, they flew more than 15,000 individual missions in Europe and
North Africa during World War II.
15) What was the purpose of Japanese American Relocation Centers?
They were set up to separate people of Japanese descent from the American public.
The thought process was that these people posed a threat to our country. It was also
done to protect the Japanese and Japanese-Americans from angry Americans.
16) What was the Supreme Court decision in Korematsu v. United States (1944)?
The Supreme Court decided to uphold the exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West
Coast Military Area during World War II by a vote of 6-3. This meant that the
government had the right to put Japanese in camps because it was during a time
of war.

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World War II Exam Study Guide Key 1) What was America’s Foreign Policy from the end of WWI to the bombing of Pearl Harbor? Isolationism - the policy or doctrine of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, international agreements, etc. 2) What did it mean that the U.S. was the “arsenal of democracy”? Discuss Cash and Carry, Lend-Lease Act and Destroyers for Naval Bases. “ Arsenal for Democracy”- The U.S. was sending military aid to nations fighting against the Axis powers before we entered WWII “Cash and Carry” - Policy by which other countries could purchase only nonmilitary goods from the United States as long as the recipients paid immediately in cash and assumed all risk in transportation using their own ships The Lend-Lease Act, approved by Congress in March 1941, had given President Roosevelt virtually unlimited authority to direct material aid such as ammunition, tanks, airplanes, trucks, and food to the war effort in Europe without violating the nation's official position of neutrality. Destroyers for Naval Bases - Franklin D. Roosevelt announced that he was transferring fifty destroyers to England—already at war with Germany—in exchange for ninety‐nine‐year leases to seven British air and naval bases in the western hemisphere 3) What was the theory behind the policy of appeasement? Was it effective? Explain. Instituted in the hope of avoiding war, appeasement was the name given to Britain's policy in the 1930s of allowing Hitler to expand German territory unchecked. Most closely associated with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, it is now widely discredited as a policy of weakness. Hitler continued his aggression in Europe. 4) What were the names of the leaders of the major Axis powers? Hitler - Germany Mussolini - Italy Tojo - Japan 5) Describe Germany’s “blitzkrieg” tactics used during the War. In the first phase of World War II in Europe, Germany sought to avoid a long war. Germany's strategy was to defeat its opponents in a series of short campaigns. Germany quickly overran much of Europe and was victorious for more than two years by relying on a new military tactic called the "Blitzkrieg" (lightning war). Blitzkrieg tactics required the concentration of offensive weapons (such as tanks, planes, and artillery) along a narrow front. These forces would drive a breach in enemy defenses, permitting armored tank divisions to penetrate rapidly and roam freely behind enemy lines, causing shock and disorganization among the enemy defenses 6) What was the Nonaggression Pact? On August 23, 1939–shortly before World War II (1939-45) broke out in Europe–enemies Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union surprised the world by signing the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, in which the two countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 years 7) What was the name of the book Hitler wrote in prison? What ideas did it promote? “Mein Kampf” (My Struggle) - ideas promoted included nationalism, anti-semitism, social Darwinism, importance of propoganda 8) Explain the significance of each of the following: a) D-Day Invasion: Allies liberated France from Germany b) Battle of the Bulge: the last major German offensive on the Western Front during World War II—an unsuccessful attempt to push the Allies back from German home territory. c) Midway: marks the turning point in the war in the Pacific in the United States favor. The Japanese lost 4 of their best aircraft carriers and U.S. only loses 1 carrier. d) Iwo Jima: The island of Iwo Jima was a strategic location because the US needed a place for fighter planes and bombers to land and take off when attacking Japan. 9) What was island hopping? It was the military strategy, used by the Allies in World War II, of concentrating on Japanese islands which were not well defended. This would allow the Allies to move closer and closer to Japan. 10) What was the cause and effect of the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor? Causes: U.S. was trying to limit Japanese expansionism; U.S. oil embargo was hurting Japan’s economy Effect; U.S. declared war on Japan (entering WW2) 11) What role did propaganda posters play in the US? Posters convinced Americans to support the war in any way they could. Ex. Victory Gardens, Food rationing, buying war bonds (Tuskegee Airmen poster) 12) What impact did World War II have on the American economy? Give supporting examples. Because factory production increased dramatically during WW2, the war helped get us out of the Great Depression. Ex. - auto industry started to create weapons and war vehicles/aircraft 13) What were the reasons for wartime rationing? Give some examples. World War II put a heavy burden on US supplies of basic materials like food, shoes, metal, paper, and rubber. The Army and Navy were growing, as was the nation’s effort to aid its allies overseas. Civilians still needed these materials for consumer goods as well. To meet this surging demand, the federal government took steps to conserve crucial supplies, including establishing a rationing system that impacted virtually every family in the United States. Ex- eating less meat 14) Who were the Tuskegee Airmen? (Liberty Bond poster) The Tuskegee Airmen were the first Black military aviators in the U.S. Army Air Corps (AAC), a precursor of the U.S. Air Force. Trained at the Tuskegee Army Air Field in Alabama, they flew more than 15,000 individual missions in Europe and North Africa during World War II. 15) What was the purpose of Japanese American Relocation Centers? They were set up to separate people of Japanese descent from the American public. The thought process was that these people posed a threat to our country. It was also done to protect the Japanese and Japanese-Americans from angry Americans. 16) What was the Supreme Court decision in Korematsu v. United States (1944)? The Supreme Court decided to uphold the exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast Military Area during World War II by a vote of 6-3. This meant that the government had the right to put Japanese in camps because it was during a time of war. Name: Description: ...
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